[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate dose reduction and image quality of abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared to adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).
In this prospective study, 85 patients underwent referential-, low-, and ultralow-dose unenhanced abdominopelvic CT. Images were reconstructed with ASIR for low-dose (L-ASIR) and ultralow-dose CT (UL-ASIR), and with MBIR for ultralow-dose CT (UL-MBIR). Image noise was measured in the abdominal aorta and iliopsoas muscle. Subjective image analyses and a lesion detection study (adrenal nodules) were conducted by two blinded radiologists. A reference standard was established by a consensus panel of two different radiologists using referential-dose CT reconstructed with filtered back projection.
Compared to low-dose CT, there was a 63% decrease in dose-length product with ultralow-dose CT. UL-MBIR had significantly lower image noise than L-ASIR and UL-ASIR (all p<0.01). UL-MBIR was significantly better for subjective image noise and streak artifacts than L-ASIR and UL-ASIR (all p<0.01). There were no significant differences between UL-MBIR and L-ASIR in diagnostic acceptability (p>0.65), or diagnostic performance for adrenal nodules (p>0.87).
MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts compared to ASIR, and can achieve radiation dose reduction without severely compromising image quality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in brain pathology as schizophrenia progresses have been repeatedly suggested by previous studies. Meta-analyses of previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies at each clinical stage of schizophrenia indicate that the abnormalities of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamatergic metabolites change progressively. However, to our knowledge, no single study has addressed the possible differences in (1)H MRS abnormalities in subjects at 3 different stages of disease, including those at ultrahigh risk for psychosis (UHR), with first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and with chronic schizophrenia (ChSz). In the current study, 24 patients with UHR, 19 FES, 25 ChSz, and their demographically matched 3 independent control groups (n = 26/19/28 for the UHR, FES, and ChSz control groups, respectively) underwent (1)H MRS in a 3-Tesla scanner to examine metabolites in medial prefrontal cortex. The analysis revealed significant decreases in the medial prefrontal NAA and glutamate + glutamine (Glx) levels, specifically in the ChSz group as indexed by a significant interaction between stage (UHR/FES/ChSz) and clinical status (patients/controls) (P = .008). Furthermore, the specificity of NAA and Glx reductions compared with the other metabolites in the patients with ChSz was also supported by a significant interaction between the clinical status and types of metabolites that only occurred at the ChSz stage (P = .001 for NAA, P = .004 for Glx). The present study demonstrates significant differences in (1)H MRS abnormalities at different stages of schizophrenia, which potentially correspond to changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission, plasticity, and/or excitotoxicity and regional neuronal integrity with relevance for the progression of schizophrenia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated the functional dissociation and networks by measuring human brain activity during resolving incongruity between verbal and nonverbal emotional contents. First, we found that the conflict resolutions biased by the nonverbal contents activated the posterior dorsal mPFC (post-dmPFC), bilateral anterior insula, and right dorsal pIFG, whereas the resolutions biased by the verbal contents activated the bilateral ventral pIFG. In contrast, the anterior dmPFC (ant-dmPFC), bilateral superior temporal sulcus, and fusiform gyrus were commonly involved in both of the resolutions. Second, we found that the post-dmPFC and right ventral pIFG were hub regions in networks underlying the nonverbal- and verbal-content-biased resolutions, respectively. Finally, we revealed that these resolution-type-specific networks were bridged by the ant-dmPFC, which was recruited for the conflict resolutions earlier than the two hub regions. These findings suggest that, in social conflict resolutions, the ant-dmPFC selectively recruits one of the resolution-type-specific networks through its interaction with resolution-type-specific hub regions.
Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 04/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether computed tomography (CT) attenuation test for differential diagnosis of adrenal nodule is applicable in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which shows similar image characteristics to adrenal adenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, and the requirement for informed consent from study patients was waived. Searching picture archiving and communication system, we identified 3678 patients with HCC who underwent upper abdominal unenhanced CT scans between April 2002 and March 2010, and 114 adrenal nodules (39 adenomas and 75 metastases) were included for analysis. Ten nodules were confirmed pathologically while 104 had imaging diagnosis (enlarged or emerged during the study period). Size, CT number, and the internal characteristics of the lesions were recorded. RESULTS: Mean CT numbers of adrenal adenomas were significantly lower than those of metastases (P<0.0001, t-test) on unenhanced CT. Thresholds of 17 and 33 Hounsfield units (HU) provided the following sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy: 46.2%, 100%, and 81.6% at 17HU, and 94.9%, 89.3%, and 91.2% at 33HU, respectively. The area under receiver operating characteristic curve for the CT number test was 0.96. Metastases were significantly larger than adrenal adenoma (P=0.009, t-test). However, the accuracy of testing using mass size was 64.0% at most. All adenomas and metastases were depicted as homogeneous masses with the exception of two metastases that presented as heterogeneous masses (necrotic or lipomatous). CONCLUSION: Adrenal adenomas can be differentiated from HCC metastases using CT number on unenhanced CT.
