[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multi-specie biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobials due to cellular interactions found in them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by confocal laser scanning microscopy, the biofilm dissolution effectiveness of different irrigant solutions on biofilms developed on infected dentin in situ.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study evaluated the antimicrobial in vitro effects of the salivary proteins lactoferrin and lysozyme on microorganisms involved in the carious process, obtaining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175) and Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 7469) were submitted to broth macrodilution of lysozyme at 80 mg/mL and lactoferrin at 200 mg/mL. The tubes were read in a spectrophotometer after they had been incubated at 37 °C for 18 h, in a carbon dioxide chamber, in order to read the MIC. A new subculture was carried on agar plates to obtain the MBC. The agar diffusion method was also tested, using BHI agar with 100 µL of the standardized microbial inocula. Filter-paper disks soaked in 10 µL of the solutions lactoferrin (200 µg/mL) and lysozyme (80 µg/mL) were placed on the agar surface. Inhibition halos were not observed on the plates, showing the absence of the antimicrobial effects of these proteins in this method. The bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects of lysozyme on L. casei were 50.3 mg/mL and 43.1 mg/mL respectively. The bactericidal and bacteriostatic effects on S. mutans were 68.5 mg/mL and 58.7 mg/mL. Lactoferrin did not induce any inhibitory effects on any microorganism, even in the concentration of 200 mg/mL. There was not a synergic antimicrobial effect of proteins, when they were tested together, even in the concentration of 42.8 mg/mL of lysozyme and 114 mg/mL of lactoferrin (the highest values evaluated). S. mutans and L. casei were only inhibited by lysozyme, not affected by lactoferrin and by the synergic use of both proteins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic activation on the filling quality (in-tratubular sealer penetration, interfacial adaptation, and presence of voids) of 4 epoxy resin–based sealers. Methods: Eighty-four extracted human canines were divided into 4 groups (n = 20) according to the sealer used to obturate the root canals instrumented with F5 Pro-Taper instruments (50/05) (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The canals were filled by the lateral compac-tion technique. Previously, the sealers were labeled with rhodamine B dye to allow analysis under a confocal micro-scope. At the time of obturation, the specimens were divided again into 2 groups (n = 10) according to the ultra-sonic activation of the sealers: ultrasonically activated and nonultrasonically activated groups. All samples were sectioned at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the apex. The percentages of voids, gaps, and dentinal sealer penetration segments of the canal were analyzed. Results: Regarding the sealer penetration segments, there was a significant increase for the AH Plus (Dentsply Maillefer), Acroseal (Specialit es Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Foss es, France), and Sealer 26 (Dentsply Maillefer) at the 4-mm level and the AH Plus and Sealer 26 at the 6-mm level with ultrasonic activation (P < .05). Concerning the gaps, the ultrasonic activation promoted a smaller presence for all sealers at the 4-and 6-mm levels (P < .05). No statistical significant differences were found for the percentages of voids (P < .05). Conclusions: The use of ultrasonic activation of an epoxy resin–based sealer promoted greater dentinal sealer pene-tration and less presence of gaps. (J Endod 2014;-:1–5) Key Words
