[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:Molecules that are highly expressed in tumour endothelial cells (TECs) may be candidates for specifically targeting TECs. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found that the lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene was upregulated in TECs compared with its expression in normal endothelial cells (NECs). LOX is an enzyme that enhances invasion and metastasis of tumour cells. However, there are no reports on the function of LOX in isolated TECs.Methods:TECs and NECs were isolated to investigate LOX function in TECs. LOX inhibition of in vivo tumour growth was also assessed using β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN).Results:LOX expression was higher in TECs than in NECs. LOX knockdown inhibited cell migration and tube formation by TECs, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (Tyr 397). Immunostaining showed high LOX expression in human tumour vessels in vivo. Tumour angiogenesis and micrometastasis were inhibited by BAPN in an in vivo tumour model.Conclusion:LOX may be a TEC marker and a possible therapeutic target for novel antiangiogenic therapy.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 17 September 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.535 www.bjcancer.com.
British Journal of Cancer 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fluorescent and luminescent tools are commonly used to study the dynamics of cancer progression and metastases in real‑time. Fluorophores have become essential tools to study biological events. However, few can sustain fluorescence long enough during long-term studies. In the present study, we focused on a series of new amphiphilic fluorophores known as POLARIC™, which emit strong fluorescence in lipid bilayers and can be readily modified using the Suzuki-Miyaura cross‑coupling reaction. Appropriate chemical modifications of substituent groups can improve target-site specificity, reduce cytotoxicity and prolong emission. Therefore, in contrast to conventional fluorescent probes, these fluorophores show promise for long-term monitoring of biological processes. In the present study, we conducted long-term observations of tumor growth and metastasis using a POLARIC derivative as a novel fluorescent probe. For this purpose, we studied the metastatic melanoma cell line A375-SM, which proliferates at a high rate. We compared the characteristics of the POLARIC probe with the commercially available fluorescent dye PKH26 and fluorescent protein mRFP1. A375-SM cells were labeled with these fluorescent probes and orthotopically implanted into nude mice. The fluorescence emitted by POLARIC was detected more than five weeks after implantation without causing detectable harmful effects on tumor growth. By contrast, fluorescence of cells labeled with PKH26 could not be detected at this same time. Furthermore, POLARIC-, but not PKH26-labeled cells, were also detected in lung metastases. These results indicate that labeling cells with POLARIC fluorophores can significantly extend the time course of in vivo studies on tumor cell growth.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate postoperative renal function and risk factors for the loss of renal function in patients who had undergone radical cystectomy.
A retrospective single institutional study evaluated 70 patients, including 54 men and 16 women who underwent radical cystectomy. The median follow-up period was 34.5 months (range, 12 to 228 months). In this cohort, four types of urinary diversions were studied, including ileal neobladder (n = 24), ileocecal neobladder (n = 12), ileal conduit (n = 25), and cutaneous ureterostomy (n = 9). Postoperative changes in renal function were reviewed, and the estimated serum creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. The variables analyzed were age, a prior history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, pre-operative renal function, type of urinary diversion, the postoperative occurrence of acute pyelonephritis, and the presence of chemotherapy.
The mean eGFR was 74.6 (range, 15.2 to 155.1) mL/min/1.73 m² before surgery and 63.6 (range, 8.7 to 111.5) mL/min/1.73 m² at the last follow-up. The 10-year renal deterioration-free interval was 63.8%. Multivariate analysis showed that a postoperative episode of acute pyelonephritis [Odds Ratio (OR), 3.21; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.14 to 9.02; P = .03] and the presence of chemotherapy (OR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.33 to 8.01; P = .01) were significant adverse factors.
Twenty-four (34.2%) patients demonstrated reduced renal function during the follow-up period. Postoperative episodes of acute pyelonephritis and the presence of chemotherapy were found to be significant adverse factors.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) has become the standard treatment for small renal cell carcinoma because of its comparable oncological outcome and superior patient survival compared to total nephrectomy. However, the precise chronological course of recovery from initial kidney damage and the factors responsible for it remain unknown.
Seventy-one patients who underwent NSS were enrolled. To elucidate the chronological changes in kidney function that occur after NSS, the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated at different two points, the early (7 days after surgery) and late time points (more than 12 months after surgery), and compared with the preoperative eGFR. Perioperative factors were applied to a multivariate regression model to investigate the factors that most affect patient recovery from nephron damage.
eGFR was decreased at the early time point but had partially recovered at the late time point. Male gender, ischemic time, and tumor size were found to be significant predictors of the initial drop in eGFR. The only significant factor that prevented later functional recovery was the presence of DM.
Several perioperative factors significantly influence early kidney damage; however, the presence of DM is the only factor affecting the risk of long-term chronic kidney damage.
[Hokkaido igaku zasshi] The Hokkaido journal of medical science 01/2013; 88(1):15-20.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for tumor progression and metastasis; therefore, tumor blood vessels are potential therapeutic targets in anticancer therapy. We previously reported that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) exhibit different phenotypes compared with normal endothelial cells (NECs), and microarray analyses of mouse TECs and NECs have shown that several genes are upregulated in TECs compared with NECs. Among these genes, the expression levels of prostaglandin F receptor (PTGFR) mRNA, which encodes the prostaglandin F receptor (FP), were higher in TECs than in NECs. It has been reported that FP and its ligand, prostaglandin F(2α) , are involved in tumor angiogenesis. However, there have been no reports of the expression of PTGFR in the tumor vessels of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Thus, we isolated human TECs (hTECs) from RCCs. The expression levels of PTGFR mRNA were also upregulated in hTECs. In addition, immunostaining showed that the PTGFR was expressed in human tumor blood vessels in vivo. These findings suggested that PTGFR is a novel TEC marker and that it may be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy for RCC.
Pathology International 01/2013; 63(1):37-44. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor angiogenesis is necessary for progression and metastasis of solid tumor. Tumor blood vessels are morphologically different from their normal counterparts. In this study, we isolated tumor endothelial cells (TECs) and revealed their abnormalities. We have compared the gene expression profiles of TECs and normal endothelial cells (NECs) by microarray analysis and found that several genes were upregulated in TECs. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR7 mRNA was higher in TECs than in NECs. However, information regarding the expression of CXCR7 in the tumor vessels of renal cell carcinoma is limited. CXCR7 and its ligand CXCL12 have been implicated in tumor cell survival. In this study, the expression of CXCR7 in the tumor vessels of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was investigated. Real-time PCR revealed higher expression level of CXCR7 in cultured TECs than in cultured NECs. Furthermore, similar to mouse TECs, immunostaining revealed strong expression of CXCR7 in vivo in human tumor vessels. These findings suggest that CXCR7 is a novel TEC marker and a target for antiangiogenic therapy for RCC.
Pathology International 05/2012; 62(5):309-17. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Molecules highly expressed in tumor endothelial cells (TEC) are important for specific targeting of these cells. Previously, using DNA microarray analysis, we found that the prostacyclin receptor (IP receptor) gene was upregulated in TEC compared with normal endothelial cells (NEC). Although prostacyclin is implicated in re-endothelialization and angiogenesis, its role remains largely unknown in TEC. Moreover, the effect of the IP receptor on TEC has not been reported. In the present study we investigated the function of the IP receptor in TEC. The TEC were isolated from two types of human tumor xenografts in nude mice, while NEC were isolated from normal counterparts. Prostacyclin secretion levels in TEC were significantly higher than those in NEC, as shown using ELISA. Real-time RT-PCR showed that the IP receptor was upregulated in TEC compared with NEC. Furthermore, migration and tube formation of TEC were suppressed by the IP receptor antagonist RO1138452. Immunohistostaining showed that the IP receptor was specifically expressed in blood vessels of renal cell carcinoma specimens, but not in glomerular vessels of normal renal tissue. These findings suggest that the IP receptor is a TEC-specific marker and might be a useful therapeutic target.
Cancer Science 03/2012; 103(6):1038-44. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important concept in tumor angiogenesis is that tumor endothelial cells (TECs) are genetically normal and homogeneous. However, we previously reported that TECs differ from normal ECs. Whether the characteristics of TECs derived from different tumors differ remains unknown. To elucidate this, in this study, we isolated two types of TECs from high-metastatic (HM) and low-metastatic (LM) tumors and compared their characteristics. HM tumor-derived TECs (HM-TECs) showed higher proliferative activity and invasive activity than LM tumor-derived TECs (LM-TECs). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of pro-angiogenic genes, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2, VEGF, and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, were higher in HM-TECs than in LM-TECs. The tumor blood vessels themselves and the surrounding area in HM tumors were exposed to hypoxia. Furthermore, HM-TECs showed higher mRNA expression levels of the stemness-related gene stem cell antigen and the mesenchymal marker CD90 compared with LM-TECs. HM-TECs were spheroid, with a smoother surface and higher circularity in the stem cell spheroid assay. HM-TECs differentiated into osteogenic cells, expressing activated alkaline phosphatase in an osteogenic medium at a higher rate than either LM-TECs or normal ECs. Furthermore, HM-TECs contained more aneuploid cells than LM-TECs. These results indicate that TECs from HM tumors have a more pro-angiogenic phenotype than those from LM tumors.
American Journal Of Pathology 03/2012; 180(3):1294-307. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We isolated tumour endothelial cells (TECs), demonstrated their abnormalities, compared gene expression profiles of TECs and normal endothelial cells (NECs) by microarray analysis and identified several genes upregulated in TECs. We focused on the gene encoding biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan. No report is available on biglycan expression or function in TECs.
