Carmine Alfano

Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Umbria, Italy

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Publications (71)61.99 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the great variety of mammaplasty techniques, outcome assessment remains a challenging issue.
    Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim is focused on the field of action of plastic surgery in the cephalic malformation and on description of the surgical indications and techniques for their correction.
    Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/2014; 85:166-170. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Poland syndrome is a constellation of rare congenital anomalies of the chest wall, with or without alterations to the ipsilateral superior extremity. Actually Foucras' classification is commonly used to choose the most appropriate surgical treatment, but often only a radiological classification proves unsatisfactory in order to achieve the best aesthetic result.
    Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/2014; 85:237-43. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this paper was to report our experience using VarioscopeÒM5 in hypospadia surgical correction. To suggest the use of microsurgical principles that can result in the successful repair of hypospadias with a few complications. Methods:Forty-three patients (age 12-16 months), affected by hypospadia, underwent longitudinal dorsal preputial island flap (Scuderi's technique) surgical procedure. All the procedures were performed with Varioscope®M5. This new device is a head-mounted miniaturized microscope which combines a microsurgical microscope illumination and magnification with the freedom of loupes. Results: In 39 (91.1%) of the patients the postoperative course was uneventful. One patient (2.3%) developed urethral fistula and a second intervention was necessary to correct it. He was affected by fourth degree hypospadia. In 3 patients (6.6%) we observed a mild stenosis. Urethral strictures were dilated during multiple sessions, by weekly introduction of catheters of progressively increasing caliber. At 3 months after surgery all urethral strictures had been solved by non surgical treatment, thus decreasing complication rate of the surgical procedure from 8.9% to 2.3%. Evaluation of flow rate was repeated at 3 weeks, 6 and 12 months. The aesthetic outcome was evaluated by the parents on a VAS scale. Results were judged optimal (8-9 out of 10). Conclusion: In order to achieve a better aesthetic and functional outcome and to reduce complications we deem a perfect flap dissection and anastomosis necessary. A well lighted and magnified surgical field is essential to achieve the best result due to the small anatomical structures involved in the surgical technique we have adopted. The Varioscope®M5 offers essential advantages in this regard.
    Minerva chirurgica 04/2013; 68(2):207-12. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose of this study is to assess different surgical techniques, comparing them in order to remove nasal skin cancer by restoring the anatomy and the function of the respiratory system without neglecting the aesthetic result. A total of 107 patients were enrolled in the study between January 2006 and December 2012. We compared the results obtained using 23 front-glabellar flaps, 30 bilobed flaps, 27 nose-cheek flaps, 15 sliding flaps, 12 frontal island flaps. We obtained the oncological radicality with good aesthetic results. There were no infections and no sensory (numbness and tenderness) and motor abnormalities of the facial nerve. None of the used techniques has lead to scarring ectropion or to alteration of the nasal filter. The best nasal reconstruction mostly depends on skin cancer location and on the amount of tissue to be removed to definitely eradicate the neoplastic lesion; during the planning of a nasal reconstruction we also must assess adjacent tissue characteristics, the presence of fixed structures and the donor skin area (color, thickness, pils, etc) . Using these parameters we have chosen for the ala the nose-cheek flap, for the dorsum the front-glabellar flap, the bilobed flap and the sliding flap (lateral region) and for the tip both the frontal island flap and the bilobed flap. Cancer of the face, Flap local, Nose reconstruction.
    Annali italiani di chirurgia. 04/2013; 84.
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    ABSTRACT: Our interest continues in discovering phytocomplexes from medicinal plants with phototoxic activity against human melanoma cells; thus the aim of the present study was to assess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and phototoxic activity of Hypericum perforatum L. subsp. perforatum, and relate these properties to the plant's chemical composition. Components of H. perforatum subsp. perforatum were extracted by hydroalcoholic solution and chemical profiles of preparations (HyTE-3) performed by HPTLC. Linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH tests were used to assess antioxidant activity, while MTT assay allowed evaluation of anti-proliferative activity with respect to A375 human melanoma cells after irradiation with UVA dose, 1.8 J/cm(2) . Inhibition of nitric oxide production of macrophages was also investigated. HyTE-3 indicated better antioxidant activity with β-carotene bleaching test in comparison to DPPH assay (IC50 = 0.89 μg/ml); significant phototoxicity in A375 cells at 78 μg/ml concentration resulted in cell destruction of 50%. HyTE-3 caused significant dose-related inhibition of nitric oxide production in murine monocytic macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 with IC50 value of 342 μg/ml. The H. perforatum subsp. perforatum-derived product was able to suppress proliferation of human malignant melanoma A375 cells; extract together with UVA irradiation enhanced phototoxicity. This biological activity of antioxidant effects was combined with inhibition of nitric oxide production.
