[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent.
To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT).
All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations. Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits.
The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or NGT regarding effect of B-Cd on eGFR or RBP.
The present study provides support for the hypothesis that women with DM have higher risk of renal glomerular damage from cadmium exposure compared to women without DM.
Environmental Research 10/2014; 135:311–316. · 3.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD14 is a predictor of inflammation and associated with atherosclerosis. We analyzed 118 carotid plaques from patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis for expression of the macrophage markers CD14, CD68 and the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R). CD14 staining was significantly increased in thrombotic carotid plaques. AT1-R staining was found in macrophage-rich areas, and AT1-R mRNA was detected in plaque macrophages isolated with anti-CD14 immunobeads. In patients treated with an angiotensin receptor blocker, expression of CD14 and CD68 in carotid plaque and serum levels of inflammatory markers were lower than in untreated patients. In vitro, expression of CD14 in human monocyte-derived macrophages was increased by exposure to lipopolysaccharide and decreased by exposure to an angiotensin receptor blocker. Thus, inhibition of the innate immune responsive lipopolysaccharide receptor CD14 in macrophages, rather than AT1-R inhibition, may help explain the anti-inflammatory effects of angiotensin receptor blockade.
International Immunopharmacology 10/2014; · 2.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rationale: Cell proliferation and cell cycle control mechanisms are believed to play central roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The transcription factor Zinc finger protein 148 (Zfp148) was recently shown to maintain cell proliferation under oxidative conditions by suppressing p53, a checkpoint protein that arrests proliferation in response to various stressors. It is established that inactivation of p53 accelerates atherosclerosis, but whether increased p53 activation confers protection against the disease remains to be determined. Objective: We aimed to test the hypothesis that Zfp148 deficiency reduces atherosclerosis by unleashing p53 activity. Methods and Results: Mice harbouring a gene-trap mutation in the Zfp148 locus (Zfp148(gt/+)) were bred onto the Apoe(-/-) genetic background and fed a high-fat or chow diet. Loss of one copy of Zfp148 markedly reduced atherosclerosis without affecting lipid metabolism. Bone marrow transplantation experiments revealed that the effector cell is of hematopoietic origin. Peritoneal macrophages and atherosclerotic lesions from Zfp148(gt/+)Apoe(-/-) mice showed increased levels of phosphorylated p53 compared to controls, and atherosclerotic lesions contained fewer proliferating macrophages. Zfp148(gt/+)Apoe(-/-) mice were further crossed with p53-null mice (Trp53(-/-)). There was no difference in atherosclerosis between Zfp148(gt/+)Apoe(-/-) mice and controls on a Trp53(+/-) genetic background, and there was no difference in levels of phosphorylated p53 or cell proliferation. Conclusions: Zfp148 deficiency increases p53 activity and protects against atherosclerosis by causing proliferation arrest of lesional macrophages, suggesting that drugs targeting macrophage proliferation may be useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Circulation Research 09/2014; · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We have previously shown that arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase B (ALOX15B) is highly expressed in atherosclerotic carotid plaques, and elucidation of mechanisms downstream of activated lipoxygenases may be relevant to our understanding of the genesis of atherosclerotic diseases. We examined 120 carotid plaques from patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis and showed that the extent of ALOX15B staining was significantly increased in carotid plaques with thrombosis. Impedance aggregometry analyses showed that the ALOX15B enzyme products 15-HETE and 15-HPETE increased platelet aggregation. By using a calibrated automatic thrombin assay, we showed that the ALOX15B products also increased both peak levels of thrombin and the total endogenous thrombin potential. Moreover, platelet aggregation was increased by addition of cell lysates from ischemic human macrophages, whereas platelet aggregation was reduced after knockdown of ALOX15B in human macrophages. Our data show that ALOX15B expression in human carotid plaques is associated with thrombus formation and that enzyme products of ALOX15B increase platelet aggregation and thrombin generation. We therefore propose that activated ALOX15B in macrophages may play a role in the induction of atherothrombotic events by increasing platelet aggregation and thrombin generation.
PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(2):e88546. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an in vivo methodology to quantify carotid plaque vascularization. Increased metabolism in plaques, measured as FDG uptake in PET/CT examination, has been associated with markers of inflammation in histological samples. In this study, we tested the association between FDG uptake and vascularization measured by CEUS to assess whether CEUS can be used as an in vivo marker of plaque vulnerability.
After informed consent, subjects aged >60 years with carotid plaque height exceeding 2.5 mm were recruited. CEUS was performed and analysed using earlier described protocol and software, Contrast Quantification Program, which calculates the fraction of the plaque being contrast positive (CQP value). PET-CT examination was performed within 3 months of CEUS (median time 7 days). PET-CT images were acquired 90 minutes after FDG injection (2.7 MBq/kg). FDG uptake was measured as Tissue Background Index (TBI), calculated using Spearman's rho as mean Standard Uptake Value (SUV) of the plaque divided by mean SUV in the jugular vein (mean of 7 measuring points). Local ethics committee approved the study.
We recruited 13 subjects (5 women) with a mean age of 71 years, 6 had a history of stroke or TIA, 1 had a history of ipsilateral stroke. CQP values showed a significant, positive correlation with TBI of carotid plaques, r = 0.67, p < 0.02.
Plaque vascularization measured by CEUS correlates positively with FDG uptake measured by PET/CT in humans. This indicates an association between vascularization and inflammation and/or hypoxia, supporting the use of CEUS as a non-invasive method to detect plaque vulnerability.
European journal of radiology 07/2014; · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol has long been generally accepted as one of the strongest, independent risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, an increasing number of studies suggest that the ratio of apolipoprotein B (apoB) to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a better risk predictor. In the present review, we focus on apoB and apoA-I as factors in predicting vascular risk in epidemiological studies only, and not in studies involving pharmaceutical intervention. The majority of studies in the present review show that apoB and the apoB/apoA-I ratio are independently and more strongly associated with vascular risk across varying age-groups and geographic regions than are conventional lipids, lipoproteins and lipid ratios.
Current Pharmaceutical Design 06/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a low density lipoprotein (LDL) with one apolipoprotein (a) molecule bound to the apolipoprotein B-100 of LDL. Lp(a) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of Lp(a) to diabetes and metabolic syndrome, both known for increased CVD risk, is controversial. In a population based study on type two diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development in women, Lp(a) plasma levels showed the well known skewed distribution without any relation to diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. A modified clot lysis assay on a subset of 274 subjects showed significantly increased clot lysis times in T2DM subjects, despite inhibition of PAI-1 and TAFI. Lp(a) plasma levels significantly increased the maximal peak height of the clot lysis curve, indicating a change in clot structure. In this study Lp(a) is not related to the development of T2DM but may affect clot structure ex vivo without a prolongation of the clot lysis time.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether serum concentrations of apolipoprotein (apo) B and apoA-I and the apoB/apoA-I ratio provided predictive information on myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemic stroke during 13 years of follow-up in a group of initially clinically healthy 58-year-old men, free from previous cardiovascular disease, diabetes, other established disease, or treatment with cardiovascular drugs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB were significant and independent determinants of MI (exponentiation of the B coefficient [Exp(β)] 3.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.3, P = .001, Exp(β) 2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.7, P = .045, respectively). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve as a relative measure of test efficiency was highest and significant for both apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB (area under the curve = 0.75, P < .001). In conclusion, the apoB/apoA-I ratio and apoB are independent risk factors for MI and has the highest efficiencies for predicting MI in initially healthy middle-aged men.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a result of complex gene-environment interactions, and several risk factors have been identified, including age, family history, diet, sedentary lifestyle and obesity. Statistical models that combine known risk factors for T2D can partly identify individuals at high risk of developing the disease. However, these studies have so far indicated that human genetics contributes little to the models, whereas socio-demographic and environmental factors have greater influence. Recent evidence suggests the importance of the gut microbiota as an environmental factor, and an altered gut microbiota has been linked to metabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we use shotgun sequencing to characterize the faecal metagenome of 145 European women with normal, impaired or diabetic glucose control. We observe compositional and functional alterations in the metagenomes of women with T2D, and develop a mathematical model based on metagenomic profiles that identified T2D with high accuracy. We applied this model to women with impaired glucose tolerance, and show that it can identify women who have a diabetes-like