Ken G Drouillard

Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (105)265.62 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: As urban sprawl and agricultural intensification continue to invade prime wildlife habitat, some animals, even apex predators, are managing to adapt to this new environment. Chemical pollution is one of many stressors that wildlife encounter in urban environments. Predators are particularly sensitive to persistent chemical pollutants because they feed at a high trophic level where such pollution is biomagnified. To examine levels of pollution in urban birds of prey in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, we analyzed persistent organic contaminants in adult birds found dead of trauma injury. The hepatic geometric mean concentration of sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs) in 13 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) from Greater Vancouver was 1873ng/g (lipid weight) with one bird reaching 197,000ng/g lipid weight, the highest exposure reported to date for a wild bird. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs, ∑PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and, surprisingly, cyclodiene insecticides were greatest in the urban environment while those of DDE (1,1-dichloroethylene bis[p-chlorophenyl) were highest in a region of intensive agriculture. The level of most chlorinated and brominated contaminants increased with trophic level (δ(15)N). The concentrations of some contaminants, PBDEs in particular, in these birds of prey may have some toxicological consequences. Apex predators in urban environments continue to be exposed to elevated concentrations of legacy pollutants as well as more recent brominated pollutants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Science of The Total Environment 08/2015; 524. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.04.008 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Forty-seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 9 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and its mono-, di- and tri-bromo-analogs, and bisphenol A (BPA) were investigated in sediments (56 samples; collected in spring 2004) from the western, central and eastern basins of Lake Erie. Surficial (0–10 cm) sediment from the western basin contained significantly greater (p < 0.05) concentrations of ΣPCBs, ΣPBDEs and BPA than the other two basins. Σ47PCBs were 144 ± 141, 33 ± 34, and 13 ± 15 ng/g (mean ± standard deviation (SD); dry weight, d.w.) in the western, central, and eastern basins respectively. For two of the surveyed sites, the Σ47PCBs in sediment exceeded the Canadian sediment quality probable effect level of exposure guideline (PEL, 277 ng/g) for aquatic biota, indicating a risk to biota health in 2004. Σ8PBDE concentrations (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -138, -153, -154 and -183) were 1.33 ± 2.54, 0.17 ± 0.11, and 0.30 ± 0.38 ng/g (mean ± SD; d.w.) in the western, central, and eastern basins, respectively. BDE-209 was the predominant PBDE congener in sediment samples, and was quantifiable in 56% of the samples with a concentration range of < 0.3 to 12 ng/g (d.w.). BPA concentrations up to 6.1 ng/g (d.w.) were detected in 65% of the samples. For these chemicals, the Detroit River outflow is strongly suggested to be the major source/vector for Lake Erie. TBBPA was detectable in one sample (0.5 ng/g d.w.) from a site near the Detroit River, suggesting degradation and/or a low level deposition of polybrominated-BPAs to Lake Erie.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2015.04.007 · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sediments collected in 2004 from along the Detroit River (n = 19) and across all of Lake Erie (n = 18) were analyzed for isomers of the flame retardant chemical, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Sediment samples had ΣHBCD concentrations ranging from not detected to 1.6 ng/g d.w. γ-HBCD (56 %-100 % of ΣHBCDs) was the predominate isomer, observed in 7 of 19 samples from the Detroit River and 6 of 18 samples from Lake Erie (all within the western basin). α-HBCD was found in 4 Detroit River and 2 Lake Erie western basin sites, while β-HBCD was only in two Detroit River samples. High ΣHBCD concentrations (>100 ng/g d.w.) were found in two sludge samples from two Windsor, ON, wastewater treatment plants that feed into the Detroit River upstream. HBCD contamination into the Detroit River is a major input vector into Lake Erie and with an apparent sediment dilution effect moving towards the eastern basin.