Ken G Drouillard

University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario, Canada

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Publications (89)232.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Research has demonstrated that the sensitivity of avian species to the embyrotoxic effects of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) can be predicted by the amino acid sequence within the ligand binding domain of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor 1 (AHR1). The domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) has been established as a highly sensitive species to the toxic effects of DLCs. Results from genotyping and in vitro assays predict that the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is also highly sensitive to DLC toxicity. The objective of this study was to test that prediction in vivo. To do this, we used egg injections in field nesting starlings with 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126), a dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl. Eggs were dosed with either the vehicle control or one of five doses (1.4, 7.1, 15.9, 32.1, 52.9 ng PCB-126/g egg). There was a dose-dependent increase in embryo mortality, and the LD50 (95% CI) was 5.61 (2.33-9.08) ng/g. Hepatic CYP1A4/5 mRNA expression in hatchlings also increased in a dose-dependent manner, with CYP1A4 being more induced than CYP1A5. There was no effect of dose on morphological measures, and we did not observe any overt malformations. These results indicate that other than the chicken, the European starling is the most sensitive species to the effects of PCB-126 on avian embryo mortality reported to date, which supports the prediction of relative sensitivity to DLCs based on amino acid sequence of the ARH1. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 09/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measured stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) and fatty acid profiles in Lake Ontario alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) and round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) collected from 1982 to 2008 to investigate how temporal variability in these ecological tracers can relate to ecosystem-level changes associated with the establishment of highly invasive dreissenid mussels.Prey fish δ15N values remained relatively constant, with only slimy sculpin exhibiting a temporal increase in δ15N. In contrast, δ13C values for alewife, rainbow smelt and, especially, slimy sculpin became less negative over time and were consistent with the benthification of the Lake Ontario food web associated with dreissenids.Principal components analysis revealed higher contributions of 14:0 and 16:1n-7 fatty acids and increasingly negative δ13C values in older samples in agreement with the greater historical importance of pelagic production for alewife, rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin.Temporal declines in fatty acid unsaturation indices and Σn-3/Σn-6 ratios, and also increased 24:0/14:0 ratios for alewife, rainbow smelt and slimy sculpin, indicated the increasing importance of nearshore production pathways for more recently collected fish and resulted in values more similar to those for round goby.These results indicate a temporal convergence of the food niche, whereas food partitioning has historically supported the coexistence of prey fish species in Lake Ontario. This convergence is consistent with changes in food-web processes associated with the invasion of dreissenid mussels.
    Freshwater Biology 07/2014; · 3.93 Impact Factor
  • Ken G Drouillard, R J Norstrom
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    ABSTRACT: A vial equilibration technique was used to estimate the fugacity capacities of food and feces samples for 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TCB). The method was calibrated using different volumes of n-octanol and by comparing the measured and predicted fugacity capacity (Zoct) of n-octanol for TCB. The vial equilibration technique showed linearity with increasing amounts of n-octanol added to the vial. However, the measured Zoct was on average 8.5 times lower than the literature estimate and interpreted to be influenced by co-solvent effects. The ratio of fugacity capacities of food/feces was 2.9 and was consistent with the ratio estimated using Zt calculation methods (4.3) which considers partitioning capacity of both lipids and non-lipid organic matter. These results provide experimental support to the use of lipid equivalent approaches as opposed to lipid normalization when estimating the partition capacity of biological samples containing low lipid contents.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Consumption of fish is promoted as a healthy way to obtain essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, yet the risk of ingesting harmful contaminants remains a concern. A recent study concluded that the risk-benefit of consuming fish from the North American Laurentian Great Lakes, which sustain important commercial and recreational fisheries, is currently unclear. We report the fatty acid (FA) content in skin-off fillets of fifteen fish species from Lake Erie and assess whether recommended dietary requirements for two EFA (EPA and DHA) can be met by safely consuming Lake Erie fishes, as an example of a risk-benefit analysis. Methods: A total of 146 samples were analyzed for FA and contaminant content. A simulated fish consumption advisory (maximum recommended number of meals per month, up to 32) was calculated for each sample, and used to calculate the maximum amount of EPAþ DHA that would be consumed if the consumption advisory was followed. Results: All fifteen species had nutritionally desirable PUFA:SAFA (> 0.4) and n n-3:n-6 (> 1). Large, fatty species had the highest EPA+DHA content, but had the most restrictive consumption advisories due to high PCB concentrations. To minimize contaminant exposure while maximizing EPA+DHA intake, consumers should consider small lake whitefish and lake trout, small panfish species, and/or walleye. However, very few species had an EPA+DHA content sufficient to safely meet the highest dietary guidelines while following advisories. Conclusions: Consumption of certain Lake Erie fish, an important recreational and commercial fishery, within the limits of our simulated fish consumption advisories, can be a good supplemental source of beneficial n-3 long chain PUFA.
