Gail E Peterson

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, United States

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Publications (26)142.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: African Americans with hypertension are at high risk for adverse outcomes from cardiovascular and renal disease. Patients with stage 3 or greater chronic kidney disease have a high prevalence of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. Our goal was to study prospectively the relationships of LV mass and diastolic function with subsequent cardiovascular and renal outcomes in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort study. Of 691 patients enrolled in the cohort, 578 had interpretable echocardiograms and complete relevant clinical data. Exposures were LV hypertrophy and diastolic parameters. Outcomes were cardiovascular events requiring hospitalization or causing death; a renal composite outcome of doubling of serum creatinine or end-stage renal disease (censoring death); and heart failure. We found strong independent relationships between LV hypertrophy and subsequent cardiovascular (hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.27) events, but not renal outcomes. After adjustment for LV mass and clinical variables, lower systolic tissue Doppler velocities and diastolic parameters reflecting a less compliant LV (shorter deceleration time and abnormal E/A ratio) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with future heart failure events. This is the first study to show a strong relationship among LV hypertrophy, diastolic parameters, and adverse cardiac outcomes in African Americans with hypertension and chronic kidney disease. These echocardiographic risk factors may help identify high-risk patients with chronic kidney disease for aggressive therapeutic intervention.
    Hypertension 07/2013; · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although electrocardiographic criteria for diagnosing left ventricular hypertrophy have a low sensitivity in the general population, their test characteristics have not been evaluated in the high-prevalence group of American Americans with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate these test characteristics among African Americans (n = 645) with hypertensive kidney disease as part of the African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension cohort. Electrocardiograms were read by 2 cardiologists at an independent core laboratory using the 2 Sokolow-Lyon criteria and the Cornell criteria. Left ventricular hypertrophy on echocardiography was defined as left ventricular mass index greater than 49.2 and greater than 46.7 g/m(2.7) in men and women, respectively. Sixty-nine percent of the population had left ventricular hypertrophy on echo, whereas 34% had left ventricular hypertrophy by any of the electrocardiographic criteria. Sensitivity by individual electrocardiographic criteria was 16.5% by Sokolow-Lyon-1, 19.3% by Sokolow-Lyon-2, and 24.7% by Cornell criteria, with specificity ranging from 89% to 92%. When using any of the 3 criteria, sensitivity increased to 40.4% with a decrease in specificity to 78.0%. Consistent with findings in a general population, left ventricular hypertrophy by electrocardiography had low sensitivity and high specificity in this cohort of African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease.
    Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (JASH) 02/2012; 6(3):193-200.
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    ABSTRACT: Troponin levels have been correlated with adverse outcomes in multiple disease processes, including congestive heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, sepsis, and, in a few small series, infective endocarditis. We hypothesized that a novel measurement of troponin using a highly sensitive assay would correlate with adverse outcomes when prospectively studied in patients with infective endocarditis. At a single center in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis, 42 patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent testing for cardiac troponin T (cTnT) using both a standard and a highly sensitive precommercial assay. The cTnT levels were associated with the prespecified primary composite outcome of death, central nervous system event, and cardiac abscess. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the composite outcome and the need for cardiac surgery. A receiver operating characteristic curve was derived and used to identify the optimal cutpoint for cTnT using the highly sensitive assay. cTnT was detectable with the highly sensitive assay in 39 (93%) of 42 patients with infective endocarditis and with the standard assay in 25 (56%) of 42 (p <0.05). Of the 42 patients, 15 experienced the composite outcome, 4 died, 9 had a central nervous system event, and 5 had a cardiac abscess. With the hs-cTnT assay, the median cTnT was greater in the patients who experienced the primary outcome (0.12 vs 0.02 ng/ml, p <0.05). According to the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis (area under the curve of 0.74), cTnT levels of ≥0.08 ng/ml produced optimal specificity (78%) for the primary outcome. The patients with a cTnT level of ≥0.08 ng/ml were more likely to experience the primary outcome (odds ratio 7.0, 95% confidence interval 1.7 to 28.6, p <0.01) and a central nervous system event (odds ratio 9.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 24.1, p = 0.02). In conclusion, cTnT is detectable in 93% of patients with infective endocarditis using a novel highly sensitive assay, with higher levels correlating with poor clinical outcomes.