European journal of radiology 03/2013; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) enables dose reduction over adaptive iterative reconstruction (ASIR) while maintaining diagnostic performance. METHODS: In this institutional review board-approved and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant study, 59 patients (mean [SD] age, 64.7 [13.4] years) gave informed consent to undergo reference-, low-, and ultralow-dose chest computed tomography (CT) with 64-row multidetector CT. The reference- and low-dose CT involved the use of automatic tube current modulation with fixed noise indices (31.5 and 70.44 at 0.625 mm, respectively) and were reconstructed with 50% ASIR-filtered back projection blending. The ultralow-dose CT was acquired with a fixed tube current-time product of 5 mA s and reconstructed with MBIR. Two radiologists evaluated 2.5- and 0.625-mm-slice-thick axial images from low-dose ASIR and ultralow-dose MBIR, recorded the pattern of each nodule candidate, and assigned each a confidence score. A reference standard was established by a consensus panel of 2 different radiologists, who identified 84 noncalcified nodules with diameters of 4 mm or greater on reference-dose ASIR (ground-glass opacity, n = 18; partly solid, n = 11; solid, n = 55). Sensitivity in nodule detection was assessed using the McNemar test. Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was applied to assess the results including confidence scores. RESULTS: Compared with the low-dose CT, a 78.1% decrease in dose-length product was seen with the ultralow-dose CT. No significant differences were observed between the low-dose ASIR and the ultralow-dose MBIR for overall nodule detection in sensitivity (P = 0.48-0.69) or the JAFROC analysis (P = 0.57). Likewise, no significant differences were seen for ground-glass opacity, partly solid, or solid nodule detection in sensitivity (P = 0.08-0.65) or the JAFROC analysis (P = 0.21-0.90). CONCLUSIONS: Model-based iterative reconstruction enables nearly an 80% reduction in radiation dose for chest CT from a low-dose level to an ultralow-dose level, without affecting nodule detectability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact on image quality of three different image reconstruction techniques in the cervicothoracic region: model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR), adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR), and filtered back projection (FBP). METHODS: Forty-four patients underwent unenhanced standard-of-care clinical computed tomography (CT) examinations which included the cervicothoracic region with a 64-row multidetector CT scanner. Images were reconstructed with FBP, 50% ASIR-FBP blending (ASIR50), and MBIR. Two radiologists assessed the cervicothoracic region in a blinded manner for streak artifacts, pixilated blotchy appearances, critical reproduction of visually sharp anatomical structures (thyroid gland, common carotid artery, and esophagus), and overall diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the internal jugular vein. Data were analyzed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test. RESULTS: MBIR images had significant lower quantitative image noise (8.88±1.32) compared to ASIR images (18.63±4.19, P<0.01) and FBP images (26.52±5.8, P<0.01). Significant improvements in streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region were observed with the use of MBIR (P<0.001 each for MBIR vs. the other two image data sets for both readers), while no significant difference was observed between ASIR and FBP (P>0.9 for ASIR vs. FBP for both readers). MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of MBIR images included pixilated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability. CONCLUSIONS: MBIR significantly improves image noise and streak artifacts of the cervicothoracic region over ASIR and FBP. MBIR is expected to enhance the value of CT examinations for areas where image noise and streak artifacts are problematic.
European journal of radiology 11/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prospectively evaluate dose reduction and image quality characteristics of chest CT reconstructed with model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) compared with adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).
One hundred patients underwent reference-dose and low-dose unenhanced chest CT with 64-row multidetector CT. Images were reconstructed with 50 % ASIR-filtered back projection blending (ASIR50) for reference-dose CT, and with ASIR50 and MBIR for low-dose CT. Two radiologists assessed the images in a blinded manner for subjective image noise, artefacts and diagnostic acceptability. Objective image noise was measured in the lung parenchyma. Data were analysed using the sign test and pair-wise Student's t-test.
Compared with reference-dose CT, there was a 79.0 % decrease in dose-length product with low-dose CT. Low-dose MBIR images had significantly lower objective image noise (16.93 ± 3.00) than low-dose ASIR (49.24 ± 9.11, P < 0.01) and reference-dose ASIR images (24.93 ± 4.65, P < 0.01). Low-dose MBIR images were all diagnostically acceptable. Unique features of low-dose MBIR images included motion artefacts and pixellated blotchy appearances, which did not adversely affect diagnostic acceptability.