Journal of Endodontics 01/2014; 40(7):964-968. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by stereomicroscopy and confocal laser microscopy, the influence of different lateral compaction methods for the obturation quality, as well as the time spent for the procedure. Thirty root canals of freshly extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system up to F5 instrument and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer by the lateral compaction technique. The teeth were divided into 3 groups (n=10) in accordance with the method used for the lateral compaction, as follows: Manual, Mechanical and Ultrasonic. The sealers were stained with rhodamine B dye in a proportion of 0.1% per gram in weight to allow for the analysis under a confocal microscope. During the root filling procedure, the time spent was recorded with a stopwatch. The specimens were stored at 37 °C for 48 h, and then sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex. The percentage of gutta-percha, sealer and void areas were evaluated using a stereomicroscope and sealer penetration perimeter by confocal laser microscope. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskall-Wallis and Dunn tests (p<0.05). The mechanical method required a shorter time for the lateral compaction than the manual method (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) for the perimeter of the dentin with sealer penetration among all groups. The mechanical method showed a higher (p<0.05) percentage of gutta-percha and less sealer at the 4 mm section in comparison with the manual method. The ultrasonic group showed intermediate values. The void areas found in the root filling were similar (p>0.05) between the three methods. In conclusion, the fastest lateral compaction was achieved with the mechanical method, and all the methods showed void areas in the root filling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objetivo. El propósito de este estudio fue comparar el material sólido extruido por el foramen apical usando las técnicas manuales Step Back, Oregon y las rotatorias, Sistema K3 Endo, Sistemas Protaper y sistema F.K.G. RaCe. Material y métodos. Sesenta y cinco dientes unirradiculares fueron utilizados siendo 15 para cada uno de los grupos. El material extruído en las diferentes técnicas fue recogido en papel de filtro (Whatman ®) sometidos a secado en estufa y pesado en balanza digital de alta precisión. A través del test ANOVA se observó la diferencia existente entre los diferentes grupos estudiados y el test paramétrico de Tukey fue aplicado para el análisis comparativo de los grupos entre sí. Resultados. El análisis de los resultados mostró extrusión de material por el foramen en todas las técnicas testadas.siendo que Step Back promovió la mayor cantidad de material extruido siendo significante en relación a las demás que fueron equivalentes estadísticamente. Conclusiones. No fue observada diferencia significativa entre la técnica de Oregon y las rotatorias siendo que entre estas el sistema K3 Endo proporcionó el menor índice de extrusión. PALABRAS CLAVE Extrusión apical; Endodoncia; Técnicas rotatorias; Técnicas manuales. ABSTRACT Objective. The purpose of this study was to conpare the solid material extruded through the apical foramen using manual techniques Step Back, Oregon and rotary systems: K3 Endo, ProTaper and FKG RaCe. Material and methods. Sixty-five single-root teeth were used with 15 for each of the groups. The extruded material of different techniques was collected in filter paper (Whatman ®) submitted to oven drying and weighing in high precision digital scale. Through ANOVA test was observed the difference between the different studied groups and the Tukey parametric test was applied to the comparative analysis of the groups together. Results. The analysis of the results showed extrusion material through the foramen in all techniques. Step Back promoted the most significant being extruded material in relation to the others that were statistically equivalent. Conclusions. No significant difference was observed between the technique of Oregon and rotary systems; among these being that K3 Endo system provided the lowest rate of extrusion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to analyze the genotypic diversity, frequency of serotypes and the detection of mutacins from Streptococcus mutans isolates in caries-free and caries-active individuals.A total of 260 S. mutans isolated from 28 individuals with and without dental caries were subjected to AP-PCR and PCR screening of glucosyltransferase B, mutacin and serotype genes, which showed the presence of. 70 different genotypes. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of genes for serotypes and mutacins with dental caries. However, there was a statistically significant and a strong association between the higher genotypic diversity in the subjects with caries (r = 0.72, p = 0.001). There was an increase in the number of genotypes with increasing age (p <0.01).