    The American journal of cardiology 05/2011; 108(3):416-20. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Referral bias occurs because of the clustering of patients at tertiary care centers. This may result in the distortion of observed clinical manifestations of rare diseases. This analysis evaluates the effect of referral bias on the epidemiology of infective endocarditis (IE) in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). This is a prospective multicenter cohort study comparing transferred and non-transferred patients with IE. Factors independently associated with transfer status were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. A total of 2,760 patients were included in the analysis, of which 1,164 (42.2%) were transferred from other medical centers. Transferred patients more often underwent surgery for IE (odds ratio [OR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.2). They were also more likely to have complications such as stroke (OR = 1.5; 95% CI 1.3-1.9), heart failure (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.6), and new valvular regurgitation (OR = 1.3; 95% CI 1.1-1.6). The in-hospital mortality rates were similar in both groups. Patients with IE who require surgery and suffer complications are referred to tertiary hospitals more frequently than patients with an uncomplicated course. Hospital transfer has no obvious effect on the in-hospital mortality. Referral bias should be taken into consideration when describing the clinical spectrum of IE.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 10/2010; 29(10):1203-10. · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a marker of poor outcomes in heart failure, acute coronary syndromes, and sepsis. Elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is associated with adverse outcomes in infective endocarditis. It was hypothesized that elevated BNP would be associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis, particularly when combined with elevated cTnI. Consecutively enrolled patients in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS) were evaluated at a single center. The association between elevated BNP and a composite outcome of death, intracardiac abscess, and central nervous system event and the individual components of the composite was determined. Similar analyses were performed in patients who had BNP and cTnI measured. Of 103 patients, 45 had BNP measured for clinical indications. The median BNP level was higher in patients with the composite outcome (1,498 vs 433 pg/ml, p = 0.03) and in those who died (2,150 vs 628 pg/ml, p = 0.04). Elevated BNP was significantly associated with the composite outcome (p <0.01) and intracardiac abscess (p = 0.02). Patients with elevation of BNP and cTnI had a significantly higher probability of the composite outcome (69%) than patients with either BNP or cTnI elevated (29%) or neither BNP nor troponin elevated (0%) (p for trend <0.01). In conclusion, these data demonstrate a significant association between elevated BNP alone and in combination with cTnI for serious outcomes in infective endocarditis and warrant prospective evaluation.
    The American journal of cardiology 10/2010; 106(7):1011-5. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of early surgery on mortality in patients with native valve endocarditis (NVE) is unresolved. This study sought to evaluate valve surgery compared with medical therapy for NVE and to identify characteristics of patients who are most likely to benefit from early surgery. Using a prospective, multinational cohort of patients with definite NVE, the effect of early surgery on in-hospital mortality was assessed by propensity-based matching adjustment for survivor bias and by instrumental variable analysis. Patients were stratified by propensity quintile, paravalvular complications, valve perforation, systemic embolization, stroke, Staphylococcus aureus infection, and congestive heart failure. Of the 1552 patients with NVE, 720 (46%) underwent early surgery and 832 (54%) were treated with medical therapy. Compared with medical therapy, early surgery was associated with a significant reduction in mortality in the overall cohort (12.1% [87/720] versus 20.7% [172/832]) and after propensity-based matching and adjustment for survivor bias (absolute risk reduction [ARR] -5.9%, P<0.001). With a combined instrument, the instrumental-variable-adjusted ARR in mortality associated with early surgery was -11.2% (P<0.001). In subgroup analysis, surgery was found to confer a survival benefit compared with medical therapy among patients with a higher propensity for surgery (ARR -10.9% for quintiles 4 and 5, P=0.002) and those with paravalvular complications (ARR -17.3%, P<0.001), systemic embolization (ARR -12.9%, P=0.002), S aureus NVE (ARR -20.1%, P<0.001), and stroke (ARR -13%, P=0.02) but not those with valve perforation or congestive heart failure. Early surgery for NVE is associated with an in-hospital mortality benefit compared with medical therapy alone.
