Alessia Marseglia

Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS, Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy

Are you Alessia Marseglia?

Claim your profile

Publications (42)105.28 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: he evolution in immunological methods used to assess human allergic diseases has led to the identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target. Innovative technologies in molecular biology and immunogenetics contributed to the development of a selective blocking agent, disclosing new therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of allergic asthma. Omalizumab is the most advanced humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody that specifically binds serum-free IgE. Omalizumab also interrupts the allergic cascade by preventing binding of IgE with FcεRI receptors on mast cells, basophils, antigen-presenting cells and other inflammatory cells. Areas covered: This review discusses the discovery strategy and preclinical development of omalizumab. Furthermore, it also provides a clinical overview of the key trials leading to its launch and a detailed analysis of safety and post-marketing data. Expert opinion: The clinical efficacy of omalizumab in allergic asthma has been well documented in clinical trials, involving adults, adolescents and children with moderate-to-severe and severe allergic asthma. To date, omalizumab has also been approved in chronic idiopathic urticaria for patients 12 years and older who remain symptomatic despite high dosages of H1 antihistamines. Omalizumab has also been investigated in many other different patient populations beyond allergic asthma and may yet have an application to other indications. While omalizumab is the only mAb available for treating allergic asthma, the authors anticipate that new mAbs will emerge in the future that overcome omalizumab's current limitations.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 05/2015; · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The evolution in immunological methods used to assess human allergic diseases has led to the identification of immunoglobulin E (IgE) as a diagnostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target. Innovative technologies in molecular biology and immunogenetics contributed to the development of a selective blocking agent, disclosing new therapeutic perspectives in the treatment of allergic asthma. Omalizumab is the most advanced humanized anti-IgE monoclonal antibody that specifically binds serum-free IgE. Omalizumab also interrupts the allergic cascade by preventing binding of IgE with FcεRI receptors on mast cells, basophils, antigen-presenting cells and other inflammatory cells. Areas covered: This review discusses the discovery strategy and preclinical development of omalizumab. Furthermore, it also provides a clinical overview of the key trials leading to its launch and a detailed analysis of safety and post-marketing data. Expert opinion: The clinical efficacy of omalizumab in allergic asthma has been well documented in clinical trials, involving adults, adolescents and children with moderate-to-severe and severe allergic asthma. To date, omalizumab has also been approved in chronic idiopathic urticaria for patients 12 years and older who remain symptomatic despite high dosages of H1 antihistamines. Omalizumab has also been investigated in many other different patient populations beyond allergic asthma and may yet have an application to other indications. While omalizumab is the only mAb available for treating allergic asthma, the authors anticipate that new mAbs will emerge in the future that overcome omalizumab's current limitations.
    Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery 05/2015; DOI:10.1517/17460441.2015.1048220 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Upper and lower airways may be considered as a unique entity, interested by coexisting inflammatory processes that share common etiopathogenic mechanisms. Previous studies have strongly demonstrated a relationship between rhinosinusitis and asthma. This has led to the introduction of the concept of "united airways", which has also been included in the WHO document Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA); this concept has important consequences also on the treatment of these disorders. To better summarize the evident connection between upper and lower airways disease we decided to describe it as a multilayered construction, each level pointing out more deeply the relationship between these entities.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 12/2014; · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that reduces levels of circulating immunoglobulin E (IgE) and expression of IgE high-affinity receptors on mast cells and basophils, interrupting the subsequent allergic inflammatory cascade. Current indications for treatment with omalizumab in pediatric patients are clearly defined and are confined to moderate-to-severe uncontrolled allergic asthma and chronic spon-taneous urticaria (CSU). Any other prescription can only be off label. Data available from clinical trials conducted in children suggest that omalizumab is clinically effective and generally well tolerated. Given its mechanism of action, recent reports have suggested its possible clinical use in other IgE-mediated disorders, such as allergic rhinitis, food allergy, and anaphylaxis. In recent years, several studies have also investigated the possible applications of oma-lizumab in a number of non IgE-mediated diseases. The aim of the present review is to assess all applications of omalizumab as therapy in the pediatric population. The approved indications—allergic asthma and CSU—are reviewed. Moreover, further potential applications of omalizumab are discussed in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated diseases. Key Points Omalizumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets circulating free immunoglobulin E (IgE) and prevents its interaction with the high-affinity IgE receptor (FceRI), thereby interrupting the allergic cascade. Current indications for treatment with omalizumab are confined to moderate-to-severe uncontrolled allergic asthma and chronic spontaneous urticaria. Any other prescription can only be off label. Data available from clinical trials conducted in pediatric populations suggest that omalizumab is generally well tolerated.
