[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent findings suggest that the relaxin-3 neural network may represent a new ascending arousal pathway able to modulate a range of neural circuits including those affecting circadian rhythm and sleep/wake states, spatial and emotional memory, motivation and reward, the response to stress, and feeding and metabolism. Therefore, the relaxin-3 receptor (RXFP3) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of various CNS diseases. Here we describe a novel selective RXFP3 receptor positive allosteric modulator (PAM), 3-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]urea (135PAM1). Calcium mobilization and cAMP accumulation assays in cell lines expressing the cloned human RXFP3 receptor show the compound does not directly activate RXFP3 receptor but increases functional responses to amidated relaxin-3 or R3/I5, a chimera of the INSL5 A chain and the Relaxin-3 B chain. 135PAM1 increases calcium mobilization in the presence of relaxin-3(NH2) and R3/I5(NH2) with pEC50 values of 6.54 (6.46 to 6.64) and 6.07 (5.94 to 6.20), respectively. In the cAMP accumulation assay, 135PAM1 inhibits the CRE response to forskolin with a pIC50 of 6.12 (5.98 to 6.27) in the presence of a probe (10 nM) concentration of relaxin-3(NH2). 135PAM1 does not compete for binding with the orthosteric radioligand, [(125)I] R3I5 (amide), in membranes prepared from cells expressing the cloned human RXFP3 receptor. 135PAM1 is selective for RXFP3 over RXFP4, which also responds to relaxin-3. However, when using the free acid (native) form of relaxin-3 or R3/I5, 135PAM1 doesn't activate RXFP3 indicating that the compound's effect is probe dependent. Thus one can exchange the entire A-chain of the probe peptide while retaining PAM activity, but the state of the probe's c-terminus is crucial to allosteric activity of the PAM. These data demonstrate the existence of an allosteric site for modulation of this GPCR as well as the subtlety of changes in probe molecules that can affect allosteric modulation of RXFP3.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e30792. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently completed the synthesis of 1-[2-(4-cyclobutyl-[1,4]diazepane-1-carbonyl)-4-(3-fluoro-phenoxy)-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-ethanone, a hydroxyproline-based H(3) receptor antagonist, on 100 g scale. The synthesis proceeds through four steps and route selection was driven by a desire to minimize the cost-of-goods. Naturally occurring trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline was chosen as the precursor to the target's core, which necessitated an inversion at both stereogenic centers. The inversions were accomplished through strategic employment of La Rosa's lactone and a late-stage Mitsunobu reaction. A first generation synthesis that employed N-Boc-homopiperazine was improved in a second generation approach wherein homopiperazine was directly desymmetrized. Finally, the water solubility of a key intermediate necessitated the development of a nonextractive workup for the sodium triacetoxyborohydride reduction.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 07/2010; 75(13):4463-71. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pre-clinical characterization of novel substituted pyrrolidines that are high affinity histamine H(3) receptor antagonists is described. These compounds efficiently penetrate the CNS and occupy the histamine H(3) receptor in rat brain following oral administration. One compound, (2S,4R)-1-[2-(4-cyclobutyl-[1,4]diazepane-1-carbonyl)-4-(3-fluoro-phenoxy)-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-ethanone, was extensively profiled and shows promise as a potential clinical candidate.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depression is a major health issue, which is routinely treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, although these agents display a favorable effect on mood, they often fail to improve conditions that accompany depression including cognitive impairment and fatigue. In pre-clinical studies histamine H(3) receptor antagonists have demonstrated both pro-cognitive and wake-promoting effects suggesting that the combination of a histamine H(3) receptor antagonist and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor may have utility as an antidepressant therapy. To this end we sought to introduce histamine H(3) receptor antagonist activity into both known selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and novel templates. These efforts have afforded several series of compounds with the desired activities. Selected examples demonstrated in vivo efficacy both in pre-clinical models of depression and wakefulness.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2010; 10(5):596-616. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The histamine H3 receptor is a pre-synaptic auto- and hetero-receptor that controls the release of histamine and a variety of other neurotransmitters in the brain. As such, modulation of the histamine H(3) receptor is expected to affect wake via control of the release of histamine and to affect cognition via regulation of several other neurotransmitters including acetylcholine and norepinephrine. Over the last several years numerous pre-clinical studies have shown that histamine H3 antagonists promote wakefulness, improve cognition, and in some cases affect food intake. Based on the interest level generated from these early pharmacology studies, and following the cloning and expression of the human histamine H3 receptor, many pharmaceutical companies began drug discovery programs aimed at the identification of histamine H3 antagonists suitable for human clinical trials. These efforts have led to many new chemotypes, and several promising compounds have recently entered the clinic for a variety of conditions, including ADHD, Narcolepsy, EDS associated with Narcolepsy, Cognitive disorders and Schizophrenia. Recent efforts towards the identification and pharmacological characterization of novel histamine H3 antagonists will be discussed.
Current topics in medicinal chemistry 02/2008; 8(11):988-1002. · 4.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and biological activity of a new series of piperazine and diazepane amides is described. The new compounds are high affinity histamine H3 ligands and serotonin reuptake inhibitors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design, synthesis, and in vitro activity of a series of novel 5-ethynyl-2-aryloxybenzylamine-based histamine H(3) ligands that are also serotonin reuptake transporters is described.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of novel phenoxyphenyl diamine derivatives with affinity for both the histamine H(3) receptor and the serotonin transporter is described.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A series of novel 4-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-based histamine H(3) ligands that also have serotonin reuptake transporter inhibitor activity is described. The synthesis, in vitro biological data, and select pharmacokinetic data for these novel compounds are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bacterial elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) and EF-Ts are interacting proteins involved in polypeptide chain elongation in protein biosynthesis. A novel scintillation proximity assay for the detection of inhibitors of EF-Tu and EF-Ts, as well as the interaction between them, was developed and used in a high-throughput screen of a chemical library. Several compounds from a variety of chemical series with inhibitory properties were identified, including certain indole dipeptides, benzimidazole amidines, 2-arylbenzimidazoles, N-substituted imidazoles, and N-substituted guanidines. The in vitro activities of these compounds were confirmed in a coupled bacterial transcription-translation assay. Several indole dipeptides were identified as inhibitors of bacterial translation, with compound 2 exhibiting a 50% inhibitory concentration of 14 microM and an MIC for S. aureus ATCC 29213 of 5.6 microg/ml. Structure-activity relationship studies around the dipeptidic indoles generated additional analogs with low micromolar MICs for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. To assess the specificity of antibacterial action, these compounds were evaluated in a metabolic labeling assay with Staphylococcus aureus. Inhibition of translation, as well as limited effects on other macromolecular pathways for some of the analogs studied, indicated a possible contribution from a non-target-based antibacterial mechanism of action.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 02/2005; 49(1):131-6. · 4.57 Impact Factor