    Circulation 02/2010; 121(8):1005-13. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Propionibacterium species are occasionally associated with serious systemic infections such as infective endocarditis. In this study, we examined the clinical features, complications and outcome of 15 patients with Propionibacterium endocarditis using the International Collaboration on Endocarditis Merged Database (ICE-MD) and Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS), and compared the results to 28 cases previously reported in the literature. In the ICE database, 11 of 15 patients were male with a mean age of 52 y. Prosthetic valve endocarditis occurred in 13 of 15 cases and 3 patients had a history of congenital heart disease. Clinical findings included valvular vegetations (9 patients), cardiac abscesses (3 patients), congestive heart failure (2 patients), and central nervous system emboli (2 patients). Most patients were treated with β-lactam antibiotics alone or in combination for 4 to 6 weeks. 10 of the 15 patients underwent valve replacement surgery and 2 patients died. Similar findings were noted on review of the literature. The results of this paper suggest that risk factors for Propionibacterium endocarditis include male gender, presence of prosthetic valves and congenital heart disease. The clinical course is characterized by complications such as valvular dehiscence, cardiac abscesses and congestive heart failure. Treatment may require a combination of medical and surgical therapy.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2009; 39(10):840-848. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report an 81-year-old Japanese patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy associated with syncope with the possibility that the latter event evoked the former condition. Initial investigations revealed elevation of cardiac enzymes and electrocardiography changes consistent with acute myocardial infarction. The patient subsequently underwent cardiac catheterization that revealed left ventricular apical ballooning and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction without significant coronary artery lesions. A marked elevation in plasma norepinephrine, as a result of baroreflex unloading associated with profound hypotension or frank baroreflex failure, may well have caused takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
    Heart & lung: the journal of critical care 01/2009; 38(2):163-6. · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Despite growing evidence supporting the use of surgery for native valve endocarditis (NVE), rates of early surgery remain erratic and controversial. Methods: A prospective, multicenter cohort of 1612 patients with definite NVE was used to identify variables associated with early surgery. Propensity scores, based on the likelihood of undergoing surgery, were used to match patients treated with early surgery and those treated medically. Results: In the unadjusted analysis, early surgery was associated with reduced mortality during the initial hospitalization (21% vs. 13%, p<0.0001). After propensity score based matching, regression analysis of the matched cohorts (n=854) revealed that surgery was independently associated with decreased mortality (OR 0.42; 95% CI, 0.27-0.67). Conclusions: Early surgery is associated with a significant survival benefit for patients with NVE.
    Infectious Diseases Society of America 2008 Annual Meeting; 10/2008
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated troponin is increasingly recognized as a marker of cardiac injury and poor outcomes in diverse disease states. It was hypothesized that patients with infective endocarditis (IE) and elevated cardiac troponin would have more extensive IE and worse clinical outcomes. Patients were enrolled as part of the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE) prospective cohort study; analysis of these patients was done retrospectively. Data from 83 consecutively enrolled patients from a single center were evaluated. Cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was drawn for clinical indications and before any cardiac surgery in 51 of the 83 patients. Outcomes evaluated were hospital mortality, annular or myocardial abscess on the basis of echocardiography or surgery, and central nervous system events. Of 51 patients with cTnI drawn, 33 (65%) had elevated cTnI > or =0.1 mg/dl. There were no differences in age, gender, prosthetic valve IE, Staphylococcus aureus IE, or history of coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, or diabetes mellitus between patients with and without cTnI elevations. Patients with elevated cTnI were less likely to have isolated right-sided IE and more likely to have left ventricular systolic dysfunction or renal dysfunction (p <0.05 for each). In conclusion, elevated cTnI was associated with the composite of death, abscess, and central nervous system events (p <0.001).
    The American Journal of Cardiology 06/2008; 101(10):1479-81. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Higher levels of N-terminal prohormone brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) in several disease states, but few data are available in patients with chronic kidney disease or in blacks. The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension trial enrolled hypertensive blacks with a glomerular filtration rate of 20 to 65 mL x min(-1) x 1.73 m(-2) and no other identified cause of kidney disease. NT-proBNP was measured with a sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (coefficient of variation 2.9%) in 994 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension participants. NT-proBNP was categorized as undetectable, low, moderate, or high. Proteinuria was defined as 24-hour urinary protein-creatinine ratio >0.22. A total of 134 first CVD events (CVD death or hospitalization for coronary artery disease, heart failure, or stroke) occurred over a median of 4.3 years. Participants with high NT-proBNP were much more likely to have a CVD event than participants with undetectable NT-proBNP after adjustment (relative hazard 4.0 [95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1 to 7.6]). A doubling of NT-proBNP was associated with a relative hazard of 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) for coronary artery disease, 1.7 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.2) for heart failure, 1.1 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.4) for stroke, and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4 to 2.4) for CVD death. The association of NT-proBNP with CVD events was significantly stronger (P(interaction)=0.05) in participants with than in those without proteinuria. Higher NT-proBNP was not associated with renal disease progression. These results suggest that elevated NT-proBNP levels are associated with higher CVD risk among blacks with hypertensive kidney disease. This association may be stronger in individuals with significant proteinuria.
