Ki-Duk Song

Pusan National University, Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea

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Publications (24)99.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There are five native chicken lines in Korea, which are mainly classified by plumage colors (black, white, red, yellow, gray). These five lines are very important genetic resources in the Korean poultry industry. Based on a next generation sequencing technology, whole genome sequence and reference assemblies were performed using Gallus_gallus_4.0 (NCBI) with whole genome sequences from these lines to identify common and novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We obtained 36,660,731,136 ± 1,257,159,120 bp of raw sequence and average 26.6-fold of 25-29 billion reference assembly sequences representing 97.288 % coverage. Also, 4,006,068 ± 97,534 SNPs were observed from 29 autosomes and the Z chromosome and, of these, 752,309 SNPs are the common SNPs across lines. Among the identified SNPs, the number of novel- and known-location assigned SNPs was 1,047,951 ± 14,956 and 2,948,648 ± 81,414, respectively. The number of unassigned known SNPs was 1,181 ± 150 and unassigned novel SNPs was 8,238 ± 1,019. Synonymous SNPs, non-synonymous SNPs, and SNPs having character changes were 26,266 ± 1,456, 11,467 ± 604, 8,180 ± 458, respectively. Overall, 443,048 ± 26,389 SNPs in each bird were identified by comparing with dbSNP in NCBI. The presently obtained genome sequence and SNP information in Korean native chickens have wide applications for further genome studies such as genetic diversity studies to detect causative mutations for economic and disease related traits.
    Molecular Biology Reports 10/2014; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Copy number variations (CNVs), important genetic factors for study of human diseases, may have as large of an effect on phenotype as do single nucleotide polymorphisms. Indeed, it is widely accepted that CNVs are associated with differential disease susceptibility. However, the relationships between CNVs and gene expression have not been characterized in the horse. In this study, we investigated the effects of copy number deletion in the blood and muscle transcriptomes of Thoroughbred racing horses. We identified a total of 1,246 CNVs of deletion polymorphisms using DNA re-sequencing data from 18 Thoroughbred racing horses. To discover the tendencies between CNV status and gene expression levels, we extracted CNVs of four Thoroughbred racing horses of which RNA sequencing was available. We found that 252 pairs of CNVs and genes were associated in the four horse samples. We did not observe a clear and consistent relationship between the deletion status of CNVs and gene expression levels before and after exercise in blood and muscle. However, we found some pairs of CNVs and associated genes that indicated relationships with gene expression levels: a positive relationship with genes responsible for membrane structure or cytoskeleton and a negative relationship with genes involved in disease. This study will lead to conceptual advances in understanding the relationship between CNVs and global gene expression in the horse.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 09/2014; 27(9):1345-54. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription factor ThPOK promotes CD4(+) T cell differentiation in the thymus. Here, using a mouse strain that allows post-thymic gene deletion, we show that ThPOK maintains CD4(+) T lineage integrity and couples effector differentiation to environmental cues after antigenic stimulation. ThPOK preserved the integrity and amplitude of effector responses and was required for proper differentiation of types 1 and 2 helper T cells in vivo by restraining the expression and function of Runx3, a nuclear factor crucial for cytotoxic T cell differentiation. The transcription factor LRF acts redundantly with ThPOK to prevent the transdifferentiation of mature CD4(+) T cells into CD8(+) T cells. As such, the ThPOK-LRF transcriptional module was essential for CD4(+) T cell integrity and responses.
    Nature Immunology 08/2014; · 24.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng, has been extensively used in traditional oriental medicine and is a modern pharmaceutical reagent for the prevention of various human diseases, including cancer. Ginsenosides are the major active component of ginseng and exhibit immunomodulatory effects. However, the mechanism and function underlying such effects have not been fully elucidated, especially in human monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs). Methods We investigated the immunomodulatory effect of ginsenosides from the root of Panax ginseng on CD14+ monocytes purified from human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and differentiation into DCs that affect CD4+ T cell activity. Results The results showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 increased in monocytes upon treatment with ginsenoside fractions through phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (pERK1/2) and JNK, but not p38 MAP kinase. Interestingly, TNF-α production and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK decreased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-sensitized monocytes upon treatment with ginsenoside fractions. Next, we confirmed that DCs derived from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of ginsenoside fractions (Gin-DCs) contained decreased levels of the co-stimulatory molecules, CD80 and CD86. In the presence of ginsenoside fractions, expression of these co-stimulatory molecules decreased in LPS-treated DCs compared with LPS-treated DCs in the absence of ginsenoside fractions. Furthermore, Gin-DCs treated with LPS could not induce proliferation and IFN-γ production of CD4+ T cells at co-culture of Gin-DCs with CD4+ T cells. Conclusion These results suggest that ginsenoside fractions from the ginseng root suppress cytokine production and maturation of DCs treated with LPS, resulting in the down-regulation of CD4+ T cells.