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 04/2013; 56(2):241-248. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Objective: To detect the presence and transmission of S. mutans carrier of the spaP gene in samples of bacterial plaque in mother/child pairs from municipal child education centers, and the possible association with dental caries. Methods The sample comprised 56 mother/child pairs. For the evaluation of the prevalence and severity of caries, the DMFT and dmft indices were used, following World Health Organization criteria. The oral hygiene pattern was also evaluated using the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index and O'Leary's plaque control index. Using DNA extracted from bacteria in the dental plaque of mother/child pairs, a sequence of the S. mutans spaP gene was amplified using PCR. The chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were applied, using a level of significance of p< 0.05. Results The mothers presented a DMFT index of 11.02 (SD=6.3) while the children exhibited a dmft index of 2.09 (SD=3.2). Approximately 40% of mother/child pairs had a good oral hygiene index. A higher percentage of children with caries had, in their dental plaque, S. mutans harboring the spaP+ gene (p=0.03). No association was detected between the presence of S. mutans spaP+ in the dental plaque of mother and child. Conclusion An association was found between experience of caries in the children and the presence of bacteria carrying the spaP+ gene. Our results did not detect vertical transmission. Indexing terms: Dental caries. Polymerase chain reaction. Streptococcus mutans. Transmission. RESUMO Objetivo Detectar a presença e a transmissão de S. mutans portador do gene spaP em amostras de placa bacteriana em pares mãe/criança de centros municipais de educação infantil e possível associação com a cárie dentária. Métodos A amostra foi composta por 56 pares mãe/criança. Para avaliação da prevalência e severidade de cárie foram utilizados os índices CPO-D e ceo-d seguindo critérios da Organização Mundial de Saúde. O padrão de higiene bucal foi avaliado através do Índice de Higiene Oral Simplificado e do índice de controle de placa O´Leary. Utilizando o DNA extraído das bactérias da placa dentária dos pares mãe/criança, uma seqüência do gene spaP de S. mutans foi amplificado pela PCR. Os testes de Qui-quadrado, exato de Fisher e correlação de Pearson foram realizados. Adotando-se significância de p< 0,05. Resultados As mães apresentaram índice CPO-D de 11,02 (DP=6,3) enquanto as crianças mostraram índice ceo-d de 2,09 (DP=3,2). Aproximadamente 40% dos pares mãe/criança tinham um bom índice de higiene bucal. Maior porcentagem das crianças com cárie apresentaram em sua placa dentária S. mutans abrigando o gene spaP+ (p=0,03). Não foi detectada associação entre a presença de S. mutans spaP+ na placa dentária da mãe e seu filho. Conclusão Foi verificada a associação entre a experiência de cárie nas crianças e a presença da bactéria portadora do gene spaP+. Nossos resultados não detectaram a transmissão vertical. Termos de indexação: Cárie dentária. Reação em cadeia da polimerase. Streptococcus mutans. Transmissão. Detection of Streptococcus mutans of the spaP gene and dental caries in mother/child pairs ORIGINAL | ORIGINAL Detecção de Streptococcus mutans portador do gene spaP e cárie dentária em pares mãe/criança
RGO. Revista Gaúcha de Odontologia 1981-8637. 01/2013; 61(2):205-211.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the quality of root canal fillings in complex anatomy performed with the single-cone, System B and carrier techniques using gutta-percha or resilon.
Method: 78 mesial roots of first mandibular molars were prepared using K3 NiTi rotary instruments. The instrumentation was completed with a 35.04 instrument at the working length. The root canals were divided in 6 groups (n=13) filled using single cone, System B and two carrier techniques using either gutta-percha/ThermaSeal Plus or Resilon/Real Seal SE. Both sealers were labeled with Rhodamine B dye. Each specimen was horizontally sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex, then the samples were examined under a stereomicroscope and a confocal microscope, to evaluate the presence and type of isthmuses, area percentage of gutta-percha/resilon, sealer and voids. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskall-Wallis test (P < 0.05).
Result: Real Seal 1 and Thermafil showed a better canal filling with more material and less sealer (P < 0.05) at 2mm level, however the voids percentage was similar in all groups (P > 0.05). At 4 mm level System B and carrier techniques provide more filling material than single-cone using both materials (P > 0.05). In general, microscopy analysis showed a better filling when used a System B Technique at the 6 mm level. No evident statistical significance could be seen in canals filling in each technique using both sealers at all levels.
Conclusion: The root canal fillings were similar using both gutta-percha/ThermaSeal Plus and resilon/Real Seal SE. Plasticized techniques showed the better results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with self-perceived need for dental treatment in residents of a small municipality in northeastern Brazil.
Method: Data from a cross-sectional survey with a sample of 139 individuals were assessed. Information was gathered through oral examinations, and by administering a questionnaire on socio-demographic profile, access to dental services, and self-rated oral health. The methodology used for data collection was in accordance with WHO guidelines. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Poisson regression hierarchical model at a 5% significance level.
Results: Out of the total sample, 85.5%, 84.5%, and 38.5% of the adolescents, adults, and elders, respectively, reported the need for dental treatment. The self-perception of this need proved to be lower among elderly (PR=0.45; 95% CI: 0.27-0.75), amongst those who had not received information on how to avoid oral problems (PR=0.80; 95% CI: 0.67-0.96), and among the edentate subjects (PR=0.53; 95% CI: 0.29-0.98). On the other hand, it was higher amongst those who self-rated their oral health as fair/ poor/ or very poor (PR=1.27; 95% CI: 1.06-1.34).