    Circulation 05/2008; 117(13):1685-92. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infection and thrombosis are important complications of intravascular catheters. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of thrombosis in patients with central venous catheter-associated Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and the utility of physical examination for diagnosing upper extremity or neck venous thrombosis. Prospective observational cohort. Tertiary care facility. In all, 65 consecutive patients with catheter-associated S. aureus bacteremia with central venous catheters of the internal jugular, brachial, or subclavian veins were eligible for participation. From July 1999 through August 2004, enrolled patients underwent physical examination and ultrasonography independently to identify the presence of catheter-associated thrombosis. Study ultrasonograms were interpreted blindly using defined criteria. Outcomes were defined at 12-wk follow-up. A total of 48 patients were enrolled. By ultrasonography, definite or possible thrombosis was present in 34 of 48 patients (71%) in this cohort. Death or recurrent bacteremia occurred in 11/34 (32%) infected patients with thrombosis and two of 14 (14%) infected patients without thrombosis (p = .29). Sensitivity of all physical examination findings, either alone or in combination, was low (< or = 24%). Only engorged veins upon hand elevation and the presence of multiple physical examination abnormalities were specific (100% each). Thrombosis is a common complication of central venous catheter-associated S. aureus bacteremia. Patients with central venous catheter-associated S. aureus bacteremia should undergo ultrasonography to detect thromboses even if the physical examination is normal.
    Critical care medicine 02/2008; 36(2):385-90. · 6.37 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Embolic events to the central nervous system are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with infective endocarditis (IE). The appropriate role of valvular surgery in reducing such embolic events is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the temporal incidence of stroke in patients with IE and to determine if this time course differs from that shown for embolic events in previous studies. Prospective incidence cohort study involving 61 tertiary referral centers in 28 countries. Case report forms were analyzed from 1437 consecutive patients with left-sided endocarditis admitted directly to participating centers. The crude incidence of stroke in patients receiving appropriate antimicrobial therapy was 4.82/1000 patient days in the first week of therapy and fell to 1.71/1000 patient days in the second week. This rate continued to decline with further therapy. Stroke rates fell similarly regardless of the valve or organism involved. After 1 week of antimicrobial therapy, only 3.1% of the cohort experienced a stroke. The risk of stroke in IE falls dramatically after the initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy. The falling risk of stroke in patients with IE as a whole precludes stroke prevention as the sole indication for valvular surgery after 1 week of therapy.
    American heart journal 01/2008; 154(6):1086-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans with hypertensive renal disease represent a high-risk population for cardiovascular events. Although left ventricular hypertrophy is a strong predictor of adverse cardiac outcome, the prevalence and associated factors of left ventricular hypertrophy in this patient population are not well described. The African American Study of Kidney Disease Cohort Study is a prospective, observational study that is an extension of the African American Study of Kidney Disease randomized clinical trial that was conducted from 1994 to 2001 in African Americans with hypertension and mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction. Echocardiograms and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed at the baseline visit of the cohort. Of 691 patients enrolled in the cohort study, 599 patients had interpretable baseline echocardiograms and ambulatory blood pressure data. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined using a cut point for left ventricular mass index >49.2 g/m(2.7) in men and >46.7 m/m(2.7) in women. The majority of patients had left ventricular hypertrophy (66.7% of men and 73.9% of women). In a multiple regression analysis, higher average day and nighttime systolic blood pressure, younger age, and lower predicted glomerular filtration rate were associated with left ventricular hypertrophy, but albuminuria was not. These data demonstrate a striking prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in the African American Study of Kidney Disease Cohort and identify potential targets for prevention and therapeutic intervention in this high-risk patient population.
