[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Morphine stimulates tumor angiogenesis and cancer progression in mice. We examined if morphine influences endothelial-pericyte interaction via platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β). Clinically relevant doses of morphine stimulated PDGF-BB secretion from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and activated PDGFR-β and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) phosphorylation in human pericytes. These in vitro effects of morphine were translated into promotion of tumor angiogenesis in a transgenic mice model of breast cancer when treated with clinically used dose of morphine. Increased vessel-associated immunoreactivity of desmin and PDGFR-β was observed on pericytes in tumors of morphine-treated mice. These data suggest that morphine potentiates endothelial-pericyte interaction via PDGF-BB/PDGFR-β signaling and promotes tumor angiogenesis, pericyte recruitment, and coverage of tumor vessels. We speculate that morphine may impair the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy by influencing vascular pericyte coverage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is coactivated by the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), expressed on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and human lung cancer. We hypothesized that clinically used opioid analgesics that are MOR agonists coactivate EGFR, resulting in growth- and survival-promoting signaling.
We used H2009, a human adenocarcinoma NSCLC cell line, with constitutive EGFR phosphorylation, which showed increased expression of MOR and the δ-opioid receptor by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We used Western immunoblotting, magnetic bead-based Bio-Plex cytokine assay, immunofluorescent staining, BrdU incorporation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and BioCoat™ Matrigel™ invasion assay to examine cell signaling, cytokine expression, colocalization of MOR and EGFR in human lung cancer, and cell proliferation and invasion, respectively.
Similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF), morphine stimulated phosphorylation of EGFR, Akt/protein kinase B (Akt), and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling in H2009 cells. Opioid receptor (OR) antagonist, naloxone, EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, erlotinib, and silencing of MOR and δ-opioid receptor abrogated morphine- and EGF-induced phosphorylation of signaling, suggestive of OR-mediated coactivation of EGFR. H2009 cells secreted significantly higher levels of cytokines compared with control Beas2B epithelial cells. H2009-conditioned medium stimulated MOR expression in Beas2B cells, suggesting that cytokines secreted by H2009 may be associated with increased OR expression in H2009. We observed colocalization of EGFR and MOR, in human NSCLC tissue. Functionally, morphine- and EGF-induced proliferation and invasion of H2009 cells was ameliorated by naloxone as well as erlotinib.
Morphine-induced phosphorylation of EGFR occurs via ORs, leading to downstream MAPK/ERK, Akt phosphorylation, cell proliferation, and increased invasion. Notably, ORs are also associated with EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR. Increased coexpression of MOR and EGFR in human lung cancer suggests that morphine may have a growth-promoting effect in lung cancer.
Anesthesia and analgesia 12/2011; 113(6):1353-64. · 3.08 Impact Factor