[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) caused by NF1 gene mutation is a commonly inherited autosomal dominant disorder. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), a type of aggressive sarcoma, are a major cause of mortality in NF1 patients. The malignant transformation of benign plexiform neurofibromas (PNs) to MPNSTs is a marked peculiarity in NF1 patients, yet the pathogenesis remains poorly understood. We found that an actin-associated protein transgelin (SM22) was highly expressed in NF1-deficient MPNST tissues compared to NF1-deficient PN tissues using immunohistological staining and primary cultured MPNST cells in western blot analysis. We further found that this transgelin upregulation was caused by increased transcriptional expression of the TAGLN gene encoding transgelin. Comparison of DNA methylation values in the promoter and subpromoter regions of the TAGLN gene in three types of NF1-deficient primary-cultured cells, derived from an NF1 patient's normal phenotype, a benign PN and MPNST tissues, revealed that the TAGLN gene was hypomethylated in the MPNST cells. Next, to determine the functional role of transgelin in MPNST pathogenesis, we manipulated the TAGLN gene expression and investigated the alteration of the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in the normal-phenotypic and malignant tumor cells. The downregulation of TAGLN expression in NF1-deficient MPNST tumor cells through the treatment of the small interfering RNA resulted in a decrease in the RAS activation (GTP-RAS) and the downstream ERK1/2 activation (phosphorylated ERK1/2), while the overexpression of TAGLN in normal-phenotypic NF1-deficient cells caused an increase in RAS and ERK1/2 activation. These results indicate that upregulation of transgelin caused by hypomethylation of the TAGLN gene is closely involved in tumor progression in NF1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kisspeptin/G-protein couple receptor-54 (GPR54) system plays a key role in the activation of the gonadotropic axis at puberty. Central precocious puberty (CPP) is caused by the premature activation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion. This study was aimed to identify KISS1 gene variations and to investigate the associations between KISS1 gene variations and CPP in Korean girls. All coding exons of KISS1 gene were sequenced in Korean girls with CPP (n = 143) and their healthy controls (n = 101). Nine polymorphisms were identified in KISS1 gene. A novel single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), 55648176 T/G, was identified for the first time. SNP 55648184 C/G and 55648186 -/T were detected more frequently in CPP group than in control group. SNP 55648176 T/G was detected less frequently in CPP group than in control group. Haplotype GGGC-ACCC was detected less frequently in CPP group. The genetic variations of KISS1 gene can be contributing factors of development of CPP. The association between the gene variations and CPP should be validated by further evidence obtained from large-scaled and functional studies.
Journal of Korean medical science. 08/2014; 29(8):1120-5.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis (ARC) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the VPS33B and VIPAS39. Here, we report novel mutations identified in four patients with ARC syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 46,XX testicular disorder of sex development (DSD), also known as 46,XX male syndrome, is a rare form of DSD and clinical phenotype shows complete sex reversal from female to male. The sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene can be identified in most 46,XX testicular DSD patients; however, approximately 20% of patients with 46,XX testicular DSD are SRY-negative. The SRY-box 9 (SOX9) gene has several important functions during testis development and differentiation in males, and overexpression of SOX9 leads to the male development of 46,XX gonads in the absence of SRY. In addition, SOX9 duplication has been found to be a rare cause of 46,XX testicular DSD in humans. Here, we report a 4.2-year-old SRY-negative 46,XX boy with complete sex reversal caused by SOX9 duplication for the first time in Korea. He showed normal external and internal male genitalia except for small testes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses failed to detect the presence of SRY, and SOX9 intragenic mutation was not identified by direct sequencing analysis. Therefore, we performed real-time PCR analyses with specific primer pairs, and duplication of the SOX9 gene was revealed. Although SRY-negative 46,XX testicular DSD is a rare condition, an effort to make an accurate diagnosis is important for the provision of proper genetic counseling and for guiding patients in their long-term management.
Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism. 06/2014; 19(2):108-12.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM#147920) is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome. Recently, pathogenic variants in KMT2D and KDM6A were identified as the causes of KS in 55.8-80.0% of patients. To elucidate further the molecular characteristics of Korean patients with KS, we screened a cohort of patients with clinically defined KS for mutations in KMT2D and KDM6A. Whole-exome sequencing and direct sequencing for validation were performed in 12 patients with a clinical suspicion of KS. KMT2D and KDM6A mutations were identified in 11 (91.7%) patients. No recurrent mutation was observed, and 10 out of the 11 mutations found were novel. KMT2D mutations were detected in 10 patients, including four small deletions or insertions and four nonsense and two missense mutations. One girl had a novel splice-site mutation in KDM6A. Each patient had a unique individual mutation. This is the first report of mutational analysis via exome sequencing in Korean patients with KS. Because the mutation-detection rate was high in this study, rigorous mutation analysis of KMT2D and KDM6A may be an important tool for the early diagnosis and genetic counseling of Korean patients with KS.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 17 April 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.25.
