[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Artemisinin-naphthoquine (ART-NQ) is a fixed-dose coformulated antimalarial therapy recommended as a single-dose treatment
and marketed in Papua New Guinea among other tropical countries. We conducted a tolerability, safety, and efficacy study of
ART-NQ for Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 12 years with uncomplicated malaria, comparing single-dose ART-NQ (15 and
6 mg/kg of body weight) given with water (group 1; n = 15), single-dose ART-NQ (22 and 9 mg/kg) given with milk (group 2; n = 17), or two daily doses of 22 and 9 mg/kg given with water (group 3; n = 16). Of the 48 children (45 with Plasmodium falciparum malaria, 2 with Plasmodium vivax malaria, and 1 with mixed-species malaria), 2 in group 2 did not attend all follow-up assessments. All regimens were well
tolerated, with no serious adverse events. There were no clinically significant changes in pulse, blood pressure, rate-corrected
electrocardiographic QT, routine biochemistry/hematology, or hearing after treatment. Fever clearance was prompt. Mean 50%
parasite clearance times were 4, 4, and 5 h for groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. One group 1 patient had PCR-confirmed P. falciparum recrudescence at day 23; four had PCR-confirmed P. falciparum reinfections on day 28 or 42; and three had P. vivax infections detected on day 42. The only recurrent parasitemia in groups 2 and 3 occurred in a group 2 child who developed
a P. vivax infection on day 42. Day 14 gametocyte positivity levels were 20%, 27%, and 9% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The lower
single ART-NQ dose was associated with relatively frequent recurrence of parasitemia, but the prolonged gametocytemia in all
three groups has implications for the transmission of malaria.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria control is difficult where there is intense year-round transmission of multiple plasmodium species, such as in Papua New Guinea.
Between April 2005 and July 2007, we conducted an open-label, randomized, parallel-group study of conventional chloroquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and artemether-lumefantrine in children in Papua New Guinea 0.5 to 5 years of age who had falciparum or vivax malaria. The primary end point was the rate of adequate clinical and parasitologic response at day 42 after the start of treatment with regard to Plasmodium falciparum, after correction for reinfections identified through polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) genotyping of polymorphic loci in parasite DNA. Secondary end points included the rate of adequate clinical and parasitologic response at day 42 with regard to P. vivax without correction through PCR genotyping.
Of 2802 febrile children screened, 482 with falciparum malaria and 195 with vivax malaria were included. The highest rate of adequate clinical and parasitologic response for P. falciparum was in the artemether-lumefantrine group (95.2%), as compared with 81.5% in the chloroquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group (P=0.003), 85.4% in the artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine group (P=0.02), and 88.0% in the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (P=0.06). The rate of adequate clinical and parasitologic response for P. vivax in the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine group (69.4%) was more than twice that in each of the other three treatment groups. The in vitro chloroquine and piperaquine levels that inhibited growth of local P. falciparum isolates by 50% correlated significantly (P<0.001). Rash occurred more often with artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than with chloroquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P=0.004 for both comparisons).
The most effective regimens were artemether-lumefantrine against P. falciparum and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine against P. vivax. The relatively high rate of treatment failure with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine against P. falciparum may reflect cross-resistance between chloroquine and piperaquine. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12605000550606.)
New England Journal of Medicine 01/2009; 359(24):2545-57. DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa0804915 · 55.87 Impact Factor