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 02/2015; 95(1). DOI:10.1007/s00128-015-1491-y · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) remain chemicals of concern more than three decades after the ban on their production. Technical mixture-based total PCB measurements are unreliable due to weathering and degradation, while detailed full congener specific measurements can be time-consuming and costly for large studies. Measurements using a subset of indicator PCBs (iPCBs) have been considered appropriate; however, inclusion of different PCB congeners in various iPCB schemes makes it challenging to readily compare data. Here, using an extensive data set, we examine the performance of existing iPCB3 (PCB 138, 153, and 180), iPCB6 (iPCB3 plus 28, 52, and 101) and iPCB7 (iPCB6 plus 118) schemes, and new iPCB schemes in estimating total of PCB congeners (ΣPCB) and dioxin-like PCB toxic equivalent (dlPCB-TEQ) concentrations in sport fish fillets and the whole body of juvenile fish. The coefficients of determination (R2) for regressions conducted using logarithmically transformed data suggest that inclusion of an increased number of PCBs in an iPCB improves relationship with ÓPCB but not dlPCB-TEQs. Overall, novel iPCB3 (PCB 95, 118, and 153), iPCB4 (iPCB3 plus 138) and iPCB5 (iPCB4 plus 110) presented in this study and existing iPCB6 and iPCB7 are the most optimal indicators, while the current iPCB3 should be avoided. Measurement of ΣPCB based on a more detailed analysis (50+ congeners) is also overall a good approach for assessing PCB contamination and to track PCB origin in fish. Relationships among the existing and new iPCB schemes have been presented to facilitate their interconversion. The iPCB6 equiv levels for the 6.5 and 10 pg/g benchmarks of dlPCB-TEQ05 are about 50 and 120 ng/g ww, respectively, which are lower than the corresponding iPCB6 limits of 125 and 300 ng/g ww set by the European Union.
    Environmental Science and Technology 01/2015; 49:123-131. DOI:10.1021/es503427r · 5.48 Impact Factor
  • Ken G. Drouillard, Erin R. Bennett
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    ABSTRACT: A citation analysis was completed on articles published in Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology over the period of 1966–2009. Articles were grouped into 5 year intervals and the top 50 most-cited papers in each year interval were categorized according to research theme. Over the journal’s history, articles in the toxicity research theme dominated top-cited articles published by the journal followed by articles in the environmental concentration theme and the mechanistic theme. The geographic area of submission of top-cited articles has shown large changes with time, initially being dominated by papers from North American and now dominated by papers from Asia. An examination of the citation history for the highest cited paper in each year interval indicated that the average time to achieve 90 % of total citations is 25 years.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 12/2014; 94(1). DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1438-8 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that the sensitivity of avian species to the embyrotoxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) can be predicted by the amino acid sequence within the ligand binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been established as a highly sensitive species to the toxic effects of DLCs. Results from genotyping and in vitro assays predict that the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is also highly sensitive to DLC toxicity. The objective of this study was to test that prediction in vivo. To do this, we used egg injections in field nesting starlings with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl. Eggs were dosed with either the vehicle control or one of five doses (1.4, 7.1, 15.9, 32.1, 52.9 ng PCB-126/g egg). There was a dose-dependent increase in embryo mortality, and the LD50 (95% CI) was 5.61 (2.33-9.08) ng/g. Hepatic CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression in hatchlings also increased in a dose-dependent manner, with CYP1A4 being more induced than CYP1A5. There was no effect of dose on morphological measures, and we did not observe any overt malformations. These results indicate that other than the chicken, the European starling is the most sensitive species to the effects of PCB-126 on avian embryo mortality reported to date, which supports the prediction of relative sensitivity to DLCs based on amino acid sequence of the ARH1. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 12/2014; 33(12). DOI:10.1002/etc.2743 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trophic magnification factors (TMFs) provide a method of assessing chemical biomagnification in food webs and are increasingly being used by policy makers to screen emergent chemicals. Recent reviews have encouraged the use of bioaccumulation models as screening tools for assessing TMFs for emergent chemicals of concern. The present study used a food web bioaccumulation model to estimate TMFs for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a riverine system. The uncertainty associated with model predicted TMFs was evaluated against realistic ranges for model inputs (water and sediment PCB contamination) and variation in environmental, physiological, and ecological parameters included within the model. Finally, the model was used to explore interactions between spatial heterogeneity in water and sediment contaminant concentrations and theoretical movement profiles of different fish species included in the model. The model predictions of magnitude of TMFs conformed to empirical studies. There were differences in the relationship between the TMF and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient (KOW) depending on the modelling approach used; a parabolic relationship was predicted under deterministic scenarios whereas a linear TMF- KOW relationship was predicted when the model was run stochastically. Incorporating spatial movements by fish had a major influence on the magnitude and variation of TMFs. Under conditions where organisms are collected exclusively from clean locations in highly heterogeneous systems the results showed bias towards higher TMF estimates, for example the TMF for PCB 153 increased from 2.7 to 5.6 when fish movement was included. Small underestimations of TMFs were found where organisms were exclusively sampled in contaminated regions, although the model was found to be more robust to this sampling condition than the former for this system. Integr Environ Assess Manag © 2014 SETAC
    Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management 11/2014; 11(2). DOI:10.1002/ieam.1599
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    ABSTRACT: River otter scat samples (n=77) and blood samples (n=16) collected through non-invasive field collections and live-capture activities (November 2009 to October 2010) along the coastline of Southern Vancouver Island, near Victoria, British Columbia (BC) were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). ∑PBDEs were highest in urbanized regions of Victoria Harbour for blood (1.12μg/g lipid weight) and scat (0.35μg/g lipid weight). A location effect between zones was confirmed statistically for blood but not for scat. Specific congeners with the highest concentrations overall were BDE-47 in blood samples (0.37μg/g lipid weight) and BDE-206 (0.18μg/g lipid weight) and BDE-47 (0.16μg/g lipid weight) in scat samples. There was also an unusual finding of extremely high levels of BDE-209 in 2 scat samples (163 and 956μg/g lipid weight). The patterns of select congeners (BDE 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) measured in blood and scat were found not to be significantly different (Chi-square Test, X(2)=21.08, DF=4, p=0003). The most prominent congeners within Victoria Harbour were BDE-47 for both blood (0.82mg/kg lipid weight) and scat (0.26mg/kg lipid weight) followed by BDE-206 (0.18μg/g lipid weight) and BDE-207 (0.10μg/g lipid weight) for scat only. Comparable levels of BDE-47 were reported across the study area whereas BDE 206 and 207 were only observed in Victoria Harbour (scat). Toxicological effects of PBDEs in rivers otters from Victoria, BC are still unknown however the predominance of BDE-47 could have negative implication as an endocrine disruptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 10/2014; 118C:322-328. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.007 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding variability of contaminant bioaccumulation within and among fish populations is critical for distinguishing between the chemical and biological mechanisms that contribute to food web biomagnification and quantifying contaminant exposure risks in aquatic ecosystems. The present study examined the relative contributions of chemical hydrophobicity (KOW) and habitat use as factors regulating variability in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener bioaccumulation in three lower trophic level cyprinid species across spatial and temporal scales. Bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus), spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) were sampled at three locations in the Detroit River. Variability in PCB concentration was evaluated with respect to several factors including chemical hydrophobicity, site, season, species, and weight using sum of squares and Levene's test of homogeneity of variance. Individual variability in bioaccumulated congener specific residues depended on chemical hydrophobicity with mid- and high- range KOW congeners (log KOW > 6.0) demonstrating the highest amount of variance compared to low KOW congeners. Different feeding strategies also contributed to the variance observed for mid-range KOW congeners among species. Here, benthic feeding specialists exhibited lower variance in PCB concentrations compared to the two generalist species. The results indicate that chemical hydrophobicity and feeding ecology not only contribute to differences in biomagnification potentials of fish, but also regulate between-individual variation in PCB concentrations both across and within fish species. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 08/2014; 33(8). DOI:10.1002/etc.2606 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lake Huron, the third largest freshwater lake in the world, has become increasingly oligotrophic since the early 1990s and is also currently experiencing substantial changes in species abundances and diversity. We used long-term biomonitoring data to calculate whole-body energy densities for Lake Huron rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), and also for herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected from 1989-2011. Significant temporal declines in energy densities were observed for all three species, and significant declines were found for lake trout size-at-age and herring gull egg sizes. For lake trout and herring gulls, these declines occurred during a period of reduced abundance of pelagic forage fish and increased inclusion of terrestrial food in diets of herring gulls. Declining energy density in rainbow smelt occurred concomitant with declining phytoplankton and zooplankton resources, the principal energy source for this species. Reduced production capacity in lower trophic levels appears to be affecting upper trophic levels of the Lake Huron food web, emphasizing the cascading effects of ecosystem change.
