[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Existing prediction models for mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have not yet been validated in primary care, which is where the majority of patients receive care.
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to validate the ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) index as a predictor of 2-year mortality in 2 general practice-based COPD cohorts.
METHODS: Six hundred and forty-six patients with COPD with GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages I-IV were enrolled by their general practitioners and followed for 2 years. The ADO regression equation was used to predict a 2-year risk of all-cause mortality in each patient and this risk was compared with the observed 2-year mortality. Discrimination and calibration were assessed as well as the strength of association between the 15-point ADO score and the observed 2-year all-cause mortality.
RESULTS: Fifty-two (8.1%) patients died during the 2-year follow-up period. Discrimination with the ADO index was excellent with an area under the curve of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-0.84]. Overall, the predicted and observed risks matched well and visual inspection revealed no important differences between them across 10 risk classes (p = 0.68). The odds ratio for death per point increase according to the ADO index was 1.50 (95% CI 1.31-1.71).
CONCLUSIONS: The ADO index showed excellent prediction properties in an out-of-population validation carried out in COPD patients from primary care settings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is conflicting evidence about resting carbon dioxide levels in asthmatic individuals. We wanted to determine if transcutaneously measured carbon dioxide levels prior and during bronchial provocation testing differ according to asthma status reflecting dysfunctional breathing.
We investigated active firefighters and policemen by means of a validated questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, spirometry, bronchial challenge testing with methacholine (MCT) and measurement of transcutaneous blood carbon dioxide partial pressure (PtcCO(2)) at rest prior performing spirometry, one minute and five minutes after termination of MCT. A respiratory physician blinded to the PtcCO(2) results assigned a diagnosis of asthma after reviewing the available study data and the files of the workers medical screening program.
The study sample consisted of 128 male and 10 female individuals. Fifteen individuals (11%) had physician-diagnosed asthma. There was no clinically important difference in median PtcCO(2) at rest, one and five minutes after recovery from MCT in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (35.6 vs 35.7 mmHg, p = 0.466; 34.7 vs 33.4 mmHg, p = 0.245 and 37.4 vs 36.4 mmHg, p = 0.732). The median drop in PtcCO(2) during MCT and the increase after MCT was lower in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics (0.1 vs 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.014 and 1.9 vs 2.9 mmHg, p = 0.025).
PtcCO(2) levels at rest prior and during recovery after MCT do not differ in individuals with or without physician diagnosed asthma. The fall and subsequent increase in PtcCO(2) levels are higher in non-asthmatics than in asthmatics and seems to be related with increased number of respiratory maneuvers during MCT.
PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e32464. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0032464 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recent identification of sweet taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract has important implications in the control of food intake and glucose homeostasis. Lactisole can inhibit the sweet taste receptor T1R2/T1R3. The objective was to use lactisole as a probe to investigate the physiological role of T1R2/T1R3 by assessing the effect of T1R2/T1R3 blockade on GLP-1, PYY, and CCK release in response to 1) intragastric administration of nutrients or 2) intraduodenal perfusion of nutrients. The study was performed as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study that included 35 healthy subjects. In part I, subjects received intragastrically 75 g of glucose in 300 ml of water or 500 ml of a mixed liquid meal with or without lactisole. In part II, subjects received an intraduodenal perfusion of glucose (29.3 g glucose/100 ml; rate: 2.5 ml/min for 180 min) or a mixed liquid meal (same rate) with or without lactisole. The results were that 1) lactisole induced a significant reduction in GLP-1 and PYY but not CCK secretion in both the intragastric and the intraduodenal glucose-stimulated parts (P ≤ 0.05), 2) comparison of the inhibitory effect of lactisole showed a significantly greater suppression of the hormone response in the intragastric part (P = 0.023), and 3) lactisole had no effect on liquid meal-stimulated parameters. We conclude that T1R2/T1R3 is involved in glucose-dependent secretion of satiation peptides. However, the results of the liquid meal-stimulated parts show that the receptor alone is not responsible for peptide secretion.