metabolism. Furthermore, glucose control and medication were unlikely to have major confounding effects. We also applied our model to a recently described Chinese cohort and show that the discriminant metagenomic markers for T2D differ between the European and Chinese cohorts. Therefore, metagenomic predictive tools for T2D should be specific for the age and geographical location of the populations studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) has been used to assess the vascularisation of carotid plaques. Our aim was to develop and validate a standardised semi-automated method for CEUS examination of plaques, and test if the technique could be used to identify vulnerable plaques. METHODS: Study participants were a mixed population of symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects, selected if they had a plaque with height >2.5 mm and <10% acoustic shadowing. Participants received a bolus of ultrasound contrast agent and a 90-s cine-loop was captured. A Contrast Quantification Program (CQP) was developed and trained to identify extent of contrast uptake after motion correction and application of a noise reduction algorithm. The technique was validated by comparing CQP values with visual assessment of contrast uptake. CQP values were also compared with plaque echogenicity and history of clinical events. RESULTS: CQP values correlated with a visual, 5-scale classification of contrast uptake by two blinded, experienced sonographers. Repeated contrast injections showed high reproducibility. Participants with a history of ipsilateral stroke/TIA had significantly higher CQP values than asymptomatic participants. CONCLUSION: We present a reproducible, semi-automatic method to identify vascularisation of carotid plaques, which could be used in prospective studies to determine the clinical value of plaque vascularisation.
European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery: the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery 04/2013; · 2.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cadmium exposure has been found to be associated with atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and with circulating levels of the proatherogenic intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The research questions were (1) if blood and urinary cadmium levels are associated with low ankle-brachial index (ABI) as a measure of peripheral artery disease in a longitudinal study and (2) if ICAM-1 mediates proatherogenic effects of cadmium exposure.
A prospective, observational cohort study with a 5-year follow-up and an experimental study of cultured human aortic endothelial cells exposed to cadmium.
Research unit at a university hospital.
A cohort of 64-year-old women (n=489) recruited by stratified sampling of similarly sized groups with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose tolerance as assessed in a population-based screening examination. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: ABI (ratio of the systolic blood pressures in the tibial and brachial arteries ≤0.9 in any artery) in relation to cadmium exposure; ICAM-1 concentrations in the cell culture medium after cadmium incubation.
High (tertile 3 vs 1) concentrations of blood (B-Cd) or creatine-adjusted urinary cadmium (U-Cd) at baseline were found to predict low ABI after adjustment for smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline. For U-Cd the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.8). After exclusion of participants with ultrasound-assessed femoral atherosclerosis at baseline the OR for U-Cd was unchanged, and for B-Cd it was 3.7 (95% CI 1.05 to 13.3). Inclusion of serum ICAM-1 levels did not affect the cadmium-related ORs in multivariate analyses. The experimental study did not show any cadmium-induced increase of the production of ICAM-1 from human endothelial cells.
Cadmium exposure was associated with future peripheral artery disease, supporting the concept that cadmium exposure in the population has proatherogenic effects, although ICAM-1 mediated effects do not seem to be involved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cadmium is a wide-spread pollutant. Observational studies suggest associations between cadmium and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Experimental studies indicate that cadmium may cause impaired insulin production. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether cadmium exposure is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and impaired pancreatic beta-cell function. METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests were used in a screening examination of 64-year old women (n=2595) to identify all with diabetes, impaired (IGT) and normal (NGT) glucose tolerance. Random samples of women with type 2 diabetes (n=215), IGT (n=207) and NGT (n=194) were recruited in a cross-sectional examination including measurement of pancreatic insulin production (acute insulin response) and insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment). Cadmium concentrations were measured in blood and urine. A follow-up examination was performed after 5.4 years with assessment of new cases with diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. RESULTS: At baseline, neither blood nor urinary cadmium concentrations showed any statistically significant differences between women with type 2 diabetes, IGT or NGT. The prospective analysis included 68 cases with incident diabetes, 58 with IGT and 118 women with NGT and no associations with cadmium levels at baseline were observed. Blood and urinary cadmium at baseline were not associated with insulin production, blood glucose, HbA1c, or changes in HbA1c during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of cadmium and diabetes with detailed data on pancreatic beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Cadmium exposure was not associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes or IGT.