    Limnology and Oceanography 07/2014; 59(4):1171-1180. DOI:10.4319/lo.2014.59.4.1171 · 3.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and fatty acid profiles in Lake Ontario alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) collected from 1982 to 2008 to investigate how temporal variability in these ecological tracers can relate to ecosystem-level changes associated with the establishment of highly invasive dreissenid mussels.Prey fish δ15N values remained relatively constant, with only slimy sculpin exhibiting a temporal increase in δ15N. In contrast, δ13C values for alewife, rainbow smelt and, especially, slimy sculpin became less negative over time and were consistent with the benthification of the Lake Ontario food web associated with dreissenids.Principal components analysis revealed higher contributions of 14:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids and increasingly negative δ13C values in older samples in agreement with the greater historical importance of pelagic production for alewife, rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin.Temporal declines in fatty acid unsaturation indices and Σn-3/Σn-6 ratios, and also increased 24:0/14:0 ratios for alewife, rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin, indicated the increasing importance of nearshore production pathways for more recently collected fish and resulted in values more similar to those for round goby.These results indicate a temporal convergence of the food niche, whereas food partitioning has historically supported the coexistence of prey fish species in Lake Ontario. This convergence is consistent with changes in food-web processes associated with the invasion of dreissenid mussels.
    Freshwater Biology 07/2014; 59(10). DOI:10.1111/fwb.12418 · 2.91 Impact Factor
  • Ken G Drouillard, R J Norstrom
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    ABSTRACT: A vial equilibration technique was used to estimate the fugacity capacities of food and feces samples for 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB). The method was calibrated using different volumes of n-octanol and by comparing the measured and predicted fugacity capacity (Zoct) of n-octanol for TCB. The vial equilibration technique showed linearity with increasing amounts of n-octanol added to the vial. However, the measured Zoct was on average 8.5 times lower than the literature estimate and interpreted to be influenced by co-solvent effects. The ratio of fugacity capacities of food/feces was 2.9 and was consistent with the ratio estimated using Zt calculation methods (4.3) which considers partitioning capacity of both lipids and non-lipid organic matter. These results provide experimental support to the use of lipid equivalent approaches as opposed to lipid normalization when estimating the partition capacity of biological samples containing low lipid contents.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2014; 93(5). DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1316-4 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (< 40 km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (> 70 km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date.
    Environment international 06/2014; 67:1–11. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.005 · 5.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Detroit River is an international water body that has several fish consumption advisories for contaminants that affect human health and economic revenue for the USA and Canada. Despite the importance of these advisories, little progress has been made in developing effective management strategies or coordinating monitoring, research, and policy efforts between the 2 nations. We engaged 44 stakeholder organizations to increase community capacity on these issues for the Detroit River. We assessed capacity with key informant interviews and a network survey. Our analysis identified weak ties in information sharing and collaboration between countries. We used this information to improve stakeholder capacity, which included forming working groups that focused on system analysis, identification of priority issues, and definitions of organizational roles. Outcomes included outreach materials addressing environmental-justice issues and risk-analysis models of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens in fish. Our assessment of workshop participants with a longitudinal survey indicated that we increased network capacity and issue awareness in our stakeholders by providing new ways for them to work together. The engagement of stakeholders also improved research outcomes. By identifying stakeholder concerns related to scientific questions about consumption advisories early in the process, researchers were able to direct their efforts to generating translational research that better addressed stakeholder needs.