Conclusion: These results highlight the importance of the access to information on the prevention of oral problems as well as the self-rated oral health status for the formation of the individual concept of need for dental treatment. Moreover, they point to the need for greater attention to the elderly, the group which showed the lower self-perception regarding dental treatment.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity, calcium release, and pH of a new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer when compared to endodontic sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. Method: Specimens were fabricated from MTA Fillapex, Sealer 26, Sealapex, and AH Plus immediately, 24 or 48 hours prior to the tests. The antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans was evaluated by the direct contact and the agar diffusion methods. Calcium release was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The pH from solutions containing the sealers was measured using a pHmeter. Results: MTA Fillapex, AH Plus and Sealer 26 resulted in partial inhibition of E. faecalis, while Sealapex resulted in the highest bacterium growth. MTA Fillapex and AH Plus also inhibited to a greater extent the growth of C. albicans. None of the investigated sealers could completely inhibit the growth of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, but influenced microbial growth to different extent. Significantly higher calcium was released from Sealer 26, followed by Sealapex, MTA Fillapex, and AH Plus in a descending order. All investigated sealers resulted in solution with an alkaline pH. Conclusion: The new mineral trioxide aggregate endodontic sealer presented higher antimicrobial activity when compared to the sealers containing calcium hydroxide and/or epoxy resin. As for pH and calcium release, the sealers containing calcium hydroxide resulted in presented the highest values.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, radiopacity and antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide paste associated with 3 radiopacifying agents.
Method: For all tests were established four groups: Ca(OH)2 without radiopacifier (G1), Ca(OH)2+iodoform (G2), Ca(OH)2+zinc oxide (G3) and Ca(OH)2+barium sulfate (G4). Propylenglycol was used as vehicle. For the pH and calcium release tests, forty acrylic teeth were filled with the pastes and immersed in 25mL MilliQ water. After 3, 24, 72 hours, 7, 15 and 30 days the teeth were removed, placed in another container, and the liquid was analyzed. The pH readings were carried out with a pH meter and calcium release was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Polyethylene tubes filled with the pastes, dentin specimens and an aluminun step-wedge were radiographed on occlusal films to release the radiopacity test. Twelve bovine dentine specimens were infected intraorally using a removable orthodontic device and then were treated with the pastes for 7 days. The samples were stained using the Live/Dead technique and the bacterial viability evaluated using a confocal microscope to obtain the ratio to live. Nonparametric statistical tests were performed (P<0.05).
Result: The pH analysis showed at 3 hours significant statistical differences in comparison G1xG2, G1xG4, G2XG3 and G3xG4. At 7 days differences (P<0.05) was found in G1xG4, G2xG4, G2xG3. The values to calcium release were significant (P<0,05) at 3 hours: G3xG4; at 72 hours: G1xG3; and at 30 days: G1xG4, G2xG4. The test groups provide high values (P<0.05) of radiopacity than control and dentin. The iodoform had the best antimicrobial activity (P<0.05) in comparison the other groups.
Conclusion: All the pastes showed alkaline pH and calcium ion release, but the barium sulfate showed more interference at both properties. The substances associates to calcium hydroxide showed great radiopacity, but do not increase the antimicrobial activity except for iodoform.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: evaluate by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the debris removal and deformation surface of rotary NiTi endodontic systems BioRace (BR), Protaper (PT) and Twisted File (TF) among five uses, simulating clinical conditions.
Method: A total of 75 extracted human maxillary molars were divided into three groups (Group I: BR system; Group II: PT system; Group III: TF) of 25 specimens. A total of five boxes to each rotary system were used. Initially, the instruments were examined by SEM at a magnification of 35 x, then used into root canals and submitted through the cleaning protocol based on Parashos, Linsuwanont and Messer (2004) proposal prior to sterilization. After that, they were evaluated again by SEM, before the next use. These procedures were carried out until the last use. The cleaning data were analyzed using statistical Kruskal-Wallis and the Dunn test. The deformation data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher exact test (<0,05).
