[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives. To evaluate if the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds to chelating agents or the use of chelating agents with antimicrobial activity as 7% maleic acid and peracetic acid show similar disinfection ability in comparison to conventional irrigants as sodium hypochlorite or iodine potassium iodide against biofilms developed on dentin. Materials and methods. The total bio-volume of live cells, the ratio of live cells and the substratum coverage of dentin infected intra-orally and treated with the irrigant solutions: MTAD, Qmix, Smear Clear, 7% maleic acid, 2% iodine potassium iodide, 4% peracetic acid, 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite was measured by using confocal microscopy and the live/dead technique. Five samples were used for each irrigant solution. Results. Several endodontic irrigants containing antimicrobials as clorhexidine (Qmix), cetrimide (Smear Clear), maleic acid, iodine compounds or antibiotics (MTAD) lacked an effective antibiofilm activity when the dentin was infected intra-orally. The irrigant solutions 4% peracetic acid and 2.5-5.25% sodium hypochlorite decrease significantly the number of live bacteria in biofilms, providing also cleaner dentin surfaces (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Several chelating agents containing antimicrobials could not remove nor kill significantly biofilms developed on intra-orally infected dentin, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite and 4% peracetic acid. Dissolution ability is mandatory for an appropriate eradication of biofilms attached to dentin.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, setting time, and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC) combined with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide (BO), calcium tungstate (CT), and zirconium oxide (ZO).
Fifty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH and calcium release (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) at 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. For evaluation of setting time, each material was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines 266/08. The solubility test was performed according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification no. 57/2000. Solubility, setting time, and pH values were compared by using analysis of variance and Tukey test, and the values of calcium release were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Miller tests. The significance level was set at 5%.
The pH and calcium release were higher at 3 and 24 hours. WPC was the material with the higher values for both properties. WMTA had the greatest solubility among all materials (P < .05). All radiopacifiers increased the setting time of WPC, and WMTA had the shortest setting time among all materials (P < .05).
All materials released calcium ions. Except for WPC/CT at 168 hours, all materials promoted an alkaline pH. On the basis of the obtained results, ZO and CT can be considered as potential radiopacifying agents to be used in combination with Portland cement.
Journal of endodontics 03/2012; 38(3):394-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiopacity, solubility, flow, film thickness, setting time, and adaptation to the root canal walls of 3 epoxy resin-based sealers: AH Plus, Acroseal, and Adseal.
Physical tests were performed following American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association's requirements. For interfacial adaptation analysis, 30 maxillary canines were shaped by using ProTaper instruments. The specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10): group 1, AH Plus; group 2, Acroseal; and group 3, Adseal. The sealers were mixed with rhodamine B dye, and the canals were filled by using the lateral compaction technique. The percentage of gaps and voids area was calculated at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex. Statistical evaluation was performed by using analysis of variance for physical analysis and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for interfacial adaptation (P < .05).
No statistical differences were found for adaptation, percentage of voids, solubility, flow, and film thickness among the sealers (P > .05). AH Plus was significantly more radiopaque (P < .05). For the setting time, there were statistical differences among all the studied sealers (P < .05).
AH Plus, Acroseal, and Adseal presented similar root canal adaptation, solubility, flow, and film thickness. Statistical differences were found for radiopacity and setting time (P < .05).
Journal of endodontics 10/2011; 37(10):1417-21. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the caries risk of asthmatic patients on the basis of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli levels in saliva samples as well as the index of oral hygiene and dental caries (DMFT index). The study population was composed of 80 asthmatic children, aged 3-15 years, who use specific medication, and 80 matched, healthy control children. The parents were interviewed about oral health-related factors. The World Health Organization criteria were used for dental examinations. The Köhler and Bratthal methodology was used to detect salivary MS levels and dilutions of saliva were done for lactobacilli counting. No differences between asthma and control groups were observed for caries prevalence in children aged 3-6 and 7-10 years, except in severe cases in the younger group. However, higher caries prevalence for permanent dentition was observed in 11- to 15-year-old asthmatic children. An increased dental biofilm was observed in the asthma group, as well as salivary levels of MS. No differences were observed in levels of lactobacilli. No statistical correlations were found between medication, frequency of treatment, method of consumption and caries experience, dental biofilm and salivary levels of MS or lactobacilli. However, there was a correlation between MS levels and treatment duration. The logistic regression revealed that MS level is an important risk factor for increased caries experience. Asthma should be evaluated as a risk factor for caries experience because it can increase the levels of MS and the dental biofilm.