Journal of Human Genetics 04/2014; · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monochorionic (MC) pregnancy in humans is usually considered to be associated only with monozygotic twinning. However, several reports have revealed that dizygotic (DZ) twins can also share a chorion during pregnancy. A chimera is defined as an organism that contains different cells derived from two or more distinct zygotes. As artificial reproductive techniques develop, it can be predicted that the occurrence of MC DZ twins will increase, and DNA-fingerprinting methods, such as short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, will be essential for their accurate diagnosis. We report the first Korean case of MC DZ twins with blood chimerism, 46,XX/46,XY, as a consequence of in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer. The clinical phenotypes of the twins' genitalia were complete female and male, respectively. Monochorionicity was confirmed by pathological analysis of the placenta after delivery. The dizygosity and confined blood chimerism of the twins were confirmed by STR analysis using their peripheral lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts. The confined blood chimerism of the twins can be considered similar to the status of the hematopoietic system in patients after allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Conclusion: When MC twins with discordant sex are expected during pregnancy, it is important to consider the possibility of DZ twins showing normal sexual development, especially in twins who were fertilized using artificial reproductive techniques.
European Journal of Pediatrics 04/2014; · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin films were fabricated via self-combustion of In and Zn salts coordinated with fuel and oxidizer ligands. The intense heat generated from the exothermic reaction compensated for the energy required for oxide formation and reduced the temperature required to anneal the oxide films. Thermal analysis of the fuel and oxidizer precursors confirmed the generation of exothermic heat at a relatively low annealing temperature. With the aid of the internal energy that evolved as heat from the combustion reaction, the formation of the metal–oxygen–metal lattice and the removal of organic ligands could be easily accomplished with lower amounts of externally supplied energy. IZO thin-film transistors (TFTs), obtained from this combustive In–Zn pair at a low annealing temperature of 350 C, showed a significantly enhanced field-effect mobility of 13.8 cm 2 V À1 s À1 and a high on/off current ratio of 1.06 Â 10 8 . Inkjet printing of the combustive precursors yielded TFTs with a high field-effect mobility of 5.3 cm 2 V À1 s À1 and an on/off ratio of 10 6 . The high performance, good device uniformity, and high yield of TFTs fabricated by our self-combustion method demonstrate the potential of the proposed system to facilitate the processing of flexible printed electronics.
Journal of Materials Chemistry 03/2014; 2:4247. · 5.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by bone fragility and connective tissue manifestations. We report a successful liver transplantation (LT) in an 8-month-old boy with OI and cholestatic biliary cirrhosis. After 4 cycles of intravenous pamidronate, LT was performed under intravenous anesthesia using a left lateral section from his mother without mechanical retractors. The operation time was 420 min and estimated blood loss was 520 mL requiring one unit of RBC transfusion. He was discharged without surgical complications. Therefore, LT should be considered for patients with end stage liver disease and OI under organic multidisciplinary cooperation.
Journal of Korean medical science 03/2014; 29(3):441-4. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in corneal endothelial cells. CHED can be divided into 2 types by the modes of inheritance; CHED type 1 (CHED1) with autosomal dominant inheritance and CHED type 2 (CHED2) with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutations in the sodium bicarbonate transporter-like solute carrier family 4 member 11 (SLC4A11) gene result CHED2. Methods: A 37 years old female was clinically diagnosed as CHED2. Peripheral blood from the patient and her family members was obtained under informed consents. Genomic DNA was extracted in their WBCs, and whole exons and exon-intron boundaries of the SLC4A11 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified materials were analyzed by direct sequencing method. Results: The sequencing results of the SLC4A11 gene showed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 9 (c.1158C > A, p.C386*) in the proband with CHED2 phenotype. Her father and sister showing normal cornea were heterozygous carriers of the mutation. Her mother showing late onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) also had the same mutation heterozygously. Discussion: We report a novel nonsense mutation of the SLC4A11 gene in the patient with CHED2. In addition, one of heterozygous carriers in this family showed features of late onset FECD. Close clinical ocular examination for the heterozygous carriers should be performed to detect late onset FECD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sotos syndrome (SS) is a congenital overgrowth syndrome. NSD1 mutations are identifiable in most SS patients. There have been a few reports of familial inheritance of SS worldwide, but no familial cases have been reported in Korea. A 6-month-old girl had tall stature and macrocephaly with mild ventricular enlargement, and showed mild delay in motor and language development. Her mother also had tall stature and a long narrow face. The baby and her mother were suspected of having familial SS. Chromosome 5q35 microdeletion was first ruled out by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, and direct sequencing of NSD1 revealed a novel heterozygous mutation in exon 22 (c.6356delA; p.Asp2119Valfs*31). This report describes, for the first time, a Korean family with two generations of SS resulting from a novel intragenic NSD1 mutation.