Result: The cleaning results showed statistically significant differences at BR system, with highest amount of debris remaining from the manufacturing process; after five uses, the BR and PT systems were better in relation to the initial condition, but the TF system had the same debris amount. The deformation occurred in 40% of the BR system, with 5% of fractures and 100% of the TF, with 40% of fractures. The PT system did not suffered considerable damage in accordance with the criteria evaluated.
Conclusion: The protocol did not provide clear surfaces completely free of debris, compared to the initial condition, especially in the TF system. The surface deformation of TF system presented the worst results, followed by the BR and PT that did not show any deformation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to assess ex-vivo the leakage of Enterococcus faecalis in root canals filled with endodontic sealers AHPlus, RealSeal and the experimental sealer Sealepox, after the lateral condensation or warm vertical condensation techniques.
Method: One hundred single rooted extracted human teeth had their root canals instrumented and their crowns removed for the conducting of the obturation. An experimental bacterial leakage setup was designed for fixing the root canal in the contained media, sterile and specific for the bacteria in study. The inoculation with Enterococcus faecalis was conducted and for 60 days the media was checked daily for possible change in its clear aspect, which would than, characterize the contamination by the bacteria through the root canal. All the sample which were infiltrated, totally or not, were processed and colored by the Brown and Brenn technique for observation of presence and location of Enterococcus faecalis in the root canal or dentinal tubules.
Result: With the methodology for bacterial leakage considered, the results obtained showed that none of the sealer neither the techniques employed were able to avoid leakages. Nevertheless, leakage happened in a small number of samples, where no statistical difference could be found between sealers and techniques. In regards to the microscopy analysis, presence of microorganisms was observed in practically all the samples.
Conclusion: Such an observation, suggests that bacterial leakage is not a trustworthy indicator for qualifying sealing obtained by sealers in root canals.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives. To evaluate if the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds to chelating agents or the use of chelating agents with antimicrobial activity as 7% maleic acid and peracetic acid show similar disinfection ability in comparison to conventional irrigants as sodium hypochlorite or iodine potassium iodide against biofilms developed on dentin. Materials and methods. The total bio-volume of live cells, the ratio of live cells and the substratum coverage of dentin infected intra-orally and treated with the irrigant solutions: MTAD, Qmix, Smear Clear, 7% maleic acid, 2% iodine potassium iodide, 4% peracetic acid, 2.5% and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite was measured by using confocal microscopy and the live/dead technique. Five samples were used for each irrigant solution. Results. Several endodontic irrigants containing antimicrobials as clorhexidine (Qmix), cetrimide (Smear Clear), maleic acid, iodine compounds or antibiotics (MTAD) lacked an effective antibiofilm activity when the dentin was infected intra-orally. The irrigant solutions 4% peracetic acid and 2.5-5.25% sodium hypochlorite decrease significantly the number of live bacteria in biofilms, providing also cleaner dentin surfaces (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Several chelating agents containing antimicrobials could not remove nor kill significantly biofilms developed on intra-orally infected dentin, with the exception of sodium hypochlorite and 4% peracetic acid. Dissolution ability is mandatory for an appropriate eradication of biofilms attached to dentin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the pH, calcium ion release, setting time, and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (WMTA) and white Portland cement (WPC) combined with the following radiopacifying agents: bismuth oxide (BO), calcium tungstate (CT), and zirconium oxide (ZO).
Fifty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH and calcium release (atomic absorption spectrophotometry) at 3, 24, 72, and 168 hours. For evaluation of setting time, each material was analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials guidelines 266/08. The solubility test was performed according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association specification no. 57/2000. Solubility, setting time, and pH values were compared by using analysis of variance and Tukey test, and the values of calcium release were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis and Miller tests. The significance level was set at 5%.
The pH and calcium release were higher at 3 and 24 hours. WPC was the material with the higher values for both properties. WMTA had the greatest solubility among all materials (P < .05). All radiopacifiers increased the setting time of WPC, and WMTA had the shortest setting time among all materials (P < .05).
