ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a disease associated with several changes in the central nervous system, including oxidative stress and abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission, and the astrocytes play an essential role in these alterations. In vitro studies of astroglial function have been performed using cultures of primary astrocytes or C6 glioma cells. Herein, we investigated glutamate uptake, glutamine synthetase and S100B secretion in C6 glioma cells cultured in a high-glucose environment, as well as some parameters of oxidative stress and damage. C6 glioma cells, cultured in 12 mM glucose medium, exhibited signals of oxidative and nitrosative stress similar to those found in diabetes mellitus and other models of diabetic disease (decrease in glutathione, elevated NO, DNA damage). Interestingly, we found an increase in glutamate uptake and S100B secretion, and a decrease in glutamine synthetase, which might be linked to the altered glutamatergic communication in diabetes mellitus. Moreover, glutamate uptake in C6 glioma cells, like primary astrocytes, was stimulated by extracellular S100B. Aminoguanidine partially prevented the glial alterations induced by the 12 mM glucose medium. Together, these data emphasize the relevance of astroglia in diabetes mellitus, as well as the importance of glial parameters in the evaluation of diabetic disease progression and treatment.
Neurochemical Research 02/2012; 37(7):1399-408. · 2.24 Impact Factor