[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introdução A ovinocultura é uma atividade que desperta enorme interesse como alternativa viável de agronegócio, principalmente para as pequenas e médias propriedades rurais e para a agricultura familiar (CUNHA et al., 2004). Nos últimos anos, em São Paulo, tem-se verifi cado aumento signifi cativo do rebanho ovino e de propriedades envolvidas nessa atividade. Enquanto no período de 1970 a 2008 o rebanho ovino brasileiro passou por redução de 5,75% no número de cabeças (de 17.643.004 para 16.628.571 animais), no Estado de São Paulo o número de animais aumentou em 361,9% (de 98.126 para 453.261). Apesar do grande crescimento nos últimos anos, o rebanho ovino paulista representa somente 2,7% do rebanho nacional (PRODUÇÃO, 2010). De acordo com o Censo Agropecuário do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografi a e Estatística (IBGE) para 2008 (PRODUÇÃO, 2010), no Estado de São Paulo, os planteis de ovinos distribuem-se na seguinte proporção: 19,2% na região de São José do Rio Preto, 11,3% em Bauru, 10,5% em Presidente Prudente, 9,5% em Araçatuba, 8,3% em Campinas, 7,4% em Ribeirão Preto, 6,8% em Itapetininga, 5,9% em Assis, 4,9% na região Macrometropolitana, 4% no Vale do Paraíba, 3,8% em Araraquara, 3,5% em Piracicaba, 3,4% em Marília, 0,8% no Litoral Sul e 0,7% na região Metropolitana. A ovinocultura para corte é uma atividade pecuária recente em São Paulo e, por esse motivo, o conhecimento sobre o manejo adotado nas diferentes propriedades criatórias de ovinos ainda é incipiente e refl ete informações desordenadas repassadas de outros Estados. Já foram realizados
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It was conducted an experiment at Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, at Itapetininga, SP, Brazil, in order to evaluation the helmintic infection in Suffolk lambs finished in rotational grazing and in feedlot. Feces and blood samples were collected every 14 days of 39 lambs, from 45 days of age up to reach the slaughter weight age, for the individual determination of the eggs for gram of feces (EPG) counts, the larval cultures, the average packed cell volumes (VG) and the total plasmatic protein (TPP). Anthelmintic treatment was used when the individual counts was equal or higher to 500 EPG. By EPG counts was observed significant difference between the treatments (p ? 0.01), with the average values of 2,507 and 1,050 EPG counts found in the animals on grazing and confined, respectively. During the experimental period it was necessary, on the average, 2.6 and 3.8 anthelmintic treatments for the animals in feedlot and in rotational grazing, respectively. To VG there was no significant difference between the treatments, with the average values of 33 and 34% for animals in grazing and feedlot, respectively. There was significant difference (p ? 0.05) between two systems for total protein values, with 5.70 % for grazing animals and 5.53 % for feedlot animals. In the present experiment, the grazing animals presented higher EPG counts, probably due to the reinfection. This result, however, it did not interfere in the average values of the VG. The gastrointestinal nematodes found were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus and Strongyloides. Foi conduzido um experimento na Unidade de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, em Itapetininga, SP, com o objetivo de acompanhar a infecção helmíntica de cordeiros Suffolk em dois sistemas de terminação (pastejo rotativo e confinamento). Amostras de fezes, para a determinação individual da contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e da coprocultura, e amostras de sangue, para a determinação do volume globular médio (VG) e da proteína plasmática total (PPT), foram coletadas a cada 14 dias de 39 cordeiros, dos 45 dias de idade até o peso de abate. O anti-helmíntico foi utilizado quando o OPG apresentou contagem individual igual ou superior a 500. No OPG, houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos (p ? 0,01), sendo os valores médios de 2.507 e 1.050 OPG para animais a pasto e confinados, respectivamente. Durante o período experimental foram necessárias, em média, 2,6 dosificações para os animais em confinamento e 3, 8 dosificações para os animais em pastejo rotativo. Quanto ao VG, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, encontrando-se valores médios respectivos de 33 e 34%, para animais a pasto e em confinamento. Houve diferença significativa (p ? 0,05) entre as médias dos valores de proteína total, sendo 5,70 % para os animais a pasto e 5,53 % para os em confinamento. As maiores contagens de OPG apresentadas pelos animais terminados a pasto, provavelmente devido à reinfecção, não interferiram nos valores médios do volume globular. Os gêneros de nematódeos gastrintestinais identificados foram Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus e Strongyloides.