    Freshwater science 06/2014; 33(2):674-678. DOI:10.1086/675782 · 1.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Consumption of fish is promoted as a healthy way to obtain essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, yet the risk of ingesting harmful contaminants remains a concern. A recent study concluded that the risk-benefit of consuming fish from the North American Laurentian Great Lakes, which sustain important commercial and recreational fisheries, is currently unclear. We report the fatty acid (FA) content in skin-off fillets of fifteen fish species from Lake Erie and assess whether recommended dietary requirements for two EFA (EPA and DHA) can be met by safely consuming Lake Erie fishes, as an example of a risk-benefit analysis. Methods: A total of 146 samples were analyzed for FA and contaminant content. A simulated fish consumption advisory (maximum recommended number of meals per month, up to 32) was calculated for each sample, and used to calculate the maximum amount of EPAþ DHA that would be consumed if the consumption advisory was followed. Results: All fifteen species had nutritionally desirable PUFA:SAFA (> 0.4) and n n-3:n-6 (> 1). Large, fatty species had the highest EPA+DHA content, but had the most restrictive consumption advisories due to high PCB concentrations. To minimize contaminant exposure while maximizing EPA+DHA intake, consumers should consider small lake whitefish and lake trout, small panfish species, and/or walleye. However, very few species had an EPA+DHA content sufficient to safely meet the highest dietary guidelines while following advisories. Conclusions: Consumption of certain Lake Erie fish, an important recreational and commercial fishery, within the limits of our simulated fish consumption advisories, can be a good supplemental source of beneficial n-3 long chain PUFA.
    Environmental Research 05/2014; 134:57-65. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.05.025 · 3.95 Impact Factor
  • Anne McLeod, T A Leadley, K G Drouillard, G D Haffner
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    ABSTRACT: Bluegill sunfish were caged in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada, for 64 days to determine bioaccumulation rates of PCBs. Deployments involved placing fish in cages suspended in the water (suspended cages) compared to cages partially buried in sediments. Deployments were performed in the summer and winter months. During summer, fish exhibited significant increases in body weight and lipid content (sediment associated cages only), whereas in winter, body weights did not change. Lipid normalized PCB concentrations and PCB mass in fish increased significantly with time in summer deployments, but not in winter. Fish continued to accumulate PCBs over the 64 days caging duration except for PCBs 33, 49, and 52 in sediment associated cages. There were no significant differences in the bioaccumulation of PCBs between cage types. This study confirms that biomonitoring studies using caged fish should ensure chemical toxicokinetics are consistent when comparing bioaccumulation results among sites and/or time points.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 04/2014; 93(1). DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1280-z · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fish consumption advisories have been issued for the Great Lakes generally based on the most restrictive contaminant. For the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes, toxaphene causes minor restrictions only in Lake Superior, i.e., 3% of the total (restrictive + unrestrictive) advisories issued. However, the significance of the hazard posed by toxaphene in fish is not clear since more restrictive advisories due to other priority contaminants may be masking the less restrictive advisories. We simulated fish consumption advisories for the Toxaphene-only scenario by neglecting the presence of contaminants other than toxaphene, and compared with the issued advisories as well as with the published simulated Mercury-only scenario. Restrictive advisories under the Toxaphene-only scenario compared to the issued toxaphene related advisories would increase from 3% to 14%, < 1% to 4%, and 0% to 2% for Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario, respectively, and remain at 0% for Lake Erie. For Lake Superior, most of the restrictive Toxaphene-only advisories would be for fatty fish. Overall, the Toxaphene-only advisories would be significantly less restrictive compared to the issued advisories, and also generally less restrictive compared to the Mercury-only scenario. These results suggest that toxaphene is less of a concern than PCBs (including dioxin-like PCBs), dioxins–furans and mercury from the perspective of health risk to humans consuming Great Lakes fish; elevated toxaphene is mainly a concern for human consumers of Lake Superior fatty fish. Our results suggest that the routine monitoring of toxaphene in other Canadian waters of the Great Lakes and Lake Superior lean/pan fish could be discontinued.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 03/2014; 40(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jglr.2013.12.017 · 1.77 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
265.62 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Carleton University
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1996–2015
    • University of Windsor
      • • Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  • 2013
    • Windsor University Medical School
      Kendale Lakes, Florida, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Lagos
      • Department of Chemistry
      Eko, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 2000–2003
    • Trent University
      Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998
    • University of Manitoba
      • Department of Soil Science
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada