[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the "hygiene hypothesis" low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions.Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells.Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Lysozyme, obtained from egg white, is a potential food allergen used in the dairy industry to prevent late blowing of the loaf caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores (Cl. butyricum and Cl. tyrobutyricum) during cheese aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between egg protein allergy in pediatric age and sensitization to egg lysozyme, used for the preparation of Grana Padano cheese. METHODS: The tolerability of Grana Padano cheese has been evaluated in pediatric patients allergic to egg proteins through an oral provocation test with increasing amounts of cheese containing, or not, lysozyme at 12 and 24 months of aging. RESULTS: When lysozyme-sensitized children received 12-months aged and lysozyme-containing cheese, several immediate and late adverse reactions such as itching, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, dermatitis, rhinitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, and angioedema were seen in 5 out of 21 subjects; only 1 out of 21 children showed an adverse reaction after challenge with 24-months-ripened lysozyme-containing cheese. CONCLUSIONS: There is a possible relationship between the severity of allergic reactions and the lysozyme-specific IgE level in blood. In particular vomiting, hypotension, and abdominal pain were present when IgE level was higher than 7 kU/L. A ripening time of 24 months may reduce allergy problems when lysozyme-containing cheese is given to sensitized subjects, probably due to the hydrolysis of antigenic epitopes during aging.
European Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disorder of the skin characterized by impaired immune response. Th9 cells are a sub-population of T cells that release interleukin (IL)-9. No study has investigated the role of IL-9 in AD. This study compared 64 children with AD with 45 healthy children. Serum IL-9 levels were measured and clinical symptoms were assessed. Children with AD had higher serum IL-9 levels than controls (p = 0.01). Clinical severity was significantly related to IL-9 level, indicating that IL-9 might exert a pathogenic role in symptom occurrence in individuals with AD. Children with AD may have higher serum IL-9 levels than healthy children, and IL-9 levels are significantly related to symptom severity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Techniques and instruments for adenoidectomy have considerably changed over the years. With the introduction in Otolaryngology of power-assisted instruments for endoscopic sinus surgery, the classic adenoidectomy performed with curette or adenotome has evolved, with an improved patients' outcome and a better satisfaction of the surgeon. The purpose of this article is to describe and critically analyze the literature reports about different methods of power-assisted adenoidectomy. We performed a literature search (Medline) to identify all available reports. We discussed the surgical techniques and reviewed advantages and disadvantages of each method. The techniques can be schematically divided in non-endoscopic, usually performed with a laryngeal mirror, and endoscopic-assisted. The endoscopic control can be obtained either trans-nasally or trans-orally, as well as the microdebrider can be inserted in the nasal cavity or maneuvered through the oral cavity. Some authors reported the usage of the power-assisted instruments in performing the entire adenoidectomy; while, according with other authors, the microdebrider can be used as a step of the surgical procedure, for a combined adenoidectomy. In conclusion, all the methods seem to be safe and effective, and the personal experience of the surgeon should guide the choice of the instruments. However, we personally consider the endoscopic techniques as the most suitable, and among these the Transoral Endonasal-Controlled Combined Adenoidectomy (TECCA) should be considered as the most ergonomic technique to perform a power-assisted adenoidectomy.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):55-9. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies dont differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):7-12. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis is a respiratory disease caused by an inflammatory process related to IgE mediated reaction versus allergens to which the subject is sensitized. Allergic rhinitis is not an isolated disease because the nasal mucosa inflammation involves paranasal sinuses and lower airways, thus worsening the asthmatic symptoms. Recently, a new classification of allergic rhinitis based on the duration and severity of clinical symptoms has been proposed. This classification takes into consideration both the quality of life and the possible impact of the symptoms on school, work and free-time activities. Children's quality of life is severely compromised by frequent night awakenings, easy fatigue, defects of language and irritability, which can have a negative influence on learning abilities. Allergic rhinitis has a negative impact on the quality of life of the whole family because it can cause interference on social life, and financial costs.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):25-8. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is considered a good noninvasive marker to assess airway inflammation in asthma and allergic rhinitis. In asthma, exhaled NO is very useful to verify adherence to therapy, and to predict upcoming asthma exacerbations. It has been also proposed that adjusting anti-inflammatory drugs guided by the monitoring of exhaled NO, could improve overall asthma control. Other studies showed increased FeNO levels in subjects with allergic rhinitis.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):29-32. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serum neopterin may be considered a diagnostic marker of the degree of activation of the immune system. This preliminary study was performed to measure serum neopterin levels in patients with acute spontaneous urticaria (ASU), chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and atopic dermatitis (AD). In total, 180 patients [96 men, 84 women; mean age 23.1 years; 41 with spontaneous urticaria (13 ASU and 28 CSU), 48 with AD] and 96 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Patients with ASU had the highest neopterin levels, and all three groups of patients (ASU, CSU and AD) had higher values than normal subjects. This preliminary study demonstrates that serum neopterin could be a biomarker of immune activation in patients with SU or AD.