Annals of clinical and laboratory science 01/2014; 44(2):228-31. · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study analyzed and evaluated the demographic, clinical, and cytogenetic data [G-banded karyotyping and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH)] of patients with unexplained developmental delay or intellectual disability at a single Korean institution. Materials and Methods: We collected clinical and cytogenetic data based on retrospective charts at Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon, Korea from April 2008 to March 2012. Results: A total of 190 patients were identified. Mean age was 5.1±1.87 years. Array CGH yielded abnormal results in 26 of 190 patients (13.7%). Copy number losses were about two-fold more frequent than gains. A total of 61.5% of all patients had copy number losses. The most common deletion disorders included 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 15q11.2q12 deletion and 18q deletion syndrome. Copy number gains were identified in 34.6% of patients, and common diseases among these included Potocki-Lupski syndrome, 15q11-13 duplication syndrome and duplication 22q. Abnormal karyotype with normal array CGH results was exhibited in 2.6% of patients; theses included balanced translocation (n=2), inversion (n=2) and low-level mosaicism (n=1). Facial abnormalities (p<0.001) and failure to thrive were (p<0.001) also more frequent in the group of patients with abnormal CGH findings. Conclusion: Array CGH is a useful diagnostic tool in clinical settings in patients with developmental delay or intellectual disability combined with facial abnormalities or failure to thrive.
Yonsei medical journal 11/2013; 54(6):1463-70. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Overgrowth syndromes comprise a diverse group of conditions with unique clinical, behavioral and molecular genetic features. While considerable overlap in presentation sometimes exists, advances in identification of the precise etiology of specific overgrowth disorders continue to improve clinicians' ability to make an accurate diagnosis. Among them, this paper introduces two classic genetic overgrowth syndromes: Sotos syndrome and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Historically, the diagnosis was based entirely on clinical findings. However, it is now understood that Sotos syndrome is caused by a variety of molecular genetic alterations resulting in haploinsufficiency of the NSD1 gene at chromosome 5q35 and that Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is caused by heterogeneous abnormalities in the imprinting of a number of growth regulatory genes within chromosome 11p15 in the majority of cases. Interestingly, the 11p15 imprinting region is also associated with Russell-Silver syndrome which is a typical growth retardation syndrome. Opposite epigenetic alterations in 11p15 result in opposite clinical features shown in Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and Russell-Silver syndrome. Although the exact functions of the causing genes have not yet been completely understood, these overgrowth syndromes can be good models to clarify the complex basis of human growth and help to develop better-directed therapies in the future.
Annals of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism. 09/2013; 18(3):101-105.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Langer-Giedion syndrome (LGS; MIM 150230), also called trichorhinophalangeal syndrome type II (TRPS2), is a contiguous gene syndrome caused by a one-copy deletion in the chromosome 8q23-q24 region, spanning the genes TRPS1 and EXT1. We identified an LGS family with two affected and two unaffected siblings from unaffected parents. To investigate the etiology of recurrence of LGS in this family, array CGH was performed on all family members. We identified a 7.29 Mb interstitial deletion at chromosome region 8q23-q24 in the two affected siblings, but no such deletion in the unaffected family members. However, the mother and one of the two unaffected siblings carried a 1.29 Mb deletion at chromosome region 8q24.1, sharing the distal breakpoint with the larger deleted segment found in the affected siblings. Another unaffected sibling had a 6.0 Mb duplication, sharing the proximal breakpoint of the deletion in the affected siblings. Karyotypic and FISH analyses in the unaffected mother revealed an insertional translocation of 8q23-q24 genomic material into chromosome 13: 46,XX,ins(13;8)(q33;q23q24). This insertional translocation in the mother results in the recurrence of LGS in this family, highlighting the importance of submicroscopic rearrangements in the genetic counseling for LGS.
European journal of medical genetics 07/2013; · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most common autosomal dominant disorders in humans. NF1 is caused by mutations of the NF1 gene. Mutation detection is complex owing to the large size of the NF1 gene, the presence of pseudogenes, and the great variety of mutations. Also, few probable genotype-phenotype correlations have been found in NF1. In this study 78 Korean patients from 60 families were screened for NF1 mutations. Mutation analysis of the entire coding region and flanking splice sites was carried out and included the use of a combination of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, multiplex ligation probe amplification, or fluorescence in situ hybridization. Mutation spectrum and genotype-phenotype relationship were assessed. Fifty-two distinct NF1 mutations were identified in 60 families. The mutations included 30 single base substitutions (12 missense and 18 nonsense), 11 missplicing mutations, seven small insertion or deletions, and four gross deletions. Sixteen (30.8%) mutations were novel; c.1A>G, c.2033_2034insC, c.2540T>C, c.4537C>T, c.5546G>A, c.6792C>A, and c.6792C>G were recurrently identified. The mutations were evenly distributed across exon 1 through intron 47 of NF1, and no mutational hot spots were found. A genotype-phenotype analysis suggests that there is no clear relationship between specific mutations and clinical features. This analysis revealed a wide spectrum of NF1 mutations in Korean patients. As technologies advance in molecular genetics, the mutation detection rate will increase. Considering that 30.8% of detected mutations were novel, exhaustive mutation analysis of NF1 may be an important tool in early diagnosis and genetic counseling.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS) is a rare autosomal dominant, inherited arthrogryposis syndrome characterized by multiple congenital contractures of the distal limbs. To date, four genes that encode the skeletal muscle fiber complex have been confirmed as the causative genes. Mutations in MYH3 have been identified most frequently and few cases of SHS caused by TPM2 mutations have been reported worldwide. This report describes, for the first time, a Korean family with two generations of SHS resulting from a rare TPM2 mutation, p.R133W. The affected mother and daughter manifested typical facial features of SHS including a triangular face with downslanting palpebral fissures, small mouth, high arched palate, and prominent nasolabial folds, and showed camptodactyly of fingers and deformities of feet with congenital vertical tali. Generalized myopathy with relative sparing of the slow-twitch muscle fibers was also revealed by electromyography in the affected mother.
Journal of Korean medical science 05/2013; 28(5):780-3. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Novel solution-processable thiol–ene gate dielectrics for use in organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) have been designed and fabricated in this study. Incorporation of UV-sensitive functional groups in the thiol–ene system affords electrical and thermal stability to the gate dielectric layers by a simple photocuring method. The very smooth thiol–ene gate dielectric layer exhibits excellent insulating properties (leakage current densities 10−7 to 10−8 A cm−2 at 2 MV cm−1) and a relatively high dielectric constant (>5) with high environmental stability. Furthermore, the electrical properties of this gate dielectric layer are stable up to 300 °C and show no changes even when the dielectric is kept for 100 days in air; this stability can be attributed to the densely cross-linked structure of the thiol–ene layer. OTFTs utilizing the thiol–ene gate dielectrics with various organic semiconductors show enhanced TFT performances; in particular, they show no hysteresis without a threshold-voltage shift. These observations are in contrast to those for a representative organic gate dielectric polymer, cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Monozygotic twins, developed from a single zygote, are almost identical in clinical phenotype and concordant karyotypes. Monozygotic twins with discordant karyotypes are thought to be quite rare. Here, we report monochorionic-diamniotic twins discordant for Down syndrome. On findings of prenatal ultrasonography, nuchal translucency thickness was different between twins, and suggested that one of the twins was at high risk for having chromosomal abnormalities including Down syndrome. The twins were monochorionic-diamniotic; therefore, chorionic villi sampling of the common placenta was performed. The karyotype of the chorionic villi cells was 46,XX, and pregnancy was maintained. After delivery, dysmorphic clinical features suggesting Down syndrome were found in one of the twins, while the other twin showed a morphologically normal appearance. Karyotypes of peripheral blood leukocytes were repeatedly normal in the dysmorphic twin; however, the karyotype of skin fibroblasts from the dysmorphic twin indicated Down syndrome mosaicism; 47,XX,+21/46,XX. The karyotype of skin fibroblasts from the morphologically normal twin was 46,XX. Monozygosity of the twins was confirmed by a short tandem repeat analysis using 16 polymorphic markers. A mitotic nondisjunction followed by the twinning would explain the discordant karyotypes between monozygotic twins.
European Journal of Pediatrics 04/2013; · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS) is a rare multiple congenital malformation syndrome defined by characteristic facial features, profound developmental delay, severe growth failure, and multiple congenital anomalies. Most individuals affected by SGS die in early childhood mainly because of progressive neurodegeneration and respiratory failure. The causative gene of SGS, SETBP1, was identified, but there are few reports of SGS with molecular confirmation worldwide. PATIENT AND METHOD: In this study, we present a 10-month-old boy presenting with SGS complicated by epilepsy and profound developmental delay. RESULTS: Typical facial features, multiple anomalies, and associated neurological findings suggested a clinical diagnosis of SGS. Unusually in our patient, generalized tonic seizure occurred and has been controlled well by combined antiepileptic therapy during 7 months of follow-up. Electroencephalography findings were compatible with partial seizures, and ventriculomegaly, thinning of the corpus callosum, and delayed myelination were identified on brain MR images. SETBP1 mutational analysis revealed the presence of a recurrent mutation, p.Gly870Ser. Thus, the diagnosis of our patient was molecularly confirmed as SGS. CONCLUSIONS: Although this syndrome is extremely rare, it is important to consider SGS in the differential diagnosis of infantile-onset epilepsy with progressive neurodevelopmental retardation, especially in patients with multiple anomalies and facial dysmorphism.
Child s Nervous System 02/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blending of the crystalline organic semiconductor, 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS pentacene), with amorphous polymers exhibits not only excellent solution processability, but also superior performance characteristics in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). To understand the inkjet-printing behavior of TIPS pentacene/polymer blends, we use amorphous polycarbonate (APC), which is structurally beneficial to the facile phase separation of TIPS pentacene crystals due to the strong segregation strength estimated by the Flory–Huggins interaction parameter. The various inkjet-printing behaviors of TIPS pentacene/APC inks, which depend on the TIPS pentacene/APC compositions, ink viscosities, and different solvent mixtures, are investigated. These behaviors can ultimately determine the phase separation, morphology, shape, and orientation of the TIPS pentacene crystals in OTFT films. Flory–Huggins phase separation theory is applied, and various analytical methods, such as polarized optical microscopy, 3D surface profile, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), are utilized to explain these relationships. By controlling these inkjet-printing conditions, it is possible to easily regulate the optimal inkjet-printing process for TIPS-pentacene/polymer systems, which can derive the desirable stripe-shaped and vertically phase-separated TIPS pentacene crystals with the proper orientation and enhanced surface morphology. The resultant inkjet-printed films from the TIPS pentacene with APC show excellent device stability and an average mobility of 0.53 cm2 V−1 s−1. Furthermore, the inkjet-printed flexible OTFT array with an average mobility of 0.27 cm2 V−1 s−1 sustains the application of TIPS pentacene/APC in the field of flexible printed electronics.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth syndrome with characteristic facial dysmorphism, variable severity of learning disabilities and macrocephaly with overgrowth. Haploinsufficiency of the nuclear receptor SET domain-containing protein 1 (NSD1) gene located on 5q35 has been implicated as the cause of Sotos syndrome. This study was performed to investigate the mutation spectrum of NSD1 abnormalities and meaningful genotype-phenotype correlations in Korean patients with Sotos syndrome. Eighteen unrelated Korean patients with Sotos syndrome were enrolled for clinical and molecular analyses. Cytogenetic studies were performed to confirm 5q35 microdeletion, and NSD1 sequencing analysis was performed to identify intragenic mutations. NSD1 abnormalities were identified in 15 (83%) patients. Among them, eight patients (53%) had 5q35 microdeletions and the other seven patients (47%) had seven different NSD1 intragenic mutations including four novel mutations. The mutation spectrum of Korean patients with Sotos syndrome was similar to that of previous studies for Japanese patients. Height was significantly shorter and age of walking alone was significantly older in the microdeletion group compared with those in the intragenic mutation group. No significant differences were observed for other clinical characteristics between the microdeletion and intragenic mutation groups. Further studies with a larger number of patients will be necessary to draw conclusive genotype-phenotype correlations.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jhg.2012.135.
Journal of Human Genetics 11/2012; · 2.37 Impact Factor