Caries Research 08/2011; 45(4):386-92. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biofilm dissolution and cleaning ability of different irrigant solutions on intraorally infected dentin.
One hundred twenty bovine dentin specimens were infected intraorally by using a removable orthodontic device. Thirty samples were used for each irrigant solution: 2% chlorhexidine and 1%, 2.5%, and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). The solutions were used for 5, 15, and 30 minutes and at 2 experimental volumes, 500 μL and 1 mL. The samples were stained by using acridine orange dye before and after the experiments and evaluated by using a confocal microscope. The percentage of biofilm, isolated cells, and noncolonized dentin was measured by using a grid system. Differences in the reduction or increase of the studied parameters were assessed by using nonparametric methods (P < .05).
The higher values of biofilm dissolution and noncolonized dentin were found in the 30-minute NaOCl group and in the 5-minute and 15-minute groups of 5.25% NaOCL. The use of 2% chlorhexidine solution did not improve the biofilm dissolution or increase the cleaning of the dentin in comparison with the NaOCl solutions (P < .05).
Two percent chlorhexidine does not dissolve the biofilms. Thirty minutes of NaOCl are necessary to have higher values of biofilm dissolution and to increase the cleaning of the dentin independently of the concentration in comparison with the 5-minute and 15-minute contact times.
Journal of endodontics 08/2011; 37(8):1134-8. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the mechanical properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs) combined with propolis as a natural antimicrobial substance.
Typified green propolis, as an ethanolic extract (EEP) or in the lyophilized form (powder), was incorporated to specimens of Ketac Fil Plus, ChemFlex and Ketac Molar Easymix GICs. For each test, 8 specimens of each material were prepared. For water sorption and solubility tests, specimens were subjected to dehydration, hydration and redehydration cycles until a constant mass was obtained for each step. Measurements were recorded using a digital balance of 10-4 g precision. For the diametral tensile strength test, specimens were tested in a universal test machine at 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed after 24 h storage in deionized water. Data were evaluated by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p<0.05).
The addition of propolis to GIC clearly increased water sorption compared to pure material. Solubility was material-dependent and was not clearly evident. For the diametral tensile strength test, association with propolis altered negatively only Chemflex.
It may be concluded that incorporation of propolis to GICs alters some properties in a material-dependent condition.
Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 04/2011; 19(2):100-5. · 0.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the dental caries status and salivary properties in 3- to 15-year-old children/adolescents.
The sample was split in two groups: asthma group (AG), composed of 65 patients who attended Public Health Service; asthma-free group (AFG), composed of 65 nonasthmatic children/adolescents recruited in two public schools. Stimulated salivary samples were collected for 3 min. Buffering capacity and pH were ascertained in each salivary sample. A single trained and calibrated examiner (kappa = 0.98) performed the dental caries examination according to WHO criteria.
The AFG showed salivary flow rate (1.10 ± 0.63 mL/min) higher (P = 0.002) than AG (0.80 ± 0.50 mL/min). An inverse relationship was observed between asthma severity and salivary flow rate (Phi coefficient, rφ: 0.79, P = 0.0001). Children with moderate or severe asthma showed an increased risk for reduced salivary flow rate (OR: 17.15, P < 0.001). No association was observed between drug use frequency (P > 0.05) and drug type (P > 0.05) with salivary flow rate. Buffering capacity was similar in both groups. No significant differences were encountered in dental caries experience between AFG and AG groups.
Although asthma can cause reduction in flow rate, the illness did not seem to influence dental caries experience in children with access to proper dental care.
International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 02/2011; 21(3):185-91. · 0.92 Impact Factor