    Paediatric Drugs 11/2014; 16(6). DOI:10.1007/s40272-014-0107-z · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis (AR) is one of the most common diseases and represents a global health problem, currently affecting up to 30% of the general population, with a continuously increasing prevalence and significant comorbidities and complications. The aim of this review is to provide an update on AR treatment, with a focus on current therapies defined by AR and its impact on asthma guidelines and with a particular emphasis on new and future therapeutic perspectives.
    Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 09/2014; 10(10). DOI:10.1586/1744666X.2014.955476 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Antibiotic therapy, especially in pediatric patients, is often associated with significant modifications of the gut microflora, which can lead to intestinal dysbiosis and influence intestinal physiology and immune system functionality. Herein we report the results from a double blind controlled clinical trial in 77 pediatric patients affected by recurrent airway infections, receiving antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. A group was treated with an oral probiotic preparation composed of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp.paracasei CRL-431, Bifidobacterium BB-12, Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 and a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) during and after antibiotic therapy for seven days, while the other group received placebo. The study revealed a reduction in the Clostridia population, with a contemporary increase in Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli in fecal samples in the probiotic group and an increase in the Enterobacteria population in the placebo group. Moreover, there was a decreasing trend in secretory IgA production in the probiotic group. Some relevant, but not statistically significant probiotic supplementation effects were identified.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 08/2014; 28(1):117-24. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides, and L-isoleucine (ILE) (pro-AMP cream) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of atopic eczema (AE) of the face. In this trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of pro-AMP cream in the treatment of facial AE in children in comparison with an emollient cream. Methods In a randomized, prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel groups (2:1) controlled trial, 107 children (72 allocated to pro-AMP cream and 35 allocated to control group) with mild-to-moderate chronic AE of the face were enrolled. Treatments were applied twice daily for a 6-week period. Facial Eczema Severity Score (ESS) was evaluated at baseline, week 3, and week 6, by an assessor unaware of treatment allocation. Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score was assessed at week 3 and at week 6. Tolerability was evaluated at week 3 and at week 6 using a 4-point score (from 0: low tolerability to 3: very good tolerability). ResultsAt baseline ESS, mean (SD) was 6.1 (2.4) in the pro-AMP cream group and 5.3 (3) in the control group. In the pro-AMP group, in comparison with baseline, ESS was significantly reduced to 2.5 (-59%) after 3wks and to 1.0 (-84%) at week 6 (p=0.0001). In the control group, ESS was reduced to 3 (-42%) at week 2 and to 2.6 (-50%) at week 6. At week 6, ESS in pro-AMP cream was significantly lower than the control group (1.0 vs. 2.6; p=0.001). Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion Pro-AMP cream has shown to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate chronic lesion of AE of the face. Clinical efficacy was greater in comparison with an emollient cream. (Clinical trial Registry: NTR4084).
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 05/2014; 25(3):271-275. DOI:10.1111/pai.12185 · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundA non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides, and L-isoleucine (ILE) (pro-AMP cream) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of atopic eczema (AE) of the face. In this trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of pro-AMP cream in the treatment of facial AE in children in comparison with an emollient cream. Methods In a randomized, prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel groups (2:1) controlled trial, 107 children (72 allocated to pro-AMP cream and 35 allocated to control group) with mild-to-moderate chronic AE of the face were enrolled. Treatments were applied twice daily for a 6-week period. Facial Eczema Severity Score (ESS) was evaluated at baseline, week 3, and week 6, by an assessor unaware of treatment allocation. Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score was assessed at week 3 and at week 6. Tolerability was evaluated at week 3 and at week 6 using a 4-point score (from 0: low tolerability to 3: very good tolerability). ResultsAt baseline ESS, mean (SD) was 6.1 (2.4) in the pro-AMP cream group and 5.3 (3) in the control group. In the pro-AMP group, in comparison with baseline, ESS was significantly reduced to 2.5 (−59%) after 3 wks and to 1.0 (−84%) at week 6 (p = 0.0001). In the control group, ESS was reduced to 3 (−42%) at week 2 and to 2.6 (−50%) at week 6. At week 6, ESS in pro-AMP cream was significantly lower than the control group (1.0 vs. 2.6; p = 0.001). Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion Pro-AMP cream has shown to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate chronic lesion of AE of the face. Clinical efficacy was greater in comparison with an emollient cream. (Clinical trial Registry: NTR4084).
