Maria F Gallo

Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

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Publications (86)360.98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A biomarker of unprotected receptive anal intercourse could improve validity of sexual behavior measurement. We quantified prostate-specific antigen (PSA) from rectal swabs from men who have sex with men (MSM). One swab was PSA positive. Using current methods, PSA is an inadequate biomarker of recent unprotected receptive anal intercourse in men who have sex with men.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 06/2014; 41(6):377-9. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-method contraception refers to using condoms as well as another modern method of contraception. The latter (usually non-barrier) method is commonly hormonal (e.g., oral contraceptives) or a non-hormonal intrauterine device. Use of two methods can better prevent pregnancy and the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) compared to single-method use. Unprotected sex increases risk for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas due to the prevalence and incidence of HIV/STI. Millions of women, especially in lower-resource areas, also have an unmet need for protection against unintended pregnancy. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving use of dual methods of contraception. Dual-method use refers to using condoms as well as another modern contraceptive method. Our intent was to identify effective interventions for preventing pregnancy as well as HIV/STI transmission. Through January 2014, we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, POPLINE, EMBASE, COPAC, and Open Grey. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP for current trials and trials with relevant data or reports. We examined reference lists of pertinent papers, including review articles, for additional reports. Studies could be either randomized or non-randomized. They examined a behavioral intervention with an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve the use of dual methods, i.e., condoms and another modern contraceptive. The intervention had to address preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The program or service could be targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. The comparison condition could be another behavioral intervention to improve contraceptive use, usual care, other health education, or no intervention.Studies had to report use of dual methods, i.e., condoms plus another modern contraceptive method. We focused on the investigator's assessment of consistent dual-method use or use at last sex. Outcomes had to be measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention began. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. For the dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated using a fixed-effect model. Where studies used adjusted analysis, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. No meta-analysis was conducted due to differences in interventions and outcome measures. We identified four studies that met the inclusion criteria: three randomized controlled trials and a pilot study for one of the included trials. The interventions differed markedly: computer-delivered, individually tailored sessions; phone counseling added to clinic counseling; and case management plus a peer-leadership program. The latter study, which addressed multiple risks, showed an effect on contraceptive use. Compared to the control group, the intervention group was more likely to report consistent dual-method use, i.e., oral contraceptives and condoms. The reported relative risk was 1.58 at 12 months (95% CI 1.03 to 2.43) and 1.36 at 24 months (95% CI 1.01 to 1.85). The related pilot study showed more reporting of consistent dual-method use for the intervention group compared to the control group (reported P value = 0.06); the investigators used a higher alpha (P < 0.10) for this pilot study. The other two trials did not show any significant difference between the study groups in reported dual-method use or in test results for pregnancy or STIs at 12 or 24 months. We found few behavioral interventions for improving dual-method contraceptive use and little evidence of effectiveness. A multifaceted program showed some effect but only had self-reported outcomes. Two trials were more applicable to clinical settings and had objective outcomes measures, but neither showed any effect. The included studies had adequate information on intervention fidelity and sufficient follow-up periods for change to occur. However, the overall quality of evidence was considered low. Two trials had design limitations and two had high losses to follow up, as often occurs in contraceptive trials. Good quality studies are still needed of carefully designed and implemented programs or services.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 03/2014; 3:CD010915. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives There is currently no information on whether products evaluated in HIV microbicide trials affect the detection of the semen biomarkers PSA or Y chromosome DNA. Study Design We tested (in vitro) dilutions of tenofovir (TFV), UC781, and the hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC) placebo gels using the Abacus ABAcard and the quantitative (Abbott Architect total PSA) assays for PSA and Y chromosome DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR). Results TFV gel and the HEC placebo adversely affected PSA detection using the ABAcard, but not the Abbott Architect total PSA assay. UC781 adversely affected both the ABAcard and Abbott Architect total PSA assays. While there were some quantitative changes in the magnitude of the signal, none of the products affected positivity of the Y chromosome assay. Conclusions The presence of TFV or HEC gels did not affect quantitative PSA or Y chromosome detection in vitro. Confirmation of these findings is recommended using specimens obtained following use of these gels in vivo. Implications Researchers should consider the potential for specific microbicides or any products to affect the particular assay used for semen biomarker detection. The ABAcard assay for PSA detection should not be used with TFV and HEC.