Diagnostically acceptable chest CT images acquired with nearly 80 % less radiation can be obtained using MBIR. MBIR shows greater potential than ASIR for providing diagnostically acceptable low-dose CT images without severely compromising image quality.
• Model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) creates high-quality low-dose CT images. • MBIR significantly improves image noise and artefacts over adaptive statistical iterative techniques. • MBIR shows greater potential than ASIR for diagnostically acceptable low-dose CT. • The prolonged processing time of MBIR may currently limit its routine use in clinical practice.
European Radiology 04/2012; 22(8):1613-23. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested an important role for Broca's region and its right hemisphere counterpart in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, owing to its roles in language and interpersonal information processing. Broca's region consists of the pars opercularis (PO) and the pars triangularis (PT). Neuroimaging studies have suggested that they have differential functional roles in healthy individuals and contribute differentially to the pathogenesis of schizophrenic symptoms. However, volume changes in these regions in subjects with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) or first-episode schizophrenia (FES) have not been clarified. In the present 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging study, we separately measured the gray matter volumes of the PO and PT using a reliable manual-tracing volumetry in 80 participants (20 with UHR, 20 with FES, and 40 matched controls). The controls constituted two groups: the first group was matched for age, sex, parental socioeconomic background, and intelligence quotient to UHR (n=20); the second was matched for those to FES (n=20). Compared with matched controls, the volume of the bilateral PT, but not that of the PO, was significantly reduced in the subjects with UHR and FES. The reduced right PT volume, which showed the largest effect size among regions-of-interest in the both UHR and FES groups, correlated with the severity of the positive symptoms also in the both groups. These results suggest that localized gray matter volume reductions of the bilateral PT represent a vulnerability to schizophrenia in contrast to the PO volume, which was previously found to be reduced in patients with chronic schizophrenia. The right PT might preferentially contribute to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms.
Schizophrenia Research 03/2012; 137(1-3):124-31. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease is a recently designated benign clinical entity histopathologically characterized by sclerosing inflammation and infiltration of numerous IgG4+ plasma cells that affects multiple organs. The purpose of this study is to characterize the imaging findings of patients with histopathologically proven IgG4-related disease in the head, neck, and brain.
A total of 17 patients (15 males, 2 females; mean age, 66.1 ± 7.4 years) with histopathologically proven IgG4-related disease in the head, neck, and brain were identified in two hospitals between January 2004 and December 2010. Imaging findings were retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to the location and number of lesions, internal architecture, enhancement patterns, presence of vascular occlusion or compression, and changes in adjacent bones.
The lesions, presented as either enlarged gland(s), or focal, localized nodules/masses, were distributed in the lacrimal gland (n = 7), the parotid gland (n = 14), the submandibular gland (n = 10), the pituitary gland (n = 2), skull base dura mater (n = 2), and the pterygopalatine fossa (n = 3). All lesions were well-defined and iso- to hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and showed homogeneous enhancement. No lesion showed vascular occlusion or compression. Bones adjacent to the lesions showed remodeling (erosion or sclerosis) without signs of destruction (n = 6). Four patients had lesions involving multiple areas which extended along the trigeminal nerve, accompanied by expansion of neural foramina along their courses, with no signs of bone destruction.