    Cell Proliferation 04/2013; 46(2):193-202. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Association of multiple vascular malformations of the face is a rare condition. An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with a venous malformation as the draining vein is also a rarity. We report a case of extracranial mixed vascular malformations that deformed the normal architecture of the lower face. Removal of the AVM was followed by stability of the jaw and tongue malformation, indicating the AVM used the venous malformation as its draining vein. This approach spared the patient severe cosmetic and functional sequelae.
    Il Giornale di chirurgia 01/2013; 34(1-2):32-4.
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    ABSTRACT: The preservation of the sensitivity of the nipple-areola complex after reduction mammoplasty is an important goal of the modern surgery. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the differences in the recovery of sensitivity after reduction mammoplasty using different techniques. Using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament the sensitivity was evaluated in 64 patients undergone to a bilateral reduction mammoplasty: 36 were treated with inferior pedicle technique and 28 with a superior pedicle techniques. The evaluation of the sensitivity was performed in nine points: the nipple, the four quadrants of the areola and the 4 quadrants of the skin around the areola both in the preoperative and at 3 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. The major alterations were found in the sensitivity of the nipple: the major deficiencies were seen in women treated with a superior pedicle techniques. Minor differences were found about the sensitivity of the areola and periareolar skin. The techniques which provide the preparation of a glandular flap with superior pedicle have an increased risk of altering the innervation of the nipple-areola complex. The preparation of a glandular flap with inferior pedicle allows the restoration of the pre-operative sensitivity in 6-12 months. Breast sensitivity, Reduction mammoplasty, Sensitivity alteration.
    Annali italiani di chirurgia. 01/2013; 84:385-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Negative-pressure therapy or vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) has been used in clinical applications since the 1940's and has increased in popularity over the past decade. This dressing technique consists of an open cell foam dressing put into the wound cavity, a vacuum pump produces a negative pressure and an adhesive drape. A controlled sub atmospheric pressure from 75 to 150 mmHg is applied. The vacuum-assisted closure has been applied by many clinicians to chronic wounds in humans; however it cannot be used as a replacement for surgical debridement. The initial treatment for every contaminated wound should be the necrosectomy. The VAC therapy has a complementary function and the range of its indications includes pressure sores, stasis ulcers, chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, post traumatic and post operative wounds, infected wounds such as necrotizing fasciitis or sternal wounds, soft-tissue injuries, bone exposed injuries, abdominal open wounds and for securing a skin graft. We describe our experience with the VAC dressing used to manage acute and chronic wounds in a series of 135 patients, with excellent results together with satisfaction of the patients.
    Il Giornale di chirurgia 10/2012; 33(10):358-62.
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    ABSTRACT: To date, Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato (F. carica) has not been studied from a phototoxic point of view. In the present work, aerial components of F. carica from Italy, were examined to assess their antioxidant and phototoxic activity on human melanoma cells. A relationship between antioxidant, phototoxic activities and chemical composition has also been investigated. Coumarin and fatty acid content in F. carica leaves, bark and woody parts were examined and compared by capillary GC and GC/MS. Polyphenolic content was also determined. Linoleic acid peroxidation and DPPH test were used to assess antioxidant activities, and MTT assay was used to evaluate anti-proliferative activity, on C32 human melanoma cells, after irradiation with a UVA dose of 1.08 J/cm(2). Leaves demonstrated the best antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity in comparison to bark and wood. In particular, leaves were shown to possess the highest anti-radical activity and inhibition of peroxidation, with IC(50) values of 64 and 1.48 μg/ml respectively. The leaves had highest anti-proliferative activity with IC(50) value of 3.92 μg/ml. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition between the coumarins, psoralen and bergapten, fatty acids, polyphenols and flavonoid content among plant parts. Data obtained indicate that this type of fig tree may constitute an excellent source of bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, coumarins and fatty acids. This study offers a new perspective in developing others formulations potentially useful in photodynamic therapy for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers.