    Contraception 01/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The advent of fertility treatments has led to an increase in the rate of multiple births in the United States. However, the trends in and magnitude of the contribution of fertility treatments to the increase are uncertain. We derived the rates of multiple births after natural conception from data on distributions of all births from 1962 through 1966 (before fertility treatments were available). Publicly available data on births from 1971 through 2011 were used to determine national multiple birth rates, and data on in vitro fertilization (IVF) from 1997 through 2011 were used to estimate the annual proportion of multiple births that were attributable to IVF and to non-IVF fertility treatments, after adjustment for maternal age. Trends in multiple births were examined starting from 1998, the year when clinical practice guidelines for IVF were developed with an aim toward reducing the incidence of multiple births. We estimated that by 2011, a total of 36% of twin births and 77% of triplet and higher-order births resulted from conception assisted by fertility treatments. The observed incidence of twin births increased by a factor of 1.9 from 1971 to 2009. The incidence of triplet and higher-order births increased by a factor of 6.7 from 1971 to 1998 and decreased by 29% from 1998 to 2011. This decrease coincided with a 70% reduction in the transfer of three or more embryos during IVF (P<0.001) and a 33% decrease in the proportion of triplet and higher-order births attributable to IVF (P<0.001). Over the past four decades, the increased use of fertility treatments in the United States has been associated with a substantial rise in the rate of multiple births. The rate of triplet and higher-order births has declined over the past decade in the context of a reduction in the transfer of three or more embryos during IVF. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).
    New England Journal of Medicine 12/2013; 369(23):2218-25. · 54.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Unprotected sex is a major risk factor for disease, disability, and mortality in many areas of the world due to the prevalence and incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) including HIV. The male condom is one of the oldest contraceptive methods and the earliest method for preventing the spread of HIV. When used correctly and consistently, condoms can provide dual protection, i.e., against both pregnancy and HIV/STI. We examined comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use. We were interested in identifying interventions associated with effective condom use as measured with biological assessments, which can provide objective evidence of protection. Through September 2013, we searched computerized databases for comparative studies of behavioral interventions for improving condom use: MEDLINE, POPLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, LILACS, OpenGrey, COPAC, ClinicalTrials.gov, and ICTRP. We wrote to investigators for missing data. Studies could be either randomized or nonrandomized. They examined a behavioral intervention for improving condom use. The comparison could be another behavioral intervention, usual care, or no intervention. The experimental intervention had an educational or counseling component to encourage or improve condom use. It addressed preventing pregnancy as well as the transmission of HIV/STI. The focus could be on male or female condoms and targeted to individuals, couples, or communities. Potential participants included heterosexual women and heterosexual men.Studies had to provide data from test results or records on a biological outcome: pregnancy, HIV/STI, or presence of semen as assessed with a biological marker, e.g., prostate-specific antigen. We did not include self-reported data on protected or unprotected sex, due to the limitations of recall and social desirability bias. Outcomes were measured at least three months after the behavioral intervention started. Two authors evaluated abstracts for eligibility and extracted data from included studies. For the dichotomous outcomes, the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI was calculated using a fixed-effect model. Cluster randomized trials used various methods of accounting for the clustering, such as multilevel modeling. Most reports did not provide information to calculate the effective sample size. Therefore, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. No meta-analysis was conducted due to differences in interventions and outcome measures. Seven studies met our eligibility criteria. All were randomized controlled trials; six assigned clusters and one randomized individuals. Sample sizes for the cluster-randomized trials ranged from 2157 to 15,614; the number of clusters ranged from 18 to 70. Four trials took place in African countries, two in the USA, and one in England. Three were based mainly in schools, two were in community settings, one took place during military training, and one was clinic-based.Five studies provided data on pregnancy, either from pregnancy tests or national records of abortions and live births. Four trials assessed the incidence or prevalence of HIV and HSV-2. Three trials examined other STI. The trials showed or reported no significant difference between study groups for pregnancy or HIV, but favorable effects were evident for some STI. Two showed a lower incidence of HSV-2 for the behavioral-intervention group compared to the usual-care group, with reported adjusted rate ratios (ARR) of 0.65 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.97) and 0.67 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.97), while HIV did not differ significantly. One also reported lower syphilis incidence and gonorrhea prevalence for the behavioral intervention plus STI management compared to the usual-care group. The reported ARR were 0.58 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.96) and 0.28 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.70), respectively. Another study reported a negative effect on gonorrhea for young women in the intervention group versus the control group (ARR 1.93; 95% CI 1.01 to 3.71). The difference occurred among those with only one year of the intervention. We found few studies and little clinical evidence of effectiveness for interventions promoting condom use for dual protection. We did not find favorable results for pregnancy or HIV, and only found some for other STI. The overall quality of evidence was moderate to low; losses to follow up were high. Effective interventions for improving condom use are needed to prevent pregnancy and HIV/STI transmission. Interventions should be feasible for resource-limited settings and tested using valid and reliable outcome measures.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 10/2013; 10:CD010662. · 5.70 Impact Factor
  • The lancet global health. 09/2013; 1(3):e119-e120.