    Hypertension 12/2007; 50(6):1033-9. · 6.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: African Americans are at increased risk of kidney failure caused by hypertension. The primary objective of the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) Cohort Study is to identify risk factors for progressive kidney disease in African Americans with hypertensive chronic kidney disease in the setting of recommended antihypertensive therapy. On completion of the AASK Trial, a randomized, double-blind, 3 x 2 factorial trial, participants who had not yet begun dialysis treatment or undergone kidney transplantation were invited to enroll in a prospective Cohort Study. Cohort Study participants received recommended antihypertensive drug therapy, including high rates of angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitor (73%) and angiotensin receptor blocker (10%) use with a blood pressure goal of less than 130/80 mm Hg. Baseline clinical and demographic characteristics are described separately at the baseline of the AASK Trial and Cohort Study. Of 1,094 persons enrolled in the AASK Trial (June 1995 to September 2001; mean age, 55 years; 61% men), 691 enrolled in the AASK Cohort Study (April 2002 to present), 299 died or reached dialysis therapy or transplantation, and 104 declined to participate in the AASK Cohort Study. Mean baseline systolic/diastolic blood pressures were 150/96 mm Hg in the Trial and 136/81 mm Hg in the Cohort Study. Cohort Study participants had greater serum creatinine levels at the start of the Cohort Study (2.3 versus 1.8 mg/dL [203 versus 159 micromol/L]), corresponding to an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 43.8 versus 50.3 mL/min/1.73 m2 (0.73 versus 0.84 mL/s/1.73 m2), than Trial participants and greater urine protein-creatinine ratios (0.38 versus 0.19 mg/mg, respectively). Individuals who were eligible, but declined to participate in the Cohort Study, had greater systolic blood pressure, but similar kidney function. Some parameters, such as iothalamate glomerular filtration rate, urinary albumin level, echocardiogram, and ambulatory blood pressure, were not performed in both the Trial and the Cohort Study, limiting the ability to evaluate changes in these parameters over time. Despite well-controlled blood pressure in the AASK Trial, Cohort Study participants still had evidence of progressive chronic kidney disease. Thus, the AASK Cohort Study is well positioned to address its primary objective.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 07/2007; 50(1):78-89, 89.e1. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inflammation has been linked with atherosclerotic disease development and instability. Contributors to systemic inflammation, such as subclinical infection, may trigger acute coronary syndromes (ACSs). Using a case-control study design, we evaluated the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among 100 consecutive ACS patients, compared with a contemporary control group undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Cases were excluded if ACS was not confirmed by chart review or if a urinalysis was not obtained <or=6 hours of arrival. Patients excluded from the control group were those with myocardial infarction (MI) within 21 days before CABG or without a pre-CABG urinalysis. The case and control groups were well matched, with the only significant differences being less congestive heart failure (OR 7.3, 95% CI 3.3-15.9) and more prior MI (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9) in the CABG control group. UTI was present in 27 of the ACS cases and 11 of the controls. Among ACS case patients, those with UTI tended to be older and more often women, with more diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and renal insufficiency, and more commonly had non-ST elevation MI. In unadjusted analysis, UTI was 3 times more common in the cases versus controls (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.4); results were similar after multivariable adjustment (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.3-6.8). Subclinical UTI is common among patients with ACS. Underlying infection may precipitate ACS via activation of systemic inflammation. This hypothesis should be explored in other data sets, and similar relationships with other bacterial and viral infections should be examined.
    American heart journal 06/2005; 149(6):1062-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OR-63Key Words: Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Kidney Disease, Diastolic Dysfunction
    American Journal of Hypertension - AMER J HYPERTENS. 01/2004; 17(5).
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    Circulation 06/2003; 107(19):2398-402. · 15.20 Impact Factor
  • Molly Sachdev, Gail E Peterson, James G Jollis
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac imaging, specifically echocardiography, has greatly enhanced the ability of clinicians to effectively diagnose and manage IE. Echocardiograms should generally be obtained in all patients suspected of having IE, both to establish the diagnosis and to identify complicated cardiac involvement that may warrant surgical intervention. Transesophageal imaging is more sensitive and specific than the transthoracic approach and currently represents the optimal approach to echocardiographic imaging. Manifestations of endocardial involvement include vegetations, abscesses, aneurysms, fistulae, leaflet perforations, and valvular dehiscence. The roles of other imaging modalities including CT, MRI, and nuclear imaging have yet to be fully established.
    Cardiology Clinics 06/2003; 21(2):185-95. · 1.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atrial Myxomas are benign primary tumors of the heart, arising mainly from the left atrium. Clinical signs and symptoms produced by atrial myxomas may be non-specific or result in mechanical obstruction of cardiac function, arrhythmias, and embolization. The authors present a case of a 60-year-old woman who developed total left hemiparesis resulting from left atrial myxoma embolization causing complete occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery.
    Cardiology in Review 12/2002; 11(1):41-4. · 3.08 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

653 Citations
142.35 Total Impact Points


  • 2002–2013
    • University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center
      • • Division of Cardiology
      • • Medical School
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Dallas, Texas, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Department of Medicine
      Honolulu, HI, United States
  • 2004
    • Lenox Hill Hospital
      New York City, New York, United States