    Cell Proliferation 04/2012; 45(3):279-85. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers are among the most prevalent cancers in the human population. In the present work latex of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy collected from fruits and leaves was examined to assess its free radical-scavenging activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and its phototoxicity on A375 human melanoma cells. The latex obtained from the fruits of Ficus carica cv. Dottato showed the best antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/ml while the latex obtained from the leaves showed the best antiproliferative activity with an IC50 value of 1.5 μg/ml on the human tumor cell line A375 (melanoma) after irradiation at a specific UVA dose (1.08 J/cm2). Control experiments with UVA light or drugs alone were carried out without significant cytotoxic effects. Polyphenolic content of the samples was also evaluated. This is the first study comparing F. carica latex of leaves and fruits. Plant derived natural products have long been and will continue to be an important source for anticancer drug development.
    Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry 02/2012; 12(8):959-65.
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    ABSTRACT: We describe in this paper our experience with the technique of skin-reducing mastectomy in the treatment of breast cancer. Between October 2005 and April 2010 in our Center 33 patients underwent breast surgery utilizing the skin-reducing mastectomy technique and immediate breast reconstruction with expansor/definitive implant Becker 35 contour profile. Contralateral symmetrization was performed in the same operation. All selected patients satisfied inclusion critera either for nipple-sparing mastectomy or prophylactic mastectomy. We selected patients who had large ptosic breasts: areola-submammary fold >8 cm and jugular-nipple distance >25 cm. After histologic exam to confirm the lack of retroareolar tissue infiltration the nipple was preserved in a superior flap. Twenty-four out of 33 patients (72.7%) did not suffer from complications. In 9 patients (27.3%) we observed early complications. During follow-up we observed in 24 patients (72.7%) Baker I capsular contracture, in 9 patients (27.3%) Baker II capsular contracture. Esthetic results of symmetry, shape and volume were good to optimal. Patients' satisfaction was similar. During the follow up (6-33 months, average 17.7 months) no patient suffered from breast cancer recurrence. The "skin-reducing mastectomy" reduces mutilation and unsightly scar visibility. It gives a pleasant aesthetic outcome without hindering oncological safety.
    Minerva chirurgica 02/2012; 67(1):59-66. · 0.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many methods have been described for the reconstruction of the lower lip, but each has its own advantages and its disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results obtained with the use of different methods in order to choose the most appropriate method, according to the characteristics of the loss of substance. From January 2006 to March 2011 were treated 110 patients with full-thickness loss of substance of the lower lip using various techniques: direct closure in small losses of substance (20 patients), Abbe flap (14 patients), Johanson technique (12 patients), Gillies fan flap (9 patients), Estlander flap (8 patients), Mc Gregor flap (11 patients), Karapandzic flap (18 patients), the nasolabial flap by Von Bruns (10 patients) and Bernard-Burow flap modified by Webster (8 patients). All flaps were vital and there were no cases of necrosis, infection, seromas or hematoma. Among the main complications, there was a delay in wound healing in 11 patients and the development of microstomia, of variable degrees, in 9 patients. The results from the aesthetic point of view were between good and satisfactory. The extension of the loss of substance is the main criterion that should direct the choice of an appropriate surgical technique: for larger defects reconstruction is less than optimal and obtain an adequate sphincter function is the main goal to achieve also with the use of near tissue.
    Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/2012; 83(4):325-30. · 0.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To date, plants belonging to the genus Cachrys have not been amply studied. In the present study, aerial components of Cachrys pungens Jan from Italy, were examined to assess their free radical-scavenging and antioxidant activity, and their phototoxicity on A375 melanoma cells. In view of potential pharmaceutical applications, a relationship between antioxidant, phototoxic activities and polyphenolic composition has also been investigated. Content of sterols, terpenes, fatty acids and coumarins was assessed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and GC. Total phenolic content was also determined. Antioxidant activity of the methanol extract and fractions of C. pungens Jan was assessed using DPPH scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Plant phototoxicity was also investigated in this human tumour cell line (amelanotic melanoma).   Analysis of the chloroform extract was particularly interesting, as it led to identification of many coumarins, of which five were linear and one angular furanocoumarins. Methanol and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited substantial antioxidant activity. Moreover, chloroform extract and isolated coumarin fraction had strong phototoxic activity on UVA-induced A375 cells after irradiation at UVA dose of 1.08 J/cm. Plant-derived natural compounds are an important source for development of cancer-fighting drugs. This study has demonstrated strong phototoxic activity of the coumarin fraction of C. pungens, a plant which, to our knowledge, has never been studied before. This investigation offers a new perspective for developing other formulations potentially useful in photodynamic therapy for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancers as well as melanomas.