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    ABSTRACT: Although biological markers of women's exposure to semen from vaginal intercourse have been developed as surrogates for risk of infection or probability of pregnancy, data on their persistence time and clearance are limited. During 2006-2008, 52 couples were enrolled for three 14-day cycles of abstinence from vaginal sex during which women were exposed in the clinic to a specific quantity (10, 100 or 1000 μL) of their partner's semen. Vaginal swabs were collected before and at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after exposure for testing for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and Y-chromosome DNA (Yc DNA). Immediately after exposure to 1000 μL of semen, the predicted sensitivity of being PSA positive was 0.96; this decreased to 0.65, 0.44, 0.21 and 0.07 at 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, respectively. Corresponding predicted sensitivity of being Yc DNA positive was 0.72 immediately postexposure; this increased to 0.76 at 1 h postexposure and then decreased to 0.60 (at 6 h), 0.63 (at 12 h), 0.49 (at 24 h), 0.21 (at 48 h), 0.17 (at 72 h) and 0.12 (at 144 h). Overall findings suggest that PSA may be more consistent as a marker of very recent exposure and that Yc DNA is more likely to be detected in the vagina after 12 h postexposure compared to PSA.
    Contraception 08/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Madagascar recently scaled up their volunteer community health worker (CHW) program in maternal health and family planning to reach remote and underserved communities. We conducted a cross-sectional evaluation using a systematic sample of 100 CHWs trained to provide contraceptive counseling and short-acting contraceptive services at the community level. CHWs were interviewed on demographics, recruitment, training, supervision, commodity supply, and other measures of program functionality; tested on knowledge of injectable contraception; and observed by an expert while completing five simulated client encounters with uninstructed volunteers. We developed a CHW performance score (0-100%) based on the number of counseling activities adequately met during the client encounters and used multivariable linear regression to identify correlates of the score. CHWs had a mean performance score of 73.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 70.3-77.6%). More education, more weekly volunteer hours, and receiving a refresher training correlated with a higher performance score. We found no other associations between measures of the components previously identified as essential for effective CHW programs and performance score. Although areas of deficiency were identified, CHWs proved capable of providing high-quality contraception services.
    Contraception 06/2013; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Research on interventions to prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is heavily influenced by participant reporting of sexual behavior, despite uncertainty about its validity. Exclusive reliance on participant self-report often is based, overtly or by implication, on 4 assumptions: (1) no feasible alternatives exist; (2) misreporting can be minimized to levels that can be disregarded; (3) misreporting tends to underreport sensitive behaviors; and (4) misreporting tends to be nondifferential with respect to the groups being compared. The objective of this review are to evaluate these assumptions, including a review of studies using semen biomarkers to evaluate the validity of self-reported data, and to make recommendations for applying biological markers of semen exposure detectable in women to further strengthen research on HIV/STI prevention. Increasing evidence shows that semen biomarkers provide an important means of assessing and augmenting the validity of studies on HIV/STI prevention. Additional biomarkers are needed to assess male exposure to vaginal sex and both male and female exposure to anal sex. Methods and study designs that incorporate biomarkers into studies collecting self-reported behavioral data should be considered where possible.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 06/2013; 40(6):447-52. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of counseling messages to avoid unprotected sex during short-term treatment for curable sexually transmitted infections is unknown. METHODS: We randomized 300 female STI clinic patients 18 years or older with cervicitis and/or vaginal discharge in Kingston, Jamaica, in 2010 to 2011, to 1 of 2 counseling messages for their course of syndromic treatment: abstinence only or abstinence backed up by condom use. At a follow-up visit 6 days afterward, we collected vaginal swabs to test for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a biological marker of recent semen exposure, and administered a questionnaire assessing sexual behavior. RESULTS: No differences were found in the proportions of women testing positive for PSA at follow-up in the abstinence-plus-condom group (11.9%) and abstinence-only group (8.4%) (risk difference, 3.5; 95% confidence interval, -3.5 to10.5). There also was no significant difference in reporting of unprotected sex between groups. Reporting a history of condom use before enrollment significantly modified the effect of counseling arm on PSA positivity (P = 0.03). Among those reporting recent condom use, 10.3% in the abstinence-only arm and 4.8% in the abstinence-plus-condom arm tested positive for PSA. Conversely, among those not reporting recent condom use, 6.5% in the abstinence-only arm and 17.3% in the abstinence-plus-condom arm had PSA detected. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to support the superiority of either counseling message. Post hoc analyses suggest that women with recent condom experience may benefit significantly more from abstinence-plus-condom messages, whereas women without such experience may benefit significantly more from abstinence-only messages. Providers should weigh individual condom use history when determining the most appropriate counseling message.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 02/2013; 40(2):105-110. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although common worldwide, intravaginal cleansing is associated with poor health outcomes. We sought to describe intravaginal cleansing among women attending a sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinic in Jamaica. We examined intravaginal cleansing ("washing up inside the vagina", douching, and products or materials used) among 293 participants in a randomized trial of counselling messages at an STI clinic in Kingston. We focussed on information on intravaginal cleansing performed in the 30 days and three days preceding their baseline study visit. We describe reported cleansing behaviours and used logistic regression to identify correlates of intravaginal cleansing. Fifty-eight per cent of participants reported intravaginal cleansing in the previous 30 days, and 46% did so in the three days before baseline. Among those who cleansed in the previous 30 days, 88% reported doing so for hygiene unrelated to sex, and three-fourths reported generally doing so more than once per day. Soap (usually with water) and water alone were the most common products used for washing; commercial douches or detergents were reported infrequently. Intravaginal cleansing in the three days before the baseline visit was positively associated with having more than one sex partner in the previous three months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1, 3.2), and negatively associated with experiencing itching in the genital area at baseline (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4, 1.0). A large proportion of women attending STI clinics in Jamaica engage in frequent intravaginal cleansing, indicating a need for clinicians to discuss this topic with them accordingly.
    The West Indian medical journal 01/2013; 62(1):56-61. · 0.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker of recent semen exposure. There is currently only limited information on whether topical vaginal products affect PSA assays. We investigated this question using various dilutions of several vaginal products (lubricants and spermicides) and the Abacus ABAcard for PSA detection. STUDY DESIGN: Pooled semen controls and various dilutions of nonoxynol-9 (N9), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Replens, Gynol 2, K-Y jelly, Astroglide, Surgilube, combined with pooled semen dilutions, were tested for PSA using the Abacus ABAcard. RESULTS: N9 (2% with saline) and CMC did not appear to affect the results of testing with the ABAcard, but not all semen dilutions were tested. The other products (including Replens and Gynol, which is 2% N9 with propylene glycol, K-Y, Astroglide and Surgilube) at some of the dilutions tested either affected or gave invalid results with PSA testing using the ABAcard. Both Gynol 2 and K-Y at 1:10 dilution gave false-positive results. CONCLUSIONS: Some vaginal products affect PSA results obtained by using the semiquantitative ABAcard. In vivo confirmation is necessary to further optimize PSA detection when topical vaginal products are present.
    Contraception 12/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) detected in vaginal fluid can be used in studies of HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) and pregnancy prevention as an alternative to relying on participant reports of exposure to semen. Optimal methods for collecting and storing specimens for this testing have not been determined. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a controlled, in vitro experiment of 550 specimens spiked with semen to determine the effects of swab type (five types), storage conditions of the swabs (room temperature with or without desiccant or at -80°C without desiccant) and time from collection to testing (seven intervals over the course of 12 months) on the identification of PSA. We performed factorial analysis of variance to identify factors influencing PSA detection. RESULTS: Concentrations of PSA detected in the swabs declined with time of storage over the 1-year experiment (p<.01). The 1-mL, rayon-tipped swab stored immediately at -80°C following collection performed best. CONCLUSIONS: If immediate testing or freezer storage is not feasible, investigators should use a swab with 1-mL capacity with processing and testing as soon as possible after specimen collection.
    Contraception 10/2012; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies that evaluate condom effectiveness are affected by factors related to how the condom was used, and these factors may not be consistent between different types of condoms. Also, subjective assessments of the sexual act may be unreliable. We performed a secondary data analysis of a randomized crossover trial of male and female condoms among 108 couples. Self-reported duration and activeness of coital acts were significantly different for uses of the male condom compared to uses of the female condom. Fewer individuals reported ejaculation occurring with the female condom. Reliability of self-reports of ejaculation compared to a biological marker of semen detected inside the used male and female condoms was not strong. We found that sexual behaviors appear to differ by the type of condom used for the coital act. Studies should consider sexual behavior when evaluating condom effectiveness. Furthermore, studies would be strengthened by the use of a biological marker of semen to determine whether ejaculation, and therefore a true risk of exposure, occurred.
    Contraception 03/2012; 86(4):391-6. · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Lee Warner, Maria F Gallo, Maurizio Macaluso
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    ABSTRACT: Despite a global epidemic of sexually transmissible infections and the availability and endorsement of condoms as an effective intervention, the overall use of condoms remains low. This review explores various challenges and opportunities to fully realizing the prevention potential for condoms.
    Sexual Health 03/2012; 9(1):4-9. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The female condom remains the sole female-initiated method of dual protection against unintended pregnancy and sexually transmissible infections (STIs), including HIV. We reviewed published data on the effectiveness and acceptability of the female condom for protection against pregnancy and infection. Overall, use of the female condom is low and several barriers hinder the wider adoption of the use of the method. Research on effectiveness has focussed on pregnancy, STIs and biological markers of semen exposure. Although the data available suggest that female condoms (or a mixture of female and male condoms) may provide similar degrees of protection against pregnancy and STIs as do latex male condoms alone, this conclusion has not been demonstrated and thus comparative research is urgently needed.
    Sexual Health 03/2012; 9(1):18-26. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male hormonal contraception has been an elusive goal. Administration of sex steroids to men can shut off sperm production through effects on the pituitary and hypothalamus. However, this approach also decreases production of testosterone, so 'add-back' therapy is needed. To summarize all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of male hormonal contraception. In January and February 2012, we searched the computerized databases CENTRAL, MEDLINE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for recent trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP. Previous searches included EMBASE. We wrote to authors of identified trials to seek additional unpublished or published trials. We included all RCTs that compared a steroid hormone with another contraceptive. We excluded non-steroidal male contraceptives, such as gossypol. We included both placebo and active-regimen control groups. The primary outcome measure was the absence of spermatozoa on semen examination, often called azoospermia. Data were insufficient to examine pregnancy rates and side effects. We found 33 trials that met our inclusion criteria. The proportion of men who reportedly achieved azoospermia or had no detectable sperm varied widely. A few important differences emerged. 1) Levonorgestrel implants (160 μg daily) combined with injectable testosterone enanthate (TE) were more effective than levonorgestrel 125 µg daily combined with testosterone patches. 2) Levonorgestrel 500 μg daily improved the effectiveness of TE 100 mg injected weekly. 3) Levonorgestrel 250 μg daily improved the effectiveness of testosterone undecanoate (TU) 1000 mg injection plus TU 500 mg injected at 6 and 12 weeks. 4) Desogestrel 150 μg was less effective than desogestrel 300 μg (with testosterone pellets). 5) TU 500 mg was less likely to produce azoospermia than TU 1000 mg (with levonorgestrel implants). 6) Norethisterone enanthate 200 mg with TU 1000 mg led to more azoospermia when given every 8 weeks versus 12 weeks. 7) Four implants of 7-alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) were more effective than two MENT implants. We did not conduct any meta-analysis due to intervention differences.Several trials showed promising efficacy in percentages with azoospermia. Three examined desogestrel and testosterone preparations or etonogestrel and testosterone, and two examined levonorgestrel and testosterone. No male hormonal contraceptive is ready for clinical use. Most trials were small exploratory studies. Their power to detect important differences was limited and their results imprecise. In addition, assessment of azoospermia can vary by sensitivity of the method used. Future trials need more attention to the methodological requirements for RCTs. More trials with adequate power would also be helpful.
    Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 3:CD004316. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interactions between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and inflammatory sexually transmitted infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, are not well understood. Furthermore, evidence regarding the sexual transmission of BV is equivocal. We assessed associations between incident BV and incidences of gonorrhea and/or chlamydial infection ("gonorrhea/chlamydia"), as well as similarities in associations for the two processes, among 645 female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Alabama followed prospectively for 6 months from 1995 to 1998. We identified predictors of both incident BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia and used bivariate logistic regression to determine whether these predictors differed. Participants completed 3188 monthly, follow-up visits. Several factors associated with incident BV involved sexual intercourse: young age (<16 years) at first intercourse (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.9), recent drug use during sex (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5), prevalent trichomoniasis (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.7-4.6) and incident syphilis (aOR, 9.7; 95% CI, 1.9-48.4). Few statistical differences between potential factors for BV and gonorrhea/chlamydia emerged. BV appeared to precede the acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia (pairwise odds ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.3), and vice versa (pairwise odds ratio, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.7-3.5). Findings are consistent with a causal role of sexual behavior in the acquisition of BV and confirm that BV facilitates acquisition of gonorrhea/chlamydia and vice versa independently from other risk factors.
    Annals of epidemiology 12/2011; 22(3):213-20. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: An analysis of data from a prospective study of 1257 high-risk women revealed 7 predictors of discordance between self-reported lack of recent exposure to semen and detection of spermatozoa on Gram stain, suggesting that inaccuracies in the reporting of sexual behaviors cannot be assumed to be distributed randomly.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 10/2011; 38(10):909-12. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated predictors of consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSWs), a core group for controlling the spread of HIV. In an analysis of data collected in 2004-2005 from 140 Kenyan FSWs who completed questionnaires administered during a baseline study visit and three bimonthly follow-up visits, we used a case-crossover design to identify predictors of consistent condom use during all coital acts in the preceding 2 weeks, overall and by partner type. Participants (n=140) completed the baseline visit and 390 bimonthly follow-up visits. Alcohol use during sex was negatively associated with consistent condom use with helping partners (defined as regular sex partners to whom the woman could go for help or support if needed) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-6.5) but not associated with condom use with other partners. Coital frequency was associated with condom use with other partners only. Women who reported 1-5 (AOR 11.0, 95% CI 4.3-28.3) or 6-9 recent coital acts (AOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.7-8.8) with other partners were more likely to report consistent condom use with those partners than were women who reported ≥10 acts. Having a recent partner delay payment was inversely associated with consistent condom use with helping, other, or all partners. Correlates of consistent condom use differed by partner type. By using a case-crossover design, we were able to identify potentially modifiable factors associated with consistent condom use by FSWs who used condoms consistently with a given partner type during some periods but not others.
    Journal of Women's Health 03/2011; 20(5):733-8. · 1.90 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

893 Citations
360.98 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      • Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2006–2013
    • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
      • Division of Reproductive Health
      Atlanta, MI, United States
  • 2012
    • Emory University
      • Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics
      Atlanta, GA, United States
  • 2005–2012
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 2011
    • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
    • FHI 360
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2009–2010
    • Kenya Medical Research Institute
      • Centre for Microbiology Research (CMR)
      Nairobi, Nairobi Province, Kenya
  • 2007
    • Research Triangle Park Laboratories, Inc.
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004–2007
    • Canterbury District Health Board
      • Christchurch Hospital
      Christchurch, Canterbury, New Zealand
    • University of Otago
      • Department of General Practice & Rural Health
      Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand
  • 2005–2006
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2004–2006
    • IPAS
      North Carolina, United States