[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Raynaud's phenomenon is characterized by intense vasospasm of the digital arteries on cold exposure or emotional stress, leading to well-defined colour changes in the skin of the fingers. Behind the clinical manifestations, there is an imbalance between vasoconstrictor and vasodilator factors. It may be primary or secondary to an underlying condition, including autoimmune diseases. Physical examination, nail fold capillaroscopy and immunological tests can differentiate primary forms from secondary ones. The treatment is based on preventing exposure to cold, emotional stress and the administration of certain drugs and, if attacks are present, vasodilators, prostaglandin analogues and anticoagulants may be given. This review focuses on the characteristics of Raynaud's phenomenon and the available diagnostic and therapeutic options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is known that hemorheological parameters show gender differences that might be altered by gonadectomy (GoE). Since micro-rheological parameters (erythrocyte deformability and aggregation) sensitively change during and after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), the question arises whether the hemorheological effects of I/R may show gender differences and further changes might be expected when GoE and I/R are additive. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: Control males and females, I/R males and females with 1-hour hind limb ischemia, GoE + I//R males and females when 3 months after bilateral gonadectomy the I/R was induced. Before and just after ischemia, and on the 1st-3rd-5th-7th postoperative days blood samples were taken (lateral tail vein, 0.3-0.5 mL) for analyzing hematological parameters, erythrocyte's deformability (slit-flow ektacytometer) and aggregation (light-transmission aggregometer). Leukocyte and platelet counts raised markedly in gonadectomized animals during the investigated days. Hemorheological changes of I/R showed gender differences: significant impairment of erythrocyte deformability was found on the 1st-3rd postoperative days, expressed mostly in females. In gonadectomized females the postischemic deformability values were impaired. Erythrocyte aggregation index significantly raised by the 1st postoperative day, dominantly in males. It is suggested that gonadectomy may act as an additional rheological 'risk factor' related to blood micro-rheological parameters in ischemia-reperfusion.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2012; 50(3):197-211. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Clinical studied showed leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) changes in various conditions that modulate the immune system. There is a lack of LAR data in animal experiments concerning splenic function after splenectomy or spleen preserving operations, thus we aimed to include LAR in our ongoing inbred canine study on following-up spleen salvaging surgical techniques. Blood samples of healthy beagle dogs served as normal control. The experimental groups were: "SH"-sham operated, "SE"-splenectomy, "R1/3" and "R2/3"-one-third/two-third of the spleen resected, "AU-5" and "AU-10"-autotransplantation with 5/10 spleen chips using Furka's techniques. On the 12th postoperative month Rabigen-Mono+Vanguard-Plus-5 vaccines were given to the animals, which provoked immune response. Blood samples were taken before and one week after the vaccination. LAR was calculated by Bogar's method. In normal control group LAR was 3.11, leukocyte count was 12.04 G/l. In the experimental groups LAR varied between 2.4-7.3 before vaccination. After vaccination LAR increased in all groups. Although "SE" group expressed the largest changes (LAR = 16.56; 135%), the leukocyte count increased only by 12%. In "AU" groups the increase was smaller, while "R" groups showed slight changes only. LAR can be applicable in animal experiments and may serve as a supplementary parameter in hemorheological investigations of hyposplenic-asplenic states.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 01/2010; 45(2-4):289-94. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Blood samples used in hemorheological studies may be stored for a period of time, the effects of storage have yet to be fully explored. This study evaluated the effects of storage temperature (i.e., 4 degrees C or 25 degrees C) and duration on RBC deformability and aggregation for blood from healthy controls and from septic patients. Our results indicate that for normal blood, RBC deformability over 0.3-50 Pa is stable up to six hours regardless of storage temperature; at eight hours there were no significant differences in EI but SS1/2 calculated via a Lineweaver-Burk method indicated impaired deformability. Storage temperature affected the stable period for RBC aggregation: the safe time was shorter at 25 degrees C whereas at 4 degrees C aggregation was stable up to 12 hours. Interestingly, blood samples from septic patients were less affected by storage. Blood can thus be stored at 25 degrees C for up to six hours for deformability studies, but should be limited to four hours for RBC aggregation; storage at 4 degrees C may prolong the storage period up to 12 hours for aggregation but not deformability measurements. Therefore, the time period between sampling and measurement should be as short as possible and reported together with results.
Clinical hemorheology and microcirculation 02/2009; 41(4):269-78. · 3.40 Impact Factor