    Cell Proliferation 12/2011; 45(1):39-47. · 2.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our study concerns eight patients who have undergone surgery at the Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery of the University of Perugia, for the reconstruction of lower limb using the distally based sural neurocutaneous flap for covering loss of substance of various origin, from October 2007 to November 2009. The aim of our study is to demonstrate the reliability of distally based neurocutaneous sural flap in reconstruction of lower limb following a loss of substance of different nature involving the lower third of the leg. Eight patients were on systemic and local clinical conditions that can not be undergoing surgery with use of free flap. In five patients (62%) the loss of substance had been caused by traffic accident while another patient (12%) had been the victim of an accident at work. Two patients (26%) had suffered from pressure ulcers and were unstable with regard to the vascularisation. We observed no cases of total necrosis of the flap and in all eight patients we showed good healing. Follow up was 2, 4, 6, and 9 months after surgical intervention. Our study has shown that the use of the distally based sural neurocutaneous flap in reconstruction of lower limbs, as a salvage procedure, is still a valid alternative procedure to free tissue transfer. Because of reduced operative times, reduced anaesthetic risk, reduced risk of total flap necrosis and reduced costs, it could be considered as a preferable choice in selected cases.
    Il Giornale di chirurgia 03/2011; 32(3):146-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The use of tissue expanders and implants is the simplest option for breast reconstruction following mastectomy. In the 1980s, Hilton Becker introduced a round, inflatable breast implant that could be used as a permanent implant. Since then, the original implant has been improved in both design and architecture. The new Becker device consists of an anatomical implant composed of 35% cohesive silicone gel in the outer chamber and 65% normal saline in the inner chamber. This multicenter study describes our experience with the new anatomical Becker implants in a large series of patients, in both immediate and delayed breast reconstruction. We reviewed the clinical records of 204 patients who underwent a breast reconstruction with an anatomical Becker-type implant in the sub-muscular position between November 2004 and December 2006. Data on the patients' characteristics, indications for reconstruction, operative technique, device size used, complications, and need for further operations were collected and analyzed. A total of 248 breast reconstructions were performed in 204 patients. One hundred forty-three patients (70%) underwent an immediate reconstruction; in the remaining 61 cases (30%), the breast reconstruction was performed later. The patients' age ranged from 26 to 66 years, with a median age of 47.5 years. The implant was placed unilaterally in 160 women (78.5%) and bilaterally in the remaining 44 (21.5%). Complications occurred in 85 cases (34.2%), in both the immediate and delayed reconstruction groups, and were related to wound healing, bleeding, seroma, and problems with the inflatable expanders. Iatrogenic implant rupture was documented in one case (0.4%). Inflation was impossible in 7 cases (2.8%) as a result of valve obstruction (3 cases, 1.2%) and valve displacement (4 cases, 1.6%). Implant malposition was the most troublesome complication; indeed, 34 patients (13.7%) complained of device malposition. Capsular contracture was assessed in all the patients. Significant capsular contracture (Baker grade III and IV) was detected in 6 cases (2.4%) at the follow-up approximately 1 year after surgery. Breast reconstruction with permanent inflatable expanders is widely acknowledged as a useful technique for breast cancer patients undergoing simple or modified radical mastectomy. The use of this device eliminates the need to replace a temporary tissue expander with a breast implant, thus avoiding a second operation. Although we believe autologous tissues afford the best method of reconstruction in the majority of patients, the results of our study show that expander implant placement may yield a reasonable reconstruction.
    Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 02/2011; 35(1):66-72. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lateral canthoplasty is useful to correct lower eyelid malposition, restore eyelid function, and protect the ocular surface. An effective method for fixation of soft tissue in the face, such as the lateral canthus, using the Micro-Mitek Anchor System is presented. We report our experience in 96 patients who underwent lateral canthoplasty by Micro-Mitek Anchor. One hundred twenty-four lateral canthoplasties were performed, including, senile ectropion, tumors, trauma, cicatricial retraction, and lower eyelid malposition after blepharoplasty. The insertion of a bone anchor requires a limited dissection, and the insertion area can be determined accurately. Using the bone anchor to fixate the lateral canthus to the facial skeleton is an effective way to prevent drooping of the canthus due to gravitational forces. Lateral canthoplasty using the Mitek Anchor System has the advantage of being an easy technique with accurate placement of the anchor, reducing operating time.
    Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery: official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 01/2011; 69(6):1745-9. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nipple-areola reconstruction represents an important step for final mammary reconstruction. Many techniques have been described. The drawback is the progressive nipple projection loss with time from 50% to over 70% of the initial projection. In this report, we evaluated the effect of injectable poly-lactic acid (PLLA) to improve projection of reconstructed nipples. We selected 12 patients with a residual nipple projection between 0.1 and 2 mm. The patients were injected locally inside the nipple with 0.5 ml of PLLA (dilution 1:4) every 4 weeks for 4 times. At the study end, patients were satisfied with results. No adverse effects were observed. After one year, an increase of nipple projection ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 mm was obtained with an average increase of 2.3 mm (282%) and this variation was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). The use of injectable PLLA is a simple and effective procedure to improve projection of reconstructed nipple.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 12/2010; 20(3):220-4. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many clinical studies on scar therapy are reported in the literature, but only silicone gel sheeting and corticosteroid injections are supported by accurate prospective controlled studies. This prospective multicenter cross-over phase 2 study tested the effectiveness of a topical cyanoacrylate compared with silicone gel in improving postsurgical scars Patients presenting with symmetric breast scars after augmentation or reduction mammaplasty were enrolled in the study. From the same day as stitch removal, the cyanoacrylate was applied on one side every 3 to 5 days and the silicone gel on the other side twice a day for 3 months. Assessments of patients and external observers using a visual analog scale were recorded at scheduled visits during 1 year, and scars were photographed. Objective evaluations included measurements of scar width, length, and elevation. The statistical significance of objective parameter modifications was analyzed using the Wilcoxon test Positive effects of both tested products were observed during the scar maturation process, and final scars of good quality were achieved without any major adverse effect. The topical cyanoacrylate proved to be more efficacious in preventing scar widening, and this result was statistically significant The tested topical cyanoacrylate had a positive effect on the scar maturation process at least comparable with that of topical silicone gel.
    Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 11/2010; 35(3):373-81. · 1.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Split earlobes can be classified into two groups: congenital and traumatic. The congenital group can be divided into three categories: anterior, posterior with doubled earlobe, and sagittal. The traumatic group can be divided into two categories: complete and incomplete. This report describes and compares two new techniques the authors have developed for split earlobe repair: L-specular plasty and double-curve-specular plasty. Both techniques are simple to perform and deliver a good aesthetic result. A series of 30 patients with split earlobes underwent surgery from September 2007 to September 2009. All the patients enjoyed good health with no organic pathologies. All the patients had surgery under local anesthesia. The L-specular plasty technique was used to treat 15 patients (13 complete splits, 2 incomplete splits). The remaining 15 patients (13 complete splits, 2 incomplete splits) were treated with the double-curve-specular plasty. Skin necrosis was not reported for any of the treated patients. Sutures are completely removed after 2 weeks. The sutures for three patients were removed after 20 days due to slow cicatrization. Repiercing of the ear may occur after 6 months. One patient (8%) experienced a wound infection, treated successfully with systemic antibiotic therapy. Two patients (16%) experienced hypertrophic scars. Only two patients (16%) had recurrence during a mean follow-up period of 13.4 months (range, 6-24 months: September 2007-2009). Both double-curve-specular plasty and L-specular plasty are simple, reliable procedures. They both deliver very good aesthetic results thanks to the curve incisions that follow the natural shape of the earlobe. However, the patients treated with double-curve-specular plasty reported greater satisfaction in the outcome of their surgery.
    Aesthetic Plastic Surgery 10/2010; 35(3):398-401. · 1.26 Impact Factor