All materials released calcium ions. Except for WPC/CT at 168 hours, all materials promoted an alkaline pH. On the basis of the obtained results, ZO and CT can be considered as potential radiopacifying agents to be used in combination with Portland cement.
Journal of endodontics 03/2012; 38(3):394-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: From an academic standpoint, the university format, in general, has been nurturing a "paradigm of expertise" and, consequently, the relationship between specialties has declined. The upshot is that recent college dental graduates have adopted a clinical performance focusing on system parts and their specificities, in detriment to a more comprehensive view of the mouth and of the patient as a whole, with his/her vital, emotional and individual attributes. An interaction between the several different areas of human knowledge is needed imminently to decrease the dichotomy in professional behavior, because the demand for professionals and dental patients interested in a more comprehensive approach are increasing day by day. Patients want to know: "What, in fact, is behind the etiological extrinsic and intrinsic factors that maintain neuropathic pain, recurrent thrush, or persistent halitosis," among other questions, "even under the care of a dentist?" or "Why is this disease affecting me?" There are several issues composing the paradigm of salutogenesis: What are the essential aspects that constitute a healthy individual, overlapping the usual investigation: How to destroy, avoid and quell the pathological agents? A proposed approach is based on salutogenesis, which examines such issues. According to this approach, anthroposophical dentistry includes determinant factors, determinants of health, basic research and the development of oral health promotion, thus connecting dental academia with integrative thinking, while also complementing and gathering information that subsidizes basic research with the primordial concepts on laws governing the parameters involved in the vital processes of nature.
Brazilian oral research 01/2012; 26 Suppl 1:57-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiopacity, solubility, flow, film thickness, setting time, and adaptation to the root canal walls of 3 epoxy resin-based sealers: AH Plus, Acroseal, and Adseal.
Physical tests were performed following American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association's requirements. For interfacial adaptation analysis, 30 maxillary canines were shaped by using ProTaper instruments. The specimens were divided into 3 groups (n = 10): group 1, AH Plus; group 2, Acroseal; and group 3, Adseal. The sealers were mixed with rhodamine B dye, and the canals were filled by using the lateral compaction technique. The percentage of gaps and voids area was calculated at 2, 4, and 6 mm levels from the apex. Statistical evaluation was performed by using analysis of variance for physical analysis and nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests for interfacial adaptation (P < .05).
No statistical differences were found for adaptation, percentage of voids, solubility, flow, and film thickness among the sealers (P > .05). AH Plus was significantly more radiopaque (P < .05). For the setting time, there were statistical differences among all the studied sealers (P < .05).
AH Plus, Acroseal, and Adseal presented similar root canal adaptation, solubility, flow, and film thickness. Statistical differences were found for radiopacity and setting time (P < .05).
Journal of endodontics 10/2011; 37(10):1417-21. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the caries risk of asthmatic patients on the basis of mutans streptococci (MS) and lactobacilli levels in saliva samples as well as the index of oral hygiene and dental caries (DMFT index). The study population was composed of 80 asthmatic children, aged 3-15 years, who use specific medication, and 80 matched, healthy control children. The parents were interviewed about oral health-related factors. The World Health Organization criteria were used for dental examinations. The Köhler and Bratthal methodology was used to detect salivary MS levels and dilutions of saliva were done for lactobacilli counting. No differences between asthma and control groups were observed for caries prevalence in children aged 3-6 and 7-10 years, except in severe cases in the younger group. However, higher caries prevalence for permanent dentition was observed in 11- to 15-year-old asthmatic children. An increased dental biofilm was observed in the asthma group, as well as salivary levels of MS. No differences were observed in levels of lactobacilli. No statistical correlations were found between medication, frequency of treatment, method of consumption and caries experience, dental biofilm and salivary levels of MS or lactobacilli. However, there was a correlation between MS levels and treatment duration. The logistic regression revealed that MS level is an important risk factor for increased caries experience. Asthma should be evaluated as a risk factor for caries experience because it can increase the levels of MS and the dental biofilm.
Caries Research 08/2011; 45(4):386-92. · 2.50 Impact Factor