Environmental Research 12/2012; · 3.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic lesions are characterized by lipid-loaded macrophages (foam cells) and hypoxic regions. Although it is well established that foam cells are produced by uptake of cholesterol from oxidized LDL, we previously showed that hypoxia also promotes foam cell formation even in the absence of exogenous lipids. The hypoxia-induced lipid accumulation results from increased triglyceride biosynthesis but the exact mechanism is unknown. Our aim was to investigate the importance of glucose in promoting hypoxia-induced de novo lipid synthesis in human macrophages. In the absence of exogenous lipids, extracellular glucose promoted the accumulation of Oil Red O-stained lipid droplets in human monocyte-derived macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. Lipid droplet accumulation was higher in macrophages exposed to hypoxia at all assessed concentrations of glucose. Importantly, triglyceride synthesis from glucose was increased in hypoxic macrophages. GLUT3 was highly expressed in macrophage-rich and hypoxic regions of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques and in macrophages isolated from these plaques. In human monocyte-derived macrophages, hypoxia increased expression of both GLUT3 mRNA and protein, and knockdown of GLUT3 with siRNA significantly reduced both glucose uptake and lipid droplet accumulation. In conclusion, we have shown that hypoxia-induced increases in glucose uptake through GLUT3 are important for lipid synthesis in macrophages, and may contribute to foam cell formation in hypoxic regions of atherosclerotic lesions.
PLoS ONE 08/2012; 7(8):e42360. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: The metabolic syndrome is a global health problem and is associated with subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, data are scarce concerning prospective association of the syndrome and CVD in populations free of diabetes and previous CVD that also is free of all cardiovascular drugs. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of cardiovascular events due to the metabolic syndrome in a population-based cohort of initially healthy, low-risk, and medication-free 58-year-old Swedish men during 13-years of follow-up. Methods: From a total population sample of 1728 subjects, a stratified and randomly selected group of 391 subjects was included. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program. Cardiovascular events and cause of death were investigated by contact with the Centre of Epidemiology at the National Board of Health and Welfare. Results: The metabolic syndrome increased the risk of cardiovascular events with a hazard ratio of 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-3.4], P=0.003. When adjusted for the factors of leisure-time physical activity, smoking habits, alcohol intake, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the hazard ratio was 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.4), P=0.016. Conclusion: In a 13-year follow-up in initially healthy men, the metabolic syndrome increases the risk of cardiovascular events by two-fold. This risk was maintained also after adjustment for lifestyle factors.
Metabolic syndrome and related disorders 07/2012; · 1.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: There is currently widespread exposure to the toxic metal cadmium through the diet as well as through smoking, and it has been suggested that cadmium exposure may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we examined whether cadmium exposure is associated with prevalence and growth of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: The analyses were performed in a screening-based cohort of 64-year-old Caucasian women with stratified, random selection to groups with normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes (n = 599). We measured cadmium concentrations in blood and urine at baseline. In addition, we performed ultrasound examination to determine the prevalence and area of atherosclerotic plaques in the carotid arteries and assessed smoking history and other cardiovascular risk factors at baseline and at a follow-up examination after a mean of 5.4 years. RESULTS: At baseline, blood cadmium levels were associated with increased risk of plaque and a large plaque area after adjustment for confounders. In women who had never smoked, blood cadmium levels correlated positively with plaque area at baseline. The occurrence of large plaques and the change in plaque area at follow-up were associated with blood and creatinine-corrected urinary cadmium concentrations at baseline after adjustment for confounders. Blood and urine cadmium levels added information to established cardiovascular risk factors in predicting progress of atherosclerosis. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that cadmium levels in blood and urine are independent factors associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques at baseline as well as prospectively. This novel observation emphasizes the need to consider cadmium as a pro-atherogenic pollutant.