The NEC and TEC were isolated. We investigated the biglycan expression and function in TECs. Western blotting analysis of biglycan was performed on sera from cancer patients.
Biglycan expression levels were higher in TECs than in NECs. Biglycan knockdown inhibited cell migration and caused morphological changes in TECs. Furthermore, immunostaining revealed strong biglycan expression in vivo in human tumour vessels, as in mouse TECs. Biglycan was detected in the sera of cancer patients but was hardly detected in those of healthy volunteers.
These findings suggested that biglycan is a novel TEC marker and a target for anti-angiogenic therapy.
British Journal of Cancer 02/2012; 106(6):1214-23. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing evidence indicates that tumor endothelial cells (TEC) differ from normal endothelial cells (NEC). Our previous reports also showed that TEC were different from NEC. For example, TEC have chromosomal abnormality and proangiogenic properties such as high motility and proliferative activity. However, the mechanism by which TEC acquire a specific character remains unclear. To investigate this mechanism, we focused on tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV). Recent studies have shown that TMV contain numerous types of bioactive molecules and affect normal stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment. However, most of the functional mechanisms of TMV remain unclear.
Here we showed that TMV isolated from tumor cells were taken up by NEC through endocytosis. In addition, we found that TMV promoted random motility and tube formation through the activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway in NEC. Moreover, the effects induced by TMV were inhibited by the endocytosis inhibitor dynasore. Our results indicate that TMV could confer proangiogenic properties to NEC partly via endocytosis.
We for the first time showed that endocytosis of TMV contributes to tumor angiogenesis. These findings offer new insights into cancer therapies and the crosstalk between tumor and endothelial cells mediated by TMV in the tumor microenvironment.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e34045. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of lymph node dissection (LND) in the treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper urinary tract (UUT).
[Study-1] A retrospective multi-institutional study evaluated 293 patients undergoing predominantly nephroureterectomy for UC of the UUT. Of 293 patients, 267 patients had pure UC and 26 demonstrated other histological components. Regarding the pathological node status, 130 patients had pN0 disease, 141 patients had pNx disease and 22 patients had pN+ disease. The sites of initial recurrence and time to first recurrence were reviewed. The sites of recurrence were classified as locoregional or distant recurrence. The relationship between node status and future recurrence was analyzed. [Study-2] Fifty-one patients treated by nephroureterectomy at Hokkaido University Hospital were included. All had LND and all LNs were negative on hematoxylin and eosin staining. We re-evaluated the presence of micrometastasis in LND specimens by anti-cytokeratin immunohistochemistory.
[Study-1] Of 293 patients, 76 developed disease relapse. Regional lymph node recurrence was the most common site (34 patients). On multivariate analyses that adjusted for the effect of tumor stage and tumor grade, pNx (skipping LND) was an adverse factor not only for locoregional recurrence, but also for distant relapse. [Study-2] Immunohistochemistry identified micrometastases in 7 (14%) of 51 patients. Regarding survival, 5 of these 7 patients with micrometastases were alive at last follow-up.
On relapse analysis, skipping LND was an adverse factor not only for locoregional recurrence, but also for distant relapse. Immunohistochemistry detected micrometastases in about 14% of patients previously diagnosed as pN0. These findings further support a potential therapeutic benefit of LND by eliminating micrometastases.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 11/2010; 36(11):1085-91. · 2.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We determined whether diagnostic ureteroscopy for upper urinary tract cancer affects intravesical recurrence and cancer specific mortality.
In a retrospective, multi-institutional study we evaluated 208 patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract cancer who had no perioperative systemic chemotherapy, history of invasive bladder cancer, distant metastasis or incomplete followup data. Of these 208 patients 55 who composed the study group underwent diagnostic ureteroscopy before nephroureterectomy while 153 serving as controls did not. We analyzed intravesical recurrence and cancer specific survival using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log rank test used to assess significance.
There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics or upper urinary tract cancer stage and grade while followup, and the proportion of multiple tumors and lymphovascular invasion positive tumors were significantly greater in controls. The 2-year bladder recurrence-free survival rate was 60.0% in the study group and 58.7% in controls. There was no significant difference in the intravesical recurrence rate between the 2 groups (log rank test p = 0.972). Estimated Kaplan-Meier cancer specific survival was 88.3% and 78.1% at 5 years in the study and control groups, respectively (log rank test p = 0.0687).
Diagnostic ureteroscopy did not affect intravesical recurrence or cancer specific survival in patients with upper urinary tract cancer undergoing nephroureterectomy.