Clinical and Experimental Dermatology 01/2011; 36(1):85-7. · 1.33 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of sesame food allergy continues to increase worldwide. The diagnostic tools to confirm such allergy include skin prick tests, specific IgEs and food challenge. We report the case of a 7-year-old girl who presented recurrent episodes of wheezing and dyspnoea. After performing skin tests and evaluating specific IgEs we hypothesised an allergy to sesame. Our patient actually benefitted from avoiding any contact with sesame and sesame seeds. We confirmed our diagnosis through an inhalation food challenge. Further, by reviewing her personal history, we suspect inhalation was the mechanism in which the girl became sensitised to sesame.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2011; 24(2):517-8. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma are not simply localized disease processes, but part of a systemic inflammatory disease affecting the respiratory tract. There is a correlation between severity of asthma and the clinical and imaging features of rhinosinusitis. It is very important to understand that in patients with chronic sinus disease, both upper and lower airways need to be evaluated and treated and that in patients with moderate or severe asthma, the sinus area should always be investigated, regardless of the presence or not of nasal symptoms. Nasal endoscopy may be considered a feasible and correct approach in asthmatic children to investigate rhinosinusal or adenoid infections, even if they do not present with any clinical sign. Thus, it becomes more and more important to perform a simple, easy and safe nasal endoscopy, in order to have a better chance to treat asthmatic children correctly by identifying a subclinical or an occult rhinosinusal infection.
International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 01/2010; 23(1 Suppl):29-31. · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenoids and/or tonsil inflammation with concomitant obstructive hypertrophy is one of the oldest and most common pediatric problems. Adenoids are a component of Waldeyer's ring and because of their anatomic position can be relevant in the pathogenesis of otitis media when they are inflamed and/or enlarged. Adenoid pads can create mechanical eustachian tube obstruction. Therefore, in some cases, adenoidectomy may have a role in the clinical management of otitis media with effusion. However, eustachian tube dysfunction related to the adenoids may also have an allergy-related functional component. Allergic inflammation has been described for middle ear effusion, and some studies have reported that mast cells increase and allergic mediators release in adenoids as well. Nasal endoscopy has a key role in confirming a diagnosis of adenoid hypertrophy and/or adenoiditis and in detecting an association between adenoid inflammation/infection and otitis media with effusion, especially during infancy and early childhood.
Current Allergy and Asthma Reports 11/2009; 9(6):460-4. · 2.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is evidence that exposure to passive smoke is associated with an increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Indeed, cigarette smoke extracts may interfere with the immune system, even though the precise mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Recurrent respiratory infections may be sustained by a defective immune response. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, in a cohort of children presenting both with recurrent respiratory infections and with a history of exposure to tobacco smoke, these factors were related to a lower local production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) when compared to a similar non-exposed population. The study group included 128 children undergoing adenoidectomy, presenting with more than three respiratory infections per year, independently of exposure to passive smoke at home. The intracellular cytokine profile of lymphocyte subsets in adenoids was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Children exposed to tobacco smoke suffered from a significantly greater number of respiratory infections and had a lower percentage of IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids than non-exposed children, while other T-cell subsets were not affected. The effect of smoke exposure seems to be specific to the IFN-gamma-producing CD8+ cells in adenoids and may contribute to the increased susceptibility to the recurrence of respiratory infections.
