[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of extracts of Benifuuki (a tea cultivar that contains methylated catechins such as epigallocatechin-3-O-(3-O-methyl) gallate (EGCG3"Me)) in mice fed a high-fat/high-sucrose (HF/HS) diet. This tea cultivar was then compared with an extract of Yabukita (a popular tea cultivar that lacks methylated catechins). For 6 weeks, C57BL/6J mice were fed either HF/HS diet with or without tea extracts from tea cultivars, which contained almost identical ingredients except for methylated catechins (i.e., Yabukita (0.2% and 1%) or Benifuuki (0.2% and 1%) extract powders). Supplementation with Benifuuki 0.2% markedly lowered plasma levels of TG and NEFAs compared with mice supplemented with Yabukita 0.2%. The diet containing Benifuuki 1% decreased adipose tissue weights, liver TG, and expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. These results suggested that Benifuuki had much greater lipid-lowering effects than Yabukita. Taken together, these data suggest that methylated catechins direct the strong lipid-lowering activity of Benifuuki.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 67-kDa laminin receptor (67LR) is a laminin-binding protein overexpressed in various types of cancer, including bile duct carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, cervical cancer, and breast carcinoma. 67LR plays a vital role in growth and metastasis of tumor cells and resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we show that 67LR functions as a cancer-specific death receptor. In this cell death receptor pathway, cGMP initiated cancer-specific cell death by activating the PKCδ/acid sphingomyelinase (PKCδ/ASM) pathway. Furthermore, upregulation of cGMP was a rate-determining process of 67LR-dependent cell death induced by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG), a natural ligand of 67LR. We found that phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), a negative regulator of cGMP, was abnormally expressed in multiple cancers and attenuated 67LR-mediated cell death. Vardenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor that is used to treat erectile dysfunction, significantly potentiated the EGCG-activated 67LR-dependent apoptosis without affecting normal cells and prolonged the survival time in a mouse xenograft model. These results suggest that PDE5 inhibitors could be used to elevate cGMP levels to induce 67LR-mediated, cancer-specific cell death.
The Journal of clinical investigation 01/2013; 123(2). DOI:10.1172/JCI64768 · 13.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EGCG [(-)-epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate], the major polyphenol of green tea, has cancer chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic activities. EGCG selectively inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells; however, the underlying molecular mechanism in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we show that EGCG-induced apoptotic activity is attributed to a lipid-raft clustering mediated through 67LR (67 kDa laminin receptor) that is significantly elevated in MM (multiple myeloma) cells relative to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and that aSMase (acid sphingomyelinase) is critical for the lipid-raft clustering and the apoptotic cell death induced by EGCG. We also found that EGCG induces aSMase translocation to the plasma membrane and PKCδ (protein kinase Cδ) phosphorylation at Ser664, which was necessary for aSMase/ceramide signalling via 67LR. Additionally, orally administered EGCG activated PKCδ and aSMase in a murine MM xenograft model. These results elucidate a novel cell-death pathway triggered by EGCG for the specific killing of MM cells.