Journal of Internal Medicine 07/2012; · 5.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Current Swedish guidelines recommend that carotid endarterectomy should be performed within 14 days of a qualifying neurological event, but it is not clear if very urgent surgery after an event is associated with increased perioperative risk. The aim of this study was to determine how the time between the event and carotid endarterectomy affects the procedural risk of mortality and stroke.
We prospectively analyzed data on all patients who underwent carotid endarterectomies for symptomatic carotid stenosis between May 12, 2008, and May 31, 2011, with records in the Swedish Vascular Registry (Swedvasc). Patients were divided according to time between the qualifying event and surgery (0-2 days, 3-7 days, 8-14 days, 15-180 days). Stroke rate and mortality at 30 days postsurgery were determined.
We analyzed data for 2596 patients and found that the combined mortality and stroke rate for patients treated 0 to 2 days after qualifying event was 11.5% (17 of 148) versus 3.6% (29 of 804), 4.0% (27 of 677), and 5.4% (52 of 967) for the groups treated at 3 to 7 days, 8 to 14 days, and 15 to 180 days, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, time was an independent risk factor for perioperative complications: patients treated at 0 to 2 days had a relative OR of 4.24 (CI, 2.07-8.70; P<0.001) compared with the reference 3- to 7-day group.
In this study of patients treated for symptomatic carotid disease, it was safe to perform surgery as early as Day 3 after a qualifying neurological event in contrast to patients treated within 0 to 2 days, which has a significantly increased perioperative risk.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously shown that different forms of stress have distinctive effects on atherogenesis in mice. We showed that social stress increase atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, while more physical forms of stress do not. Here we evaluated the effect of social disruption (SDR) stress on atherogenesis and evaluated cytokine release after SDR-stress and five more physical stressors.
Male ApoE(-/-) mice were exposed to SDR-stress during 12 weeks, and atherosclerotic plaque area was assessed in aorta, aortic root and innominate artery. Further, male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to SDR-stress or five physical stressors, and cytokine and corticosterone levels were analyzed in plasma/serum samples immediately after stress.
We found a correlation between the level of SDR-stress and atherosclerotic plaque area in aorta and a numerical increased plaque area in aortic root. SDR stress did not affect histological features of plaque composition. However, SDR-stress increased levels of corticosterone, IL-6 and CXCL1. Plasma corticosterone increased for all five physical stressors, but IL-6 and CXCL1 only increased in the group exposed to restraint combined with rat odor.
These findings suggest that SDR-stress is indeed atherogenic, in contrast to our previous results using the physical stressors. A possible explanation to this difference is that SDR-stress, but not physical stressors, leads to release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and CXCL1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating C-reactive protein (CRP), reflective of systemic chronic low-grade inflammation, is a marker associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). One of the mechanisms through which physical activity might promote cardiovascular health is by preventing changes in inflammation biomarkers, such as CRP. The present study examined the association of self-reported physical activity with an inflammation biomarker, high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP), in a population-based cohort of clinically healthy 58-year-old men. Compared with a sedentary lifestyle both moderate (1.81 [0.94-3.69] vs 1.28 [0.55-2.90] mg/L; P < .05) and vigorous physical activity (1.81 [0.94-3.69] vs 0.88 [0.42-1.81] mg/L; P < .001) were associated with decrease in hs-CRP levels. In summary, we identified an association between self-reported leisure time physical activity and hs-CRP in a cross-sectional study of healthy 58-year-old men, with decreased levels of CRP by increased intensities of physical activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a cluster of factors that confer an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity as well as mortality. It is established that physical activity (PA) has a protective role in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, mainly through favorable effects on traditional risk factors such as body mass and blood pressure. We assessed the prevalence of MetS in a population-based sample of 64-year-old women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) with respect to leisure-time PA (LTPA). The results showed an inverse linear association (P < .05) between LTPA and MetS in this group. In conclusion, this study suggests that an increased PA level has an important role in preventing MetS in women with IGT.