Journal of interferon & cytokine research: the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research 07/2009; 29(8):427-32. · 1.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases are frequently observed in children and their recurrence represents a demanding challenge for the paediatrician. It has been hypothesized that a defective immune response may occur in these patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether children presenting with recurrent otitis have a defective interferon (IFN)gamma production by the lymphocytes of peripheral blood and of adenoid tissue, in comparison with children without recurrent otitis. Our study group was represented by 58 children undergoing adenoidectomy for adenoidal hypertrophy. They were subdivided into two groups according to the recurrence of otitis (>or=3 per year) or not (<3 per year). Intracellular cytokine profile of lymphocyte subsets in adenoids and peripheral blood was evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Children with recurrent otitis showed a significantly lower percentage of CD8+-producing IFN gamma cells in adenoids than children with <3 otitis per year (p = 0.003). The reduced capability of the adenoid cells to produce INF-gamma may induce a high susceptibility to the recurrence of otitis in children.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 02/2008; 19(6):523-6. · 3.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies report that some probiotic strains are able to improve allergic diseases. For this reason, we would verify tolerability and efficacy of a industrial preparation of Lactobacillus paracasei (11,688; Proge Farm, Italy) and Lactobacillus salivarius (11,794; Proge Farm, Italy) and value their "in vitro" immunomodulatory effect. We know that, after birth, there's a persistence of Th2 immune response that predisposes to atopy, whereas commensal bacteria are able to induce a Th1 immune response that counter-balances the original response. The "in vivo" study was set up with the recruitment of 20 atopic pediatric patients treated 30 days with 2 doses of Fiorilac (Sharper, Italy), a preparation of the two strains in the proportion of 1:12. Only one patient referred significant improvements of atopic disease, 19 patients reported a good tolerability to the product and 3 patients had a regularization of intestinal function. Immunological tests showed an increase of Th1 immune response as in CD4+ lymphocytes percentage as of IL-12 and IL-10 cytokines production and a significant increase of natural killer (NK) activity, which predisposes to an active response to viral infections and neoplastic transformations.
La Pediatria medica e chirurgica: Medical and surgical pediatrics 01/2008; 30(4):197-203.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) represents a common disorder, associated with consistent morbidity as well as with a large prescription of antibiotics. ARS has a significant impact on clinical practice; it usually presents with respiratory complaints persisting longer than 10 days and showing no signs of improvement. Throughout the evaluation of 256 pediatric patients (152 males and 135 females, aged between 2 and 15 yr), with ARS confirmed by nasal endoscopy, we have been able to provide evidence that age has a significant influence on clinical patterns in children with ARS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Il principale campo di impiego degli antistaminici è rappresentato dalle malattie allergiche; l’efficacia degli antistaminici
è tuttavia variabile nelle diverse patologie in funzione del ruolo più o meno preminente svolto dall’istamina nel determinismo
della sintomatologia clinica.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) usually presents with respiratory symptoms that persist for more than 10 days without improving. The aim of the study was to establish whether age may have any influence on the clinical presentation during childhood.
This prospective study evaluated 287 consecutive children (152 males and 135 females, aged between 2 and 15 years), in whom mild-moderate ARS was clinically suspected. Nasal endoscopy was performed in all of them to confirm the diagnosis.
Endoscopy confirmed clinical diagnosis of ARS in 256 patients (89.2%). The age has shown to have significant influence on the clinical presentation pattern.
This study provides evidence that age significantly influences the clinical presentation in children with mild-moderate ARS.