    Environmental Research 05/2014; 134:57-65. · 3.24 Impact Factor
  • Anne McLeod, T A Leadley, K G Drouillard, G D Haffner
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    ABSTRACT: Bluegill sunfish were caged in the Detroit River, Ontario, Canada, for 64 days to determine bioaccumulation rates of PCBs. Deployments involved placing fish in cages suspended in the water (suspended cages) compared to cages partially buried in sediments. Deployments were performed in the summer and winter months. During summer, fish exhibited significant increases in body weight and lipid content (sediment associated cages only), whereas in winter, body weights did not change. Lipid normalized PCB concentrations and PCB mass in fish increased significantly with time in summer deployments, but not in winter. Fish continued to accumulate PCBs over the 64 days caging duration except for PCBs 33, 49, and 52 in sediment associated cages. There were no significant differences in the bioaccumulation of PCBs between cage types. This study confirms that biomonitoring studies using caged fish should ensure chemical toxicokinetics are consistent when comparing bioaccumulation results among sites and/or time points.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 04/2014; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding variability of contaminant bioaccumulation within and among fish populations is critical for distinguishing between the chemical and biological mechanisms that contribute to food web biomagnification and quantifying contaminant exposure risks in aquatic ecosystems. The present study examined the relative contributions of chemical hydrophobicity (KOW) and habitat use as factors regulating variability in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener bioaccumulation in three lower trophic level cyprinid species across spatial and temporal scales. Bluntnose minnows (Pimephales notatus), spottail shiners (Notropis hudsonius), and emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) were sampled at three locations in the Detroit River. Variability in PCB concentration was evaluated with respect to several factors including chemical hydrophobicity, site, season, species, and weight using sum of squares and Levene's test of homogeneity of variance. Individual variability in bioaccumulated congener specific residues depended on chemical hydrophobicity with mid- and high- range KOW congeners (log KOW > 6.0) demonstrating the highest amount of variance compared to low KOW congeners. Different feeding strategies also contributed to the variance observed for mid-range KOW congeners among species. Here, benthic feeding specialists exhibited lower variance in PCB concentrations compared to the two generalist species. The results indicate that chemical hydrophobicity and feeding ecology not only contribute to differences in biomagnification potentials of fish, but also regulate between-individual variation in PCB concentrations both across and within fish species. Environ Toxicol Chem © 2014 SETAC
    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 04/2014; · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fish consumption advisories have been issued for the Great Lakes generally based on the most restrictive contaminant. For the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes, toxaphene causes minor restrictions only in Lake Superior, i.e., 3% of the total (restrictive + unrestrictive) advisories issued. However, the significance of the hazard posed by toxaphene in fish is not clear since more restrictive advisories due to other priority contaminants may be masking the less restrictive advisories. We simulated fish consumption advisories for the Toxaphene-only scenario by neglecting the presence of contaminants other than toxaphene, and compared with the issued advisories as well as with the published simulated Mercury-only scenario. Restrictive advisories under the Toxaphene-only scenario compared to the issued toxaphene related advisories would increase from 3% to 14%, < 1% to 4%, and 0% to 2% for Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario, respectively, and remain at 0% for Lake Erie. For Lake Superior, most of the restrictive Toxaphene-only advisories would be for fatty fish. Overall, the Toxaphene-only advisories would be significantly less restrictive compared to the issued advisories, and also generally less restrictive compared to the Mercury-only scenario. These results suggest that toxaphene is less of a concern than PCBs (including dioxin-like PCBs), dioxins–furans and mercury from the perspective of health risk to humans consuming Great Lakes fish; elevated toxaphene is mainly a concern for human consumers of Lake Superior fatty fish. Our results suggest that the routine monitoring of toxaphene in other Canadian waters of the Great Lakes and Lake Superior lean/pan fish could be discontinued.