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At the Instituto de Zootecnia, APTA, São Paulo State-Brazil, it was carried out an experiment to evaluated the chemical quality and ruminal degradation for dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and protein (CP) of sunflower and corn silages. For chemical evaluation of the silages, a total randomized design with nine replicates was used. For in situ degradability was used a split-plot design with three replicates, in which the plots were the times of incubation and the subplot the silage. Sunflower silage showed higher concentration of crude protein (11.6 vs 9.4%), ether extract (10.1 vs 3.2%), acid detergent fiber (42.7 vs 31.9%) and lignin (9.4 vs 3.7%), and lower concentration of dry matter than corn silage (22.0 vs 34.6%), respectively; and also higher concentration of ammonia nitrogen (10.7 vs 5.8 %) and acetic acid (3.0 vs 0.79%) and lower concentration of lactic acid (3.7 vs 11.3%) than corn silage. The effective degradation rates of DM, NDF and CP were lower in the sunflower silage. Corn silage showed more favorable characteristics for ensiling process.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments were conduct to evaluate the effect of dietary nutritive value and performance of sheep fed corn- or sunflower silage-based diet with increasing concentrate proportion (20, 40 and 60%). A factorial design (2x3) was used to evaluate nutritive value and digestibility coefficient of two silages with three concentrate levels and three sheep for each treatment. For lamb performance, a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (2x3) was used to evaluate lamb performance, with five Suffolk lambs/treatment. Apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CF, NFE, NDF, ADF and cellulose were smaller for sunflower than for corn silage. Corn silage-based diets showed higher values of daily dry matter intake (709.5 x 609.7 g), daily live weight gains (181.8 x 108.2 g) and lower values of feed:gain ratio (3.82 x 5.53 kg DM/kg LW gain) than sunflower silage-based diets. Sunflower silage-based diets showed lower nutritive values than corn silage-based and smaller lamb performance. Lambs fed sunflower silage-based diets need more concentrate ration to obtain performance similar to those fed corn silage-based diets.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 12/2004; 33(6):1942-1948. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with dehydrated citrus pulp (DCP) on the performance of growing kids and apparent digestibility of their diets. Thirty-two Saanen kids (16 intact males and 16 females) were placed in individual pens and fed grass hay (42%) plus concentrate mixture (58%) with four levels of replacement of corn by DCP (0, 33, 66, 100%) during 60 days. Daily live-weight gain, dry matter intake, and feed conversion were evaluated. After this period, male kids (n=16) were transferred to metabolic cages and apparent digestibility was evaluated. Daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion and the apparent dry matter digestibility coefficient showed a quadratic effect (P<0.05) with the increasing levels of replacement. Crude fiber, NDF, ADF and ether extract digestibility showed a linear increase (P<0.01) and the digestibility of other organic nutrients were not modified (P>0.05). Apparent digestibility of Ca, P differed among diets (P<0.05) fitted in a quadratic model and showed a great decrease at the highest level of replacement. Replacing around 40% of corn by DCP can attain the best performance for growing kids.
Small Ruminant Research 11/2002; 46(2-46):179-185. DOI:10.1016/S0921-4488(02)00184-0 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationships between neutrophils oxidative metabolism, cortisol serum levels and worm burden, estimated by fecal egg count (EPG), were studied in sheep naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites at the end of pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning. Twenty-two Suffolk sheep three to four year-old, of same parity and season of parturition were used. Serum cortisol was determined by radioimmunoassay and the neutrophils oxidative metabolism by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction test. The highest EPG values were observed on the fifth week of lactation while the highest rates of cortisol and reduction of NBT occurred on the fourth week after weaning. A positive correlation (r = 0.52; P<0.01) was observed between the neutrophils capacity to reduce the NBT and the serum cortisol concentration in the pre-parturition period. Otherwise, the neutrophils oxidative metabolism decreased near to the parturition. A negative correlation (r = -0.39; P<0.01) between EPG and NBT reduction test was observed after weaning, which was coincident with the increase in the neutrophils capacity to reduce NBT, indicating that animals showing better immune response after weaning have neutrophils with higher oxidative metabolism and lower worm burden.