    Journal of ginseng research 08/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10(-14) in population J, 3.17×10(-9) in population B, and 1.03×10(-12) in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 07/2014; 27(7):926-31. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a re-emerging disease as a result of increased restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of NE are unclear. Small RNA transcriptome analysis was performed using spleen and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from 2 inbred chicken lines selected for resistance or susceptibility to Marek's disease (MD) in an experimentally induced model of avian NE to investigate whether microRNA (miRNA) control the expression of genes associated with host response to pathogen challenge. Unique miRNA represented only 0.02 to 0.04% of the total number of sequences obtained, of which 544 were unambiguously identified. Hierarchical clustering revealed that most of miRNA in IEL were highly expressed in the MD-susceptible line 7.2 compared with MD-resistant line 6.3. Reduced CXCL14 gene expression was correlated with differential expression of several unique miRNA in MD-resistant chickens, whereas TGFβR2 gene expression was correlated with altered gga-miR-216 miRNA levels in MD-susceptible animals. In conclusion, miRNA profiling and deep sequencing of small RNA in experimental models of infectious diseases may be useful for further understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and for providing insights into genetic markers of disease resistance.
    Poultry Science 06/2014; 93(6):1383-95. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Philippine native pigs possess a unique phenotype. However, studies on their genetic structure and diversity have not been performed yet. We performed genetic studies using Philippine native pigs (PHs) and three commercial pig breeds with 10 porcine microsatellite markers. Results showed that the mean expected heterozygosity (H Exp) was 0.5115 (±0.0648) while the observed heterozygosity (H Obs) was 0.5505 (±0.027). In PHs, H Exp and H Obs were 0.290 (±0.0667) and 0.403 (±0.0331),respectively with the lowest mean number of alleles per locus among the breeds (3.30 ±1.34). Mean Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) of each marker ranged from 0.26 (S0225) to 0.61 (S0005) and the mean number of alleles was 4.2. In PHs, mean PIC was 0.247 (0 – 0.502), and it was the lowest compared to other breeds suggesting the limited genetic diversity of PHs. Microsatellite (MS) marker analysis showed that most of these markers except SW24 might be useful for genetic diversity study and conservation of PHs. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that PHs were clustered with Berkshire in the same clade, suggesting that these breeds might share evolutionary path. INTRODUCTION The Philippines is rich in biological and genetic resources or biodiversity. The majority of plant and animal species in the country are unique and cannot be found anywhere else (Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016). Domesticated pigs, cattle, carabaos, goats, chickens and ducks primarily represent the animal production sector of Philippine agriculture. Domesticated farm animals are utilized primarily for meat, eggs, milk and draft power. The introduction of domestic pigs in the Philippines is believed to happen at least 4,000 years ago along with migrating farming communities (Piper 2009). Three domestic
    06/2014; 143:87-93.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the molecular characteristics of the horse vascular endothelial growth factor alpha gene (VEGFα) by constructing a phylogenetic tree, and to investigate gene expression profiles in tissues and blood leukocytes after exercise for development of suitable biomarkers. Using published amino acid sequences of other vertebrate species (human, chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, pig, chicken and dog), we constructed a phylogenetic tree which showed that equine VEGFα belonged to the same clade of the pig VEGFα. Analysis for synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous substitution ratios (Ka) revealed that the horse VEGFα underwent positive selection. RNA was extracted from blood samples before and after exercise and different tissue samples of three horses. Expression analyses using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed ubiquitous expression of VEGFα mRNA in skeletal muscle, kidney, thyroid, lung, appendix, colon, spinal cord, and heart tissues. Analysis of differential expression of VEGFα gene in blood leukocytes after exercise indicated a unimodal pattern. These results will be useful in developing biomarkers that can predict the recovery capacity of racing horses.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 05/2014; 27(5):743-8. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans is an environmentally beneficial and medically important arthropod species. Although this species is increasingly applied as a reliable source of new antimicrobial peptides, the transcriptome of this species is a prerequisite for more rational selection of antimicrobial peptides. In this report, we isolated total RNA from the whole body of adult centipedes, S. subspinipes mutilans, that were nonimmunized and immunized against Escherichia coli, and we generated a total of 77,063 pooled contigs and singletons using high-throughput sequencing. To screen putative antimicrobial peptides, in silico analyses of the S. subspinipes mutilans transcriptome were performed based on the physicochemical evidence of length, charge, isoelectric point, and in vitro and in vivo aggregation scores together with the existence of continuous antimicrobial peptide stretches. Moreover, we excluded some transcripts that showed similarity with both previously known antimicrobial peptides and the human proteome, had a proteolytic cleavage site, and had downregulated expression compared with the nonimmunized sample. As a result, we selected 17 transcripts and tested their antimicrobial activity with a radial diffusion assay. Among them, ten synthetic peptides experimentally showed antimicrobial activity against microbes and no toxicity to mouse erythrocytes. Our results provide not only a useful set of antimicrobial peptide candidates and an efficient strategy for novel antimicrobial peptide development but also the transcriptome data of a big centipede as a valuable resource.
    Functional & Integrative Genomics 03/2014; · 3.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell-mediated and acute vascular rejections remain to be one of the primary hurdles to achieve successful xenotransplantation. Fas ligand is known to be an important molecule for the formation of ‘immune-privileged’ condition and dendritic cells treated with dexamethasone (Dex-DCs) acting like tolerogenic DCs (tDCs) which are known to protect transplanted cells and organs from unwanted immune responses. The present study investigated the possibility that porcine fibroblasts expressing human Fas ligand (PhF) together with human Dex-DCs could induce prolonged survival of porcine fibroblasts in vitro. PhF was collected from an ear of human Fas ligand transgenic porcine and cell-line was established by MGEM Inc. PhF labeled with CFSE co-cultured with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) were examined induction of tolerance and the cell death when co-cultured with Dex-DCs for 3 days. PhF induced the apoptosis in hPBMCs, especially CD4+ T cells. Dex-DCs showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction on the expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC class I/II, and the secretion of IL-12p70, TNF-α and IL-10, but increase of latency-associated peptide (LAP). Survival of PhF was dramatically higher than WT and in case of the presence of Dex-DCs increased survival of hPBMCs when compared to the other DCs (DCs, LPS-treated DCs and LPS/Dex-treated DCs) in vitro. Survival of PhF did not change by co-culture with Dex-DCs due to apoptotic cell death of Dex-DCs. Dex-DCs reduced the death of porcine fibroblasts and, at the same time, PhF induced the apoptosis from hPBMCs, but it was not synergistic.
    Transplant Immunology 03/2014; · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    Ki-Duk Song, Woon-Kyu Lee
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    ABSTRACT: Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets.
    Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 02/2014; 27(2):278-83. · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Korean Native Chicken (KNC) is an important endemic biological resource in Korea. While numerous studies have been conducted exploring this breed, none have used next-generation sequencing to identify its specific genomic features. We sequenced five strains of KNC and identified 10.9 million SNVs and 1.3 million InDels. Through the analysis, we found that the highly variable region common to all 5 strains had genes like PCHD15, CISD1, PIK3C2A, and NUCB2 that might be related to the phenotypic traits of the chicken such as auditory sense, growth rate and egg traits. In addition, we assembled unaligned reads that could not be mapped to the reference genome. By assembling the unaligned reads, we were able to present genomic sequences characteristic to the KNC. Based on this, we also identified genes related to the olfactory receptors and antigen that are common to all 5 strains. Finally, through the reconstructed mitochondrial genome sequences, we performed phylogenomic analysis and elucidated the maternal origin of the artificially restored KNC. Our results revealed that the KNC has multiple maternal origins which are in agreement with Korea's history of chicken breed imports. The results presented here provide a valuable basis for future research on genomic features of KNC and further understanding of KNC's origin.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(12):e114763. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, substantial interest has been generated in using electrospun biomimetic nanofibers of hybrids, particularly organic/inorganic, to engineer different tissues. The present work, for the first time, introduced a unique natural and synthetic hybrid micronanofiber wound dressing, composed of virgin olive oil/copper oxide nanocrystals and polyurethane (PU), developed via facile electrospinning. The as-spun organic/inorganic hybrid micronanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The interaction of cells with scaffold was studied by culturing NIH 3T3 fibroblasts on an as-spun hybrid micronanofibrous mat, and viability, proliferation, and growth were assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay results and SEM observation showed that the hybrid micronanofibrous scaffold was noncytotoxic to fibroblast cell culture and was found to benefit cell attachment and proliferation. Hence our results suggest the potential utilization of as-spun micronanoscaffolds for tissue engineering. Copper oxide-olive oil/PU wound dressing may exert its positive beneficial effects at every stage during wound-healing progression, and these micronanofibers may serve diverse biomedical applications, such as tissue regeneration, damaged skin treatment, wound healing applications, etc. Conclusively, the fabricated olive oil-copper oxide/PU micronanofibers combine the benefits of virgin olive oil and copper oxide, and therefore hold great promise for biomedical applications in the near future.
    International Journal of Nanomedicine 01/2014; 9:891-898. · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Orientia tsutsugamushi, a gram-negative bacterium, causes severe acute febrile illness in humans. Despite this danger, the route of infection, infectivity and protective mechanisms of the host's immune response to O. tsutsugamushi are unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the most important cell types in bridging the innate and adaptive immune responses. In this study, we observed that O. tsutsugamushi infects and replicates in monocyte-derived DCs (MODCs). During infection and replication, the expression of the cytokines IL-12 and TNF-alpha, as well as the co-stimulatory molecules CD80, CD83, CD86, and CD40 was increased in MODCs. When O. tsutsugamushi-treated MODCs were co-cultured with autologous CD4+ T cells they enhanced production of IFN-gamma, a major Th1 cytokine. Collectively, our results show that O. tsutsugamushi can replicate in MODCs and can simultaneously induce MODC maturation and increase proinflammatory cytokine levels in MODCs that subsequently activate CD4+ T cells.
    Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2013; · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • Journal of dermatological science 05/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy-two pigs at 34.4 kg body weight (BW) were allotted to two treatments with six replicates/treatment and six pigs/pen: the CON (negative control, no added selenium (Se)) and the OS (0.36 mg/kg added selenium from selenium-enriched yeast). Pigs were fed until 130 kg BW. The CON diet contained 0.18 mg/kg indigenous Se whereas the OS diet contained 0.54 mg/kg Se. Blood samples were collected at 130 kg BW and further processed for microarray analysis, prepared with 885 genes related to immune function of pigs. Among those, 28 genes related to improved immune status and innate immunity were up-regulated (P < 0.05) in leukocytes from Se-fed pigs and those include major histocompatibility class I (> 1.66), arginase I (> 1.27), integrin beta-1-subunit (> 1.20), toll like receptor 2 (> 1.12) and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. However, 24 genes including tissue factor (< 4.70), serum amyloid A-2 protein (< 3.11) and p27Kip1 (< 1.42) were down-regulated (P < 0.05) in leukocytes from Se-fed pigs. Expression of four selected genes was validated using quantitative PCR (qPCR) showing significant correlation between mircroarray analysis and qPCR analysis. This study indicates that a long- term dietary supplementation (0.3%) of organic Se improves the expression of genes that are related to enhanced immunity of pigs.