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Local rhamnosoft, ceramides and L-isoleucine in atopic eczema: a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2014: 00. Abstract Background: A non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory moisturizing cream containing rhamnosoft, ceramides, and L-isoleucine (ILE) (pro-AMP cream) has been recently developed for the specific treatment of atopic eczema (AE) of the face. In this trial, we evaluated the clinical efficacy and tolerability of pro-AMP cream in the treatment of facial AE in children in comparison with an emollient cream. Methods: In a randomized, prospective, assessor-blinded, parallel groups (2:1) controlled trial, 107 children (72 allocated to pro-AMP cream and 35 allocated to control group) with mild-to-moderate chronic AE of the face were enrolled. Treatments were applied twice daily for a 6-week period. Facial Eczema Severity Score (ESS) was evaluated at baseline, week 3, and week 6, by an assessor unaware of treatment allocation. Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score was assessed at week 3 and at week 6. Tolerability was evaluated at week 3 and at week 6 using a 4-point score (from 0: low tolerability to 3: very good tolerability). Results: At baseline ESS, mean (SD) was 6.1 (2.4) in the pro-AMP cream group and 5.3 (3) in the control group. In the pro-AMP group, in comparison with baseline, ESS was significantly reduced to 2.5 (À59%) after 3 wks and to 1.0 (À84%) at week 6 (p = 0.0001). In the control group, ESS was reduced to 3 (À42%) at week 2 and to 2.6 (À50%) at week 6. At week 6, ESS in pro-AMP cream was significantly lower than the control group (1.0 vs. 2.6; p = 0.001). Both products were well tolerated. Conclusion: Pro-AMP cream has shown to be effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate chronic lesion of AE of the face. Clinical efficacy was greater in comparison with an emollient cream. (Clinical trial Registry: NTR4084). Atopic eczema (AE) is a very common disease in pediatric population (1). AE is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in the majority of cases in the first year of life (2). It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous (3). Skin barrier alteration (4) and reduction in innate immune mechanisms (5) (low production of antimicrobial peptides: AMP) are considered the hallmarks of AE. Bacterial colonization, favored by reduction in innate immune mechanisms and skin barrier alteration, is linked with severity and exacerbation of AE (6). The face is frequently affected in AE representing a thera-peutic challenge (7). Face AE limits the use, especially for
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 01/2014; · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The exact prevalence of food allergy in the general population is unknown, but almost 12% of pediatric population refers a suspicion of food allergy. IgE mediated reactions to food are actually the best-characterized types of allergy, and they might be particularly harmful especially in children. According to the “hygiene hypothesis” low or no exposure to exogenous antigens in early life may increase the risk of allergic diseases by both delaying the development of the immune tolerance and limiting the Th2/Th1 switch. The critical role of intestinal microbiota in the development of immune tolerance improved recently the interest on probiotics, prebiotics, antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acid, folate and vitamins, which seem to have positive effects on the immune functions. Probiotics consist in bacteria or yeast, able to re-colonize and restore microflora symbiosis in intestinal tract. One of the most important characteristics of probiotics is their safety for human health. Thanks to their ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells and to modulate and stabilize the composition of gut microflora, probiotics bacteria may play an important role in the regulation of intestinal and systemic immunity. They actually seem capable of restoring the intestinal microbic equilibrium and modulating the activation of immune cells. Several studies have been recently conducted on the role of probiotics in preventing and/or treating allergic disorders, but the results are often quite contradictory, probably because of the heterogeneity of strains, the duration of therapy and the doses administered to patients. Therefore, new studies are needed in order to clarify the functions and the utility of probiotics in food allergies and ion other types of allergic disorders.