The Journal of urology 09/2010; 184(3):883-7. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japan A 56-yr-old Japanese male with a history of diabetic nephropathy underwent a HLA 5/6 mismatch and ABO-compatible living-related kidney transplantation (donor: his 49-yr-old wife). A pre-transplant standard NIH complement-dependent cytotoxicity cross-match (Xm) test, a flow-cytometric T-cell Xm, and a FlowPRA test were totally negative. Inductionimmunosuppressive protocol consisted of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, methylprednisolone, and basiliximab (BAS). The patient's post-operative course was almost uneventful, and the graft was functioning well (sCr 1.1 mg/dL). He developed general fatigue, and his sCr was elevated to 2.2 mg/dL 792 d after transplant. A graft biopsy showed acute T-cell mediated rejection Banff grade IB (i3, t3, g0, v0, ptc0, C4d staining negative). The conventional anti-rejection therapy could not improve his graft function; therefore, we added BAS to eliminate activated graft-infiltrating T-cells. He responded to the rescue therapy, and the improvement in graft function was confirmed by a subsequent graft biopsy. He enjoyed his health without any opportunistic infections.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the pathological features and clinical course of intravesical recurrence after nephroureterectomy (NU) for upper urinary tract (UUT) cancer.
Among 325 patients undergoing NU with bladder cuff excision for UUT cancer, in this retrospective multi-institutional study we evaluated 113 who developed bladder tumour after NU. Excluding patients with (i) perioperative systemic chemotherapy or radiotherapy for UUT cancer; (ii) a history of previous or synchronous bladder cancer at the time of NU; (iii) distant metastasis at the time of NU; (iv) a follow-up of <1 year after the initial bladder cancer recurrence; or (v) missing data, 74 patients were included in this study. We compared the pathology between UUT cancer and the first bladder cancer recurrence, using Fisher's exact test. Further intravesical recurrence and bladder cancer progression was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with the log-rank test used to assess significance. A Cox proportional hazard model was used for multivariate analysis.
The grade of the first bladder cancer recurrence strongly correlated with that of the UUT tumour (P < 0.001) and the carcinoma in situ (CIS) lesion with the first bladder cancer recurrence correlated with high grade (grade 3) UUT tumour (P < 0.001). In all, 56 of the assessable 70 patients further developed intravesical recurrence at a median interval of 7 months after the first bladder cancer recurrence. There were no clinicopathological factors that predicted the second recurrence. Progression occurred in 14 patients, at a median interval of 25 months. A CIS lesion with the first bladder cancer recurrence was a risk factor for progression on multivariate analysis.
A large proportion of the patients who developed bladder tumour after NU had further intravesical recurrence, which indicated its refractory nature. Especially when a CIS lesion is detected in the initial intravesical recurrence, a careful follow-up is mandatory to detect bladder cancer progression.
BJU International 09/2009; 105(8):1102-6. · 3.05 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic role of different clinico-pathological parameters in node-positive patients treated by radical cystectomy.
A retrospective multi-institutional study of 435 patients who underwent radical cystectomy between 1990 and 2005 was carried out. Of them, pathological lymph node (LN) metastases were found in 83 patients. Sixty of these 83 patients, whose clinical information and follow-up data were available, were included in the analysis. Twenty-five patients had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas 35 had not. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the impact of the following clinico-pathological parameters on patient survival: number of resected LNs, number of positive LNs, LN density (defined as the ratio of the number of positive LNs divided by the total number of resected LNs) and adjuvant chemotherapy.
Median follow-up for surviving patients was 41 months (range 4-138) after surgery. The median survival time for all patients was 22 months (95% confidence interval, 15-42 months). At multivariate analysis, LN density of 25% or less, adjuvant chemotherapy and pure urothelial carcinoma were independently significant predictors of survival.
Lymph node density predicts survival in patients with node-positive bladder cancer.
International Journal of Urology 01/2009; 16(3):274-8; discussion 278. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the role of lymph-node (LN) dissection in patients undergoing surgery for upper urinary tract (UUT) cancer.
We reviewed the clinicopathological data from 312 patients with UUT cancer treated predominantly by nephroureterectomy. The relationship between clinical characteristics and cancer-specific survival (CSS) was analysed, focusing on node-related information.
In all, 166 patients had LN dissection while 146 did not (pNx). Multivariate analysis showed that T stage, grade and pN status were significant variables for CSS. The difference in survival between the pN0 and pNx groups remained significant in a multivariate analysis. The median (range) number of LNs removed was 6 (1-65). There was no significant difference in CSS between the 72 patients with fewer than six LNs removed and the 78 with six or more removed.
LN dissection is important for postoperative stratification of patients with UUT cancer because node-positive disease was one of the variables with a significant adverse effect on survival. In addition, the significant difference in survival between the pN0 and pNx groups might indicate a therapeutic benefit of LN dissection, although removing more LNs did not uniformly increase the probability of CSS.
BJU International 05/2008; 102(5):576-80. · 3.05 Impact Factor