    Journal of Great Lakes Research 03/2014; · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study reported elevated concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in surface water, snapping turtles, and amphipods in Lake Niapenco, downstream of Hamilton International Airport, Ontario, Canada. Here, our goals were to 1) determine the extent of PFAA contamination in sport fish species collected downstream of the airport, 2) explore if the airport could be a potential source, and 3) compare fish PFOS concentrations to consumption advisory benchmarks. The PFOS levels in several sport fish collected from the three locations closest to the airport (< 40 km) were among the highest previously published in the peer-reviewed literature and also tended to exceed consumption benchmarks. The only other fish that had comparable concentrations were collected in a region affected by inputs from a major fluorinated chemical production facility. In contrast, PFOS concentrations in the two most downstream locations (> 70 km) were comparable to or below the average concentrations in fish as observed in the literature and were generally below the benchmarks. With regards to perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs), there was no significant decrease in concentrations in fish with distance from the airport and levels were comparable to or below the average concentrations observed in the literature, suggesting that the airport is not a significant source of PFCAs in these fish species. PFOS-based aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF) was used at a firefighting training facility at the airport in the 1980s to mid-1990s. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the airport has resulted in fish PFOS concentrations that exceed the 95th percentile concentration of values reported in the literature to date.
    Environment international 01/2014; 67:1–11. · 6.25 Impact Factor
  • Environmental Science & Technology 01/2014; In revision. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    Jennifer M Daley, Gordon Paterson, Ken G Drouillard
    Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology 01/2014; 227:107-55. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine the concentrations and food web biomagnification of three cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) using aquatic biota collected from Lake Erie. Concentrations of cVMS in biota were within the range reported for other studies of cVMS in aquatic biota. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) were assessed in various food web configurations to investigate the effects of food web structure. TMF estimates were highly dependent on the inclusion/exclusion of the organisms occupying the highest and lowest trophic levels and were >1 for D4 and D5, indicating biomagnification, in only 1 of the 5 food web configurations investigated and were <1 in the remaining 4 food web configurations. TMF estimates for PCB180 were also dependant on food web configuration, but did not correspond with those obtained for cVMS materials. These differences may be attributed to environmental exposure and/or lipid partitioning differences between PCB180 and cVMS.
    Environmental Pollution 12/2013; 186C:141-148. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Jennifer M Daley, Ross J Norstrom, Ken G Drouillard
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    ABSTRACT: Ring doves were provided contaminated food spiked with [(13)C]-2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 153) over a period of 63 days. Animals were sacrificed after 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, 36 and 63 days following access to contaminated food. At each time point, chemical concentrations in blood, liver, brain, gonad, adipose and remaining whole carcass was determined. Whole body concentrations of PCB 153 increased linearly with time over the experiment indicating that the birds did not reach steady state with their food after 63 days. Tissue/plasma concentration ratios were plotted as a function of time to determine time to inter-tissue steady state for fast and slowly perfused tissues. Liver, brain and gonad achieved steady state concentrations with plasma in less than 3 days, whereas fat and carcass tissues required 9.7 and 11.5 days, respectively. The results indicate that inter-tissue distribution kinetics for PCBs in birds is relatively rapid and completed within a little over a week following exposure to a contaminated diet.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aquatic contaminants, specifically polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of persistent organic contaminants, have been associated with sublethal effects on reproduction in fishes. Female brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) were used to assess variation in reproductive traits across eight populations differing in sediment sum PCB concentrations in the Lower Great Lakes region. Differences in maternal carotenoid allocation patterns among these populations were also examined. No significant associations were found between sediment sum PCB concentrations corrected for organic content (OC) and reproductive traits. However, egg diameter was negatively correlated with sediment PCB concentrations not corrected for OC, suggesting that observed relationships between sediment sum PCB concentrations and reproductive traits are driven by classes of environmental contaminants whose bioavailability are not predicted by OC, such as metals. An unexpected positive relationship was also found between egg carotenoid concentrations and sediment PCB concentrations. This positive relationship was explained by the maternal allocation of carotenoids based on a negative correlation between female muscle and egg carotenoid concentrations, where females from less contaminated locations had lower egg and greater muscle carotenoid concentrations than those from more contaminated locations. The results of this study identify sublethal effects of environmental contaminants on reproductive life-history traits in female brown bullhead, and investigations of adaptive mechanisms underlying this variation are warranted.
    Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 07/2013; · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs) were investigated in samples from the Detroit River (Great Lakes, North America) in 1999 and 2008/09 collected using a stratified random sampling design. Getis-Ord geospatial analysis was used to further establish locations of areas demonstrating significantly high and low contaminant concentrations in the river. Based on the stratified random sampling design, a majority of the examined metals and organic contaminants demonstrated little or no trends with respect to regional sediment concentrations and river-wide mass balances over the investigated time interval. The Getis-Ord analysis revealed local scales of contaminated and clean areas which did not conform to the original strata used in the geostatistical sampling design. It is suggested that geospatial analyses such as Getis-Ord be used in the design of future sediment quality surveys to refine locations of strata that can simultaneously address sediment recovery over system-wide, regional and local spatial scales.
    Chemosphere 07/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Jessica A O'Neil, Timothy B Johnson, Ken G Drouillard
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    ABSTRACT: The assimilation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) after intraperitoneal (IP) injection was compared to PCBs bioaccumulated by the same fish through natural exposure ("native" PCBs). Lipid equivalent corrected dorsal muscle: whole body concentration ratios for native PCB 153 averaged 1.16 ± 0.77 and ranged from 1.19 to 1.24 for three IP dosed non-native PCBs within 6 h after dosing. Variation in tissue distribution of IP-dosed congeners was reduced after benchmarking to PCB 153, reinforcing that assimilation of the IP dose occurred into muscle rapidly after injection. Despite the use of small oil volumes during injection (<10 μL per fish), coefficients of variation of IP-dosed PCBs were equivalent to those observed for native PCBs. The results suggest that IP dosing provides a precise method to achieve target concentrations of hydrophobic chemicals in small fish and does not require several days to achieve assimilation into highly perfused tissues.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 06/2013; · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fall spawning pacific salmon provision large amounts of yolk to their eggs to allow survival of larvae during under the ice winter conditions. This yolk provisioning leads to maternal offloading of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to eggs and larvae. Previous research has shown that Chinook salmon larvae exhibit limited capacity to eliminate POPs during the cold water period resulting in bioamplification of POP residues. This study compared POPs bioamplification in Chinook salmon larvae under a high food provisioning treatment and a non-fed treatment to test whether or not food availability attenuates POPs bioamplification via growth dilution. Results demonstrate that larvae in the food provisioning treatment did not gain weight until after day 129. Between hatching and day 129, fed and non-fed treatments exhibited similar decreases in whole body lipid content, negligible POPs elimination and POPs bioamplification factors approaching 1.6. By day 184 of the study, POPs bioamplification factors in the non-fed treatment were as high as 5.3 across chemicals but ranged from non-detectable to approaching 1 in the fed group. This study demonstrates that POPs bioamplification occurs in Chinook salmon larvae even under ideal rearing conditions but peaks after day 129, following which growth dilution can attenuate bioamplification relative to starved individuals.
    Chemosphere 04/2013; · 3.14 Impact Factor
  • Kerry N McPhedran, Rajesh Seth, Ken G Drouillard
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    ABSTRACT: The sorption behaviour of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) 1,2,4,5-tetrachlor-obenzene (TeCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) to Aldrich humic acid (AHA) and municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) influent colloidal organic carbon (COC) was investigated using the gas-stripping technique. Gas stripping assumptions of gas/water equilibrium and a constant volatilization rate were validated prior to calculation of partitioning parameters. The logKCOC coefficients determined for MWTP influent COC were 3.86, 3.89 and 3.19 for TeCB, PeCB and HCB, respectively. Due to the presence of COC, the mass transfer of TeCB, PeCB and HCB with the primary effluent to the secondary biological stage was predicted to increase 8.7%, 9.6% and 1.2%, respectively, based on the measured COC concentration and logKCOC values. The calculated increases in apparent solubility for TeCB, PeCB and HCB in the primary effluent were 14.4%, 22.0% and 6.5%, respectively. This partitioning did not follow the expected trend (TeCB < PeCB < HCB) based on hydrophobicity predicted by octanol/water partitioning. The trend observed differed from the current AHA standard and correlation-based trends derived from natural COCs. More experiments with other HOCs are needed to better understand and predict the magnitude and significance of MWTP influent COCs on the fate and transport of HOCs during the MWTP process.
    Water Research 02/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

949 Citations
232.99 Total Impact Points


  • 1996–2014
    • University of Windsor
      • • Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research
      • • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      • • Department of Biological Sciences
      Windsor, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007–2013
    • Cracow University of Technology
      • Institute of Water Supply and Environmental Protection
      Kraków, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Poland
  • 2012
    • University of Lagos
      • Department of Chemistry
      Eko, Lagos, Nigeria
  • 2001–2009
    • Trent University
      Peterborough, Ontario, Canada
  • 1998–2009
    • University of Manitoba
      • Department of Soil Science
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2004–2005
    • Environment Canada
      • Canadian Wildlife Service
      Gatineau, Quebec, Canada