    Italian Journal of Pediatrics 07/2013; 39(1):47. DOI:10.1186/1824-7288-39-47 · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To cite this article: Gelardi M, Marchisio P, Caimmi D, Incorvaia C, Albertario G, Bianchini S, Caimmi S, Celani C, Esposito S, Fattizzo M, Fiorella ML, Frati F, Labò E, Leo G, Licari A, Marseglia A, Piacentini E, Pignataro L, Quaranta N, Tenconi R, Torretta S, Marseglia GL, Principi N. Pathophysiology, favoring factors, and associated disorders in otorhinosinusology. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012: 23 (Suppl. 22): 5–16.AbstractThe pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis (RS) is related to inflammation, caused by infections in the acute form of the disease but also by other agents in the chronic forms. Cytology allows to evaluate the defensive components, such as hair cells and muciparous cells, while the presence in the nasal mucosa of eosinophils, mast cells, bacteria and/or fungal hyphae, or spores indicates the nasal pathology. The anatomic and physiologic characteristics of the otorhinosinusal system account for the frequent concomitant involvement of the different components. The pivotal pathophysiologic sites are the ostiomeatal complex, the spheno-ethmoidal recess, and the Eustachian tube. The latter is the link with acute otitis media (AOM), which is the most common disease in infants and children and has major medical, social, and economic effects. Moreover, because of the strict relationship between upper and lower airways, nasal sinus disease may contribute to asthma and sinusitis may be considered as an independent factor associated with frequent severe asthma exacerbations. Concerning the role of allergy, the available data do not permit to attribute a central role to atopy in sinusitis and thus allergy testing should not be a routine procedure, while an allergologic evaluation may be indicated in children with OM, especially when they have concomitant rhinitis.
    Pediatric Allergy and Immunology 08/2012; 23(s22). DOI:10.1111/j.1399-3038.2012.01323.x · 3.86 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Lysozyme, obtained from egg white, is a potential food allergen used in the dairy industry to prevent late blowing of the loaf caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores (Cl. butyricum and Cl. tyrobutyricum) during cheese aging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible correlation between egg protein allergy in pediatric age and sensitization to egg lysozyme, used for the preparation of Grana Padano cheese. METHODS: The tolerability of Grana Padano cheese has been evaluated in pediatric patients allergic to egg proteins through an oral provocation test with increasing amounts of cheese containing, or not, lysozyme at 12 and 24 months of aging. RESULTS: When lysozyme-sensitized children received 12-months aged and lysozyme-containing cheese, several immediate and late adverse reactions such as itching, abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, dermatitis, rhinitis, bronchial asthma, urticaria, and angioedema were seen in 5 out of 21 subjects; only 1 out of 21 children showed an adverse reaction after challenge with 24-months-ripened lysozyme-containing cheese. CONCLUSIONS: There is a possible relationship between the severity of allergic reactions and the lysozyme-specific IgE level in blood. In particular vomiting, hypotension, and abdominal pain were present when IgE level was higher than 7 kU/L. A ripening time of 24 months may reduce allergy problems when lysozyme-containing cheese is given to sensitized subjects, probably due to the hydrolysis of antigenic epitopes during aging.
    European Journal of Nutrition 06/2012; DOI:10.1007/s00394-012-0394-5 · 3.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT:   Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory disorder of the skin characterized by impaired immune response. Th9 cells are a sub-population of T cells that release interleukin (IL)-9. No study has investigated the role of IL-9 in AD. This study compared 64 children with AD with 45 healthy children. Serum IL-9 levels were measured and clinical symptoms were assessed. Children with AD had higher serum IL-9 levels than controls (p = 0.01). Clinical severity was significantly related to IL-9 level, indicating that IL-9 might exert a pathogenic role in symptom occurrence in individuals with AD. Children with AD may have higher serum IL-9 levels than healthy children, and IL-9 levels are significantly related to symptom severity.
    Pediatric Dermatology 05/2012; 30(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1470.2012.01766.x · 1.52 Impact Factor
  • Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; 26(1):125-129. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the nasal cavity and the paranasal sinuses. It is a relatively common disease, occurring in 1-4 % of the general population, but it is rarely described in the pediatric population. Most of the published series include children presenting with other underlying systemic diseases, mainly cystic fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to describe the characteristics of the patients suffering from nasal polyposis, evaluated at the Pediatric Clinic of the University of Pavia (Italy) over the last 17 years. 56 consecutive pediatric patients referring to our Pediatric Department had a diagnosis of nasal poyposis over the last 17 years. All children underwent allergy evaluation, nasal endoscopy, CT scan of the paranasal sinus, and Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The mean age of the present cohort was of 11.8 years and most of the patients were male. 50% of the patients presented with unilateral, polyposis, mostly with a diagnosis of antrochoanal polyp. 4 patients presenting with bilateral polyposis suffered from cystic fibrosis. Main symptoms at diagnosis included nasal obstruction, snoring and rhinorrhea 32% of the patients presented at least a positivity to skin prick test, for major inhalant and food allergens. Nasal polyposis in children could represent an alert sign for other underlying systemic diseases. Nasal endoscopy should therefore be prescribed when a diagnosis is suspected. To properly treat a patient presenting with nasal polyposis, it is necessary to integrate medical and surgical skills through a multidisciplinary approach.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; 26(1 Suppl):S77 - 83. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; 26(1):105-108. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adenoids removed for airway obstruction and-or recurrent infections have been studied to identify a possible mechanism to explain chronicity. In this regard, macrophages may play a relevant pathogenic role as well as neutrophils during bacterial infections and eosinophils in allergic inflammation. Therefore, this study aimed at investigating some mediators as surrogate markers of inflammation in children who had to undergo to adenoidectomy. Globally, 67 children (25 females, 42 males, mean age 4.9 years), affected by persistent obstruction caused by adenoid hypertrophy were consecutively enrolled into the study. Blood samples were collected from patients and controls to determine serum CD163, Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and ECP. There were significant differences between patients and controls for serum CD163 (p less than 0.0001); MPO (p less than 0.0001); serum ECP (p less than 0.0001). This study demonstrated some risk factors for severe AH: apnoea, recurrent respiratory infections, and high serum CD163 levels.
    Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents 01/2012; 26(1 Suppl):S1-7. · 2.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allergic rhinitis is a respiratory disease caused by an inflammatory process related to IgE mediated reaction versus allergens to which the subject is sensitized. Allergic rhinitis is not an isolated disease because the nasal mucosa inflammation involves paranasal sinuses and lower airways, thus worsening the asthmatic symptoms. Recently, a new classification of allergic rhinitis based on the duration and severity of clinical symptoms has been proposed. This classification takes into consideration both the quality of life and the possible impact of the symptoms on school, work and free-time activities. Children's quality of life is severely compromised by frequent night awakenings, easy fatigue, defects of language and irritability, which can have a negative influence on learning abilities. Allergic rhinitis has a negative impact on the quality of life of the whole family because it can cause interference on social life, and financial costs.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):25-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Techniques and instruments for adenoidectomy have considerably changed over the years. With the introduction in Otolaryngology of power-assisted instruments for endoscopic sinus surgery, the classic adenoidectomy performed with curette or adenotome has evolved, with an improved patients' outcome and a better satisfaction of the surgeon. The purpose of this article is to describe and critically analyze the literature reports about different methods of power-assisted adenoidectomy. We performed a literature search (Medline) to identify all available reports. We discussed the surgical techniques and reviewed advantages and disadvantages of each method. The techniques can be schematically divided in non-endoscopic, usually performed with a laryngeal mirror, and endoscopic-assisted. The endoscopic control can be obtained either trans-nasally or trans-orally, as well as the microdebrider can be inserted in the nasal cavity or maneuvered through the oral cavity. Some authors reported the usage of the power-assisted instruments in performing the entire adenoidectomy; while, according with other authors, the microdebrider can be used as a step of the surgical procedure, for a combined adenoidectomy. In conclusion, all the methods seem to be safe and effective, and the personal experience of the surgeon should guide the choice of the instruments. However, we personally consider the endoscopic techniques as the most suitable, and among these the Transoral Endonasal-Controlled Combined Adenoidectomy (TECCA) should be considered as the most ergonomic technique to perform a power-assisted adenoidectomy.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):55-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The nose plays a primary role within the airways, working as a filter and air-conditioner, together with other important functions. Thus, it is not surprising that nasal diseases are associated with several other comorbidities, including both upper and lower airways, such as bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and asthma. Several studies have investigated the relationship existing between the upper and the lower airways and new insights are rising. Nevertheless, some uncertainties still remain, mainly because nasal disorders are quite heterogeneous, overlapping (i.e. rhinitis-rhinosinusitis-sinusitis, acute or chronic, allergic or non-allergic) and difficult to diagnose, so that, frequently, many studies don’t differentiate between the various conditions. For this reason, the purpose of this review is to systematically analyze present epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical data on the relationship between nasal diseases and asthma, splitting up three main conditions: allergic rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis.
    International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology 10/2011; 24(4 Suppl):7-12. · 2.51 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

180 Citations
105.28 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Policlinico San Matteo Pavia Fondazione IRCCS
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Pavia
      • Department of Diagnostic, Paediatric, Clinical and Surgical Science
      Ticinum, Lombardy, Italy
    • University of Catania
      Catania, Sicily, Italy
  • 2011
    • Azienda Ospedaliera Ospedale Maggiore di Crema
      Crema, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2006
    • Ospedale di San Raffaele Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy