[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rapid diagnosis of disease states using less invasive, safer, and more clinically acceptable approaches than presently employed is a crucial direction for the field of medicine. While mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics approaches have attempted to meet these objectives, challenges such as the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations in clinically relevant biofluid samples coupled with the need to address human biodiversity have slowed their employment. Herein, we report on the use of a new instrumental platform that addresses these challenges by coupling technical advances in rapid gas phase multiplexed ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separations with liquid chromatography (LC) and MS to dramatically increase measurement sensitivity and throughput, further enabling future high throughput MS-based clinical applications. An initial application of the LC-IMS-MS platform analyzing blood serum samples from 60 post-liver transplant patients with recurrent fibrosis progression and 60 non-transplant patients illustrates its potential utility for disease characterization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: H5N1 influenza viruses, which cause disease in humans, have unusually high pathogenicity. The temporal response of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with highly pathogenic H5N1 and seasonal H1N1 influenza viruses was evaluated using mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic profiling. This was done in order to demonstrate significant perturbation of the host proteome upon viral infection, as early as 1 hour after infection. This early host response distinguished H5N1 infection from H1N1 infection, the latter inducing less of a response. The most pronounced effect was observed on the translational machinery, suggesting that H5N1 might gain advantage in replication by using the cell protein synthesis machinery early in the infection.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2012; 206(5):640-5. DOI:10.1093/infdis/jis423 · 6.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Liver transplant tissues offer the unique opportunity to model the longitudinal protein abundance changes occurring during hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated liver disease progression in vivo. In this study, our goal was to identify molecular signatures, and potential key regulatory proteins, representative of the processes influencing early progression to fibrosis. We performed global protein profiling analyses on 24 liver biopsy specimens obtained from 15 HCV(+) liver transplant recipients at 6 and/or 12 months posttransplantation. Differentially regulated proteins associated with early progression to fibrosis were identified by analysis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Analysis of serum metabolites was performed on samples obtained from an independent cohort of 60 HCV(+) liver transplant patients. Computational modeling approaches were applied to identify potential key regulatory proteins of liver fibrogenesis. Among 4,324 proteins identified, 250 exhibited significant differential regulation in patients with rapidly progressive fibrosis. Patients with rapid fibrosis progression exhibited enrichment in differentially regulated proteins associated with various immune, hepatoprotective, and fibrogenic processes. The observed increase in proinflammatory activity and impairment in antioxidant defenses suggests that patients who develop significant liver injury experience elevated oxidative stresses. This was supported by an independent study demonstrating the altered abundance of oxidative stress-associated serum metabolites in patients who develop severe liver injury. Computational modeling approaches further highlight a potentially important link between HCV-associated oxidative stress and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms impacting on liver fibrogenesis. CONCLUSION: Our proteome and metabolome analyses provide new insights into the role for increased oxidative stress in the rapid fibrosis progression observed in HCV(+) liver transplant recipients. These findings may prove useful in prognostic applications for predicting early progression to fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphine has long been known to have immunosuppressive properties in vivo, but the molecular and immunologic changes induced by it are incompletely understood. To explore how these changes interact with lentiviral infections in vivo, animals from two nonhuman primate species (African green monkeys and pigtailed macaques) were provided morphine and studied using a systems biology approach. Biological specimens were obtained from multiple sources (e.g. lymph node, colon, cerebrospinal fluid, and peripheral blood) before and after the administration of morphine (titrated up to a maximum dose of 5 mg/kg over a period of 20 days). Cellular immune, plasma cytokine, and proteome changes were measured and morphine-induced changes in these parameters were assessed on an interorgan, interindividual, and interspecies basis. In both species, morphine was associated with decreased levels of Ki-67(+) T-cell activation but with only minimal changes in overall T-cell counts, neutrophil counts, and NK cell counts. Although changes in T-cell maturation were observed, these varied across the various tissue/fluid compartments studied. Proteomic analysis revealed a morphine-induced suppressive effect in lymph nodes, with decreased abundance of protein mediators involved in the functional categories of energy metabolism, signaling, and maintenance of cell structure. These findings have direct relevance for understanding the impact of heroin addiction and the opioids used to treat addiction as well as on the potential interplay between opioid abuse and the immunological response to an infective agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value ≤ 0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The trimeric RNA polymerase complex (3P, for PA-PB1-PB2) of influenza A virus (IAV) is an important viral determinant of pathogenicity and host range restriction. Specific interactions of the polymerase complex with host proteins may be determining factors in both of these characteristics and play important roles in the viral life cycle. To investigate this question, we performed a comprehensive proteomic analysis of human host proteins associated with the polymerase of the well-characterized H5N1 Vietnam/1203/04 isolate. We identified over 400 proteins by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), of which over 300 were found to bind to the PA subunit alone. The most intriguing and novel finding was the large number of mitochondrial proteins (∼20%) that associated with the PA subunit. These proteins mediate molecular transport across the mitochondrial membrane or regulate membrane potential and may in concert with the identified mitochondrion-associated apoptosis inducing factor (AIFM1) have roles in the induction of apoptosis upon association with PA. Additionally, we identified host factors that associated with the PA-PB1 (68 proteins) and/or the 3P complex (34 proteins) including proteins that have roles in innate antiviral signaling (e.g., ZAPS or HaxI) or are cellular RNA polymerase accessory factors (e.g., polymerase I transcript release factor [PTRF] or Supt5H). IAV strain-specific host factor binding to the polymerase was not observed in our analysis. Overall, this study has shed light into the complex contributions of the IAV polymerase to host cell pathogenicity and allows for direct investigations into the biological significance of these newly described interactions.
Journal of Virology 06/2011; 85(17):8569-81. DOI:10.1128/JVI.00496-11 · 4.44 Impact Factor