Caitlin E Carter

Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, California, United States

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Publications (6)23.69 Total impact

  • Caitlin E Carter · Joachim H Ix
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2014; 9(12). DOI:10.2215/CJN.10121014 · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, an association that is stronger than that between spot urine albumin on its own and CVD. Urine creatinine excretion is correlated with muscle mass, and low muscle mass also is associated with CVD. Whether low urine creatinine concentration in the denominator of the ACR contributes to the association of ACR with CVD is uncertain. Prospective cohort study. 6,770 community-living individuals without CVD. Spot urine albumin concentration, the reciprocal of the urine creatinine concentration (1/UCr), and ACR. Incident CVD events. During a mean of 7.1 years of follow-up, 281 CVD events occurred. Geometric mean values for spot urine creatinine concentration, urine albumin concentration, and ACR were 95 ± 2 (SD) mg/dL, 0.7 ± 3.7 mg/dL, and 7.0 ± 3.1 mg/g. Urine creatinine concentration was lower in older, female, and low-weight individuals. Adjusted HRs per 2-fold higher increment in each urinary measure with CVD events were similar (1/UCr: 1.07 [95% CI, 0.94-1.22]; urine albumin concentration: 1.08 [95% CI, 1.01-1.14]; and ACR: 1.11 [95% CI, 1.04-1.18]). ACR ≥10 mg/g was associated more strongly with CVD events in individuals with low weight (HR for lowest vs highest tertile: 4.34 vs 1.97; P for interaction = 0.006). Low weight also modified the association of urine albumin concentration with CVD (P for interaction = 0.06), but 1/UCr did not (P for interaction = 0.9). We lacked 24-hour urine data. Although ACR is associated more strongly with CVD events in persons with low body weight, this association is not driven by differences in spot urine creatinine concentration. Overall, the associations of ACR with CVD events appear to be driven primarily by urine albumin concentration and less by urine creatinine concentration.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2013; 62(4). DOI:10.1053/j.ajkd.2013.05.010 · 5.90 Impact Factor
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    Caitlin E Carter · Nadine M Benador
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic plasma exchange is an extracorporeal treatment modality that removes systemic circulating pathologic factors or replaces absent plasma components and plays a role in many nephrologic conditions. It presents a number of technical challenges in the pediatric population but has become an increasingly common practice in pediatric nephrology over the past several decades. While prospective evidence is often lacking, our increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis underlying many pediatric renal diseases provides sound reasoning for the use of plasma exchange in treating these conditions. This review will present the currently accepted indications for plasma exchange in children, the technical aspects of the procedure and its potential complications.
    Pediatric Nephrology 06/2013; 29(1). DOI:10.1007/s00467-013-2479-7 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Nephrology 11/2012; 28(10). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2349-8 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Nephrology 11/2012; 28(10). DOI:10.1007/s00467-012-2352-0 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (spot-ACR), urine creatinine corrects for tonicity but also reflects muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that the spot-ACR would be higher in women, lower-weight persons, and older individuals, independent of timed urine albumin excretion (24hr-UAE), and accordingly, that spot-ACR would be more strongly associated with CVD events than 24hr-UAE in these subgroups. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & METHODS: 2627 PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease) participants with 24hr-UAE <30 mg/d were followed for CVD events for 11 years. Cox regression evaluated associations of spot-ACR and 24hr-UAE with CVD events by sex, weight, and age. Female sex (26%), lower weight (2% per 5 kg), and older age (4% per 5 years) were associated with higher spot-ACR independent of 24hr-UAE (P<0.001). Spot urine albumin concentration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.26 per ln-SD higher) and 1/spot urine creatinine concentration (HR, 1.16 per ln-SD higher) were associated with CVD events. Spot-ACR was more strongly associated with CVD events than either component of the ratio (HR, 1.41 per ln-SD higher). Associations of spot-ACR ≥10 mg/g versus less (HR, 2.33) and 24hr-UAE ≥10 mg/d versus less (HR, 2.09) with CVD events were similar, and there were no significant differences across subgroups (P for interactions >0.06). In community-living individuals with 24hr-UAE <30 mg/d, spot-ACR is higher in women, older persons, and lower-weight persons, independent of 24hr-UAE. Low spot urine creatinine is associated with CVD risk, but high urine albumin is a stronger determinant of the association of spot-ACR with CVD than is low urine creatinine.
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 03/2012; 7(4):595-603. DOI:10.2215/CJN.09300911 · 4.61 Impact Factor