Sites of predilection for IgG4-related disease in the head, neck, and brain include the lacrimal, salivary, and pituitary glands. Recognition of the typical radiological features of IgG4-related disease, such as well-defined lesion borders, T2 hypointensity, homogeneous and gradual enhancement pattern, absence of vascular occlusion or compression, and presence of bone remodeling without destruction, may be of help in the diagnosis of this benign clinical entity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is widely thought that resting state functional connectivity likely reflects functional interaction among brain areas and that different functional areas interact with different sets of brain areas. A method for mapping areal boundaries has been formulated based on the large-scale spatial characteristics of regional interaction revealed by resting state functional connectivity. In the present study, we present a novel analysis for areal boundary mapping that requires only the signal timecourses within a region of interest, without reference to the information from outside the region. The areal boundaries were generated by the novel analysis and were compared with those generated by the previously-established standard analysis. The boundaries were robust and reproducible across the two analyses, in two regions of interest tested. These results suggest that the information for areal boundaries is readily available inside the region of interest.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(5):e36496. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD) male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC), and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(6):e39561. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atypical trajectory of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized as a potential etiology of an atypical course of behavioral development. Numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on childhood to investigate atypical age-related change of brain structure and function, because it is a period of neuron and synapse maturation. Recent studies, however, have shown that the atypical age-related structural change of autistic brain expands beyond childhood and constitutes neural underpinnings for lifelong difficulty to behavioral adaptation. Thus, we examined effects of aging on neurochemical aspects of brain maturation using 3-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) with single voxel in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) in 24 adult men with non-medicated high-functioning ASDs and 25 age-, IQ- and parental-socioeconomic-background-matched men with typical development (TD). Multivariate analyses of covariance demonstrated significantly high N-acetylaspartate (NAA) level in the ASD subjects compared with the TD subjects (F=4.83, P=0.033). The low NAA level showed a significant positive correlation with advanced age in the TD group (r=-0.618, P=0.001), but was not evident among the ASD individuals (r=0.258, P=0.223). Fisher's r-to-z transformation showed a significant difference in the correlations between the ASD and TD groups (Z=-3.23, P=0.001), which indicated that the age-NAA relationship was significantly specific to people with TD. The current (1)H-MRS study provided new evidence that atypical age-related change of neurochemical aspects of brain maturation in ASD individuals expands beyond childhood and persists during adulthood.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: We assessed the wait time of non-contrast renal artery magnetic resonance (MR) angiography with a single breath hold using inflow inversion recovery-fan shaped inward outward view ordering technique in normal volunteers. Methods: The wait time (WT)-the duration between the data acquisition and the following inversion recovery pulse-was varied from 10 ms to 2000 ms, and the contrast ratio between the renal artery and the background structures for each WT was assessed quantitatively. A simulation was also performed. Results: The contrast ratio between the renal artery and each background structure with 2000 ms of WT was higher than that with 10 ms of WT. The contrast ratio between the renal artery and renal cortex with 1500 ms of WT was also higher than that with 10 ms of WT. In the simulation, when WT lengthened, the residual longitudinal magnetization of each background structure lowered. Conclusion: The WT affects contrast; adjustment of WT should be added to the assessment of the imaging parameter.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility-weighted angiography (SWAN) is a state-of-the-art 3-dimensional (3D) T(2)*-weighted imaging (T(2)*WI) technique with multiple echo acquisitions, but its clinical utility remains to be determined. We compared the utility of susceptibility-weighting sequences among SWAN, 3D phase-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (PSI), and conventional 2-dimensional (2D) T(2)*WI in routine clinical practice. Our results indicate that SWAN can achieve susceptibility weighting more effectively than conventional 2D T(2)*WI and as effectively as PSI and requires a much shorter scan time than PSI.
Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences 01/2012; 11(3):205-11. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dose and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) on image quality of pulmonary computed tomography (CT).
Inflated and fixed porcine lungs were scanned with a 64-slice CT system at 10, 20, 40 and 400 mAs. Using automatic exposure control, 40 mAs was chosen as standard dose. Scan data were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) and ASIR. Image pairs were obtained by factorial combination of images at a selected level. Using a 21-point scale, three experienced radiologists independently rated differences in quality between adjacently displayed paired images for image noise, image sharpness and conspicuity of tiny nodules. A subjective quality score (SQS) for each image was computed based on Anderson's functional measurement theory. The standard deviation was recorded as a quantitative noise measurement.
At all doses examined, SQSs improved with ASIR for all evaluation items. No significant differences were noted between the SQSs for 40%-ASIR images obtained at 20 mAs and those for FBP images at 40 mAs.
Compared to the FBP algorithm, ASIR for lung CT can enable an approximately 50% dose reduction from the standard dose while preserving visualization of small structures.
Japanese journal of radiology 12/2011; 30(2):146-53. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To compare dual-energy computed tomography (CT) spectral imaging and conventional CT imaging in terms of precision of the measurement of CT numbers in phantoms.
A circular phantom (CP) and an elliptical phantom (EP) were used. Capsules filled with iodine contrast media solutions at various concentration levels were placed in the phantoms. Conventional CT was performed at a tube voltage of 120 kVp. Simulated monochromatic images at 65 keV were obtained by dual-energy CT spectral imaging. The CT number of each iodine capsule was measured. A linear regression model was used to evaluate linearity, while analysis of covariance was used to investigate the degree of variability according to phantom shape for each imaging method.
With conventional imaging, the slopes of the regression lines for CT numbers measured at the EP center and EP periphery were significantly lower than those measured for CP (P < 0.0001 for both EP center vs. CP and for EP periphery vs. CP). No significant difference in slope was found among phantom shapes in dual-energy spectral CT imaging.
Computed tomography numbers varied considerably depending on the phantom shape in conventional CT, whereas dual-energy CT provided consistent CT numbers regardless of the phantom shape.
Japanese journal of radiology 12/2011; 30(1):34-9. · 0.73 Impact Factor