    Animal Science Journal 03/2013; 84(3):238-246. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Surfactant, Pulmonary-Associated Protein A1 (SFTPA1) gene is one of the key regulators for normal respiration, synthesis, secretion and recycling of surfactant phospholipids. Furthermore, it counteracts the inhibitory effects of plasma proteins released during lung injury on surfactant function. For a better understanding of the SFTPA1 gene in horse (Equus caballus), we retrieved SFTPA1 genomic sequences of horse from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and performed molecular analyses to obtain insights on this gene and its expression profile in the tissues of horse. Results of the analysis showed that the protein of the SFTPA1 gene in horse was not modified by using the Ka/Ks ratio (ratio of non-synonymous substitutions per site to that of synonymous substitutions per site) and was highly conserved when analyzed and compared with that of other species. Unlike in humans and mice, the SFTPA1 mRNA in horse was detected in the thyroid gland as well as in the lungs of Thoroughbred and Jeju horses. This study was conducted to obtain insights on the genomic characterization and the role of the SFTPA1 gene in horse, information which may be useful in future studies of its association with respiratory system diseases in horses.
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of an immune-stimulating peptide, WKYMVm, in ulcerative colitis. The administration of WKYMVm to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated mice reversed decreases in body weight, bleeding score and stool score in addition to reversing DSS-induced mucosa destruction and shortened colon. The WKYMVm-induced therapeutic effect against ulcerative colitis was strongly inhibited by a formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 2 antagonist, WRWWWW, indicating the crucial role of FPR2 in this effect. Mechanistically, WKYMVm effectively decreases intestinal permeability by stimulating colon epithelial cell proliferation. WKYMVm also strongly decreases interleukin-23 and transforming growth factor-β production in the colon of DSS-treated mice. We suggest that the potent immune-modulating peptide WKYMVm and its receptor FPR2 may be useful in the development of efficient therapeutic agents against chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases.
    Experimental & molecular medicine. 01/2013; 45:e40.
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    ABSTRACT: Negative selection and regulatory T (T reg) cell development are two thymus-dependent processes necessary for the enforcement of self-tolerance, and both require high-affinity interactions between the T cell receptor (TCR) and self-ligands. However, it remains unclear if they are similarly impacted by alterations in TCR signaling potential. We generated a knock-in allele (6F) of the TCR ζ chain gene encoding a mutant protein lacking signaling capability whose expression is controlled by endogenous ζ regulatory sequences. Although negative selection was defective in 6F/6F mice, leading to the survival of autoreactive T cells, 6F/6F mice did not develop autoimmune disease. We found that 6F/6F mice generated increased numbers of thymus-derived T reg cells. We show that attenuation of TCR signaling potential selectively impacts downstream signaling responses and that this differential effect favors Foxp3 expression and T reg cell lineage commitment. These results identify a potential compensatory pathway for the enforcement of immune tolerance in response to defective negative selection caused by reduced TCR signaling capability.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine 09/2012; 209(10):1781-95. · 13.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes, which has shown an explosive increase in terms of its incidence, is regarded as a serious disease that must be overcome for the sake of human life. Among animal models used for testing of drug efficacy, the mini-pig model has shown a rapid upload due to its many similarities with human, particularly concerning the pharmacokinetics of compounds after subcutaneous administration, the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract, the morphology of the pancreas, and overall metabolic status. Based on these various advantages, we sought to develop an animal model of type II diabetic mellitus using the Micro-pig, which differs from other miniature pigs. We used six male Micro-pigs for induction of a moderate insulin deficient model with nicotinamide (NIA)/streptozotocin (STZ) treatment and three animals for control. For evaluation of incidence of type II diabetes, we measured blood glucose level, and performed oral glucose tolerance test and immunohistochemistry on pancreatic tissue using insulin antibody. Compared to control animals, all animals treated with NIA/STZ showed high levels of glucose and low levels of insulin. In addition, we observed the partially destroyed beta cell population from tissue of the pancreas in treated animals. Based on these results, we report that the Micro-pig model developed in this study can be used for testing of the efficacy of therapeutic agents for treatment of Type 2 diabetic mellitus.
    Laboratory animal research. 09/2012; 28(3):205-8.

Publication Stats

58 Citations
99.01 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Animal Science
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Hankyong National University
      • Genomic Information Center
      Anjŏ, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • North Carolina State University
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011–2014
    • Seoul National University
      • Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
      Maryland, United States