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 06/2002; 54(3):242-247. · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Estudaram-se as relações entre o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos, os níveis séricos de cortisol e a carga parasitária estimada pela contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) no final da gestação, durante a lactação e após o desmame de ovelhas naturalmente infectadas por nematódeos gastrintestinais. Utilizaram-se 22 ovelhas da raça Suffolk, homogêneas quanto à idade (três a quatro anos), número de parições (terceira) e época de parição. O cortisol sérico foi determinado por radioimunoensaio e o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos pelo teste de redução do tetrazólio nitroazul (NBT). Os maiores valores de OPG foram observados na quinta semana de lactação, e as maiores taxas de cortisol e de redução do NBT ocorreram na quarta semana pós-desmame. Verificou-se correlação positiva (r = 0,52; P<0,05) entre a capacidade dos neutrófilos reduzirem o NBT e a concentração sérica de cortisol no período pré-parto. Próximo ao parto o metabolismo oxidativo dos neutrófilos diminuiu. Após o desmame a correlação entre o OPG e o teste de redução do NBT foi negativa (r = -0,39; P<0,01). A diminuição do OPG observada após o desmame coincidiu com o aumento da capacidade de os neutrófilos reduzirem o NBT, indicando que animais com melhor resposta imune pós-desmame possuem neutrófilos com metabolismo oxidativo maior e menor carga parasitária.
Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 06/2002; 54(3). DOI:10.1590/S0102-09352002000300004 · 0.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixty-nine lambs from the crossbreeding Corriedale or Polwarth ewes with Suffolk, Ile de France rams or from the same ewe breed were used to evaluate their performance and carcass characteristics. Lambs were maintained under grazing until weaning time (60 days), then were confined for 90 days and fed corn silage and concentrate based diet. A completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement was used. The use of meat type rams on fine wool ewes did not affect lamb birth and weaning weight, however increased the carcass weight and compacting, without effect on forequarter and ribs. Subcutaneous fat thickness was not affected by the genotype and it was greater for females. Loin eye area did not show difference between genotypes. Carcass measurements showed differences between genotypes, being the ones from Suffolk mating the longest, followed by the crossbred from Ile de France.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia 02/2000; 29(1):243-252. · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Grazing behaviour, ponderal growth and level of parasitic infestation were studied in Suffolk breed sheep, from 1994 to 1995, in Nova Odessa, São Paulo. Two management systems were compared: restricted grazing, where the animals were released to the pastures at 9:50 a.m. and confined at 5:30 p.m., and 24 hour grazing, where the animals were maintained all the time in the paddocks, but with access to shelters. Thirty-four adult ewes were used in the summer period (17 under restricted grazing and 17 full-time grazing), and 42 ewes in the winter period (21 with restricted grazing and 21 full-time grazing). Also, for both seasons, 12 tracer animals, six in each grazing system, were used to obtain worm counts from their digestive tracts. For three consecutive days, grazing behaviour, that is, whether grazing or not, was observed in January/February (summer) and July/August (winter) at 30 minute intervals from 7:00 a.m. to 5:30 p.m., also whether the animals stayed in the sun or shade, irrespective of whether they were grazing or not. The level of parasitic infestation was evaluated under each system by eggs per gram countings (EPG) of the herd and the tracer animals, as well as by larvae count. It was concluded that restriction of grazing time by itself does not provide any effective control of parasitic infestation in sheep, however a better control was obtained in the summer period. Restricted grazing time was compensated by the greater activity of the animals during the hotter hours of the day, however, this behaviour affected the animal performance, resulting in lower weight gains. Greater forage availability in relation to estimated consumption may explain the similarity between the grazing times observed in both management systems, either in the summer or in the winter.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Slaughter age and carcass characteristics of Saanen (n=9) and Saanen X Boer (N=13) crossbred kids slaughtered between 20-25 kg of live-weight were evaluated. The kids were weaned at around 60 days old and fed chopped grass and concentrate ration (20% CP; 80% TDN; 0,6% P and 0,8% Ca) at 2,5 % of live wheigt. A complete randomized design was used to compare two genotype using cold carcass weight as covariable. The genotypes evaluated did not show differences to slaughter-weight ( 22.7 kg), slaughter age (128 days), warm and cold dressing carcass (48.2 and 46.1%), % of hindquarter (42.0), % of forequarter (43.4), % of ribs (14.2), % of bones (23.8), % of flesh (64.0), carcass measurements, loin eye area (13,0 cm2), cover fat thickness (0,17 mm) . Although the % of carcass fat (10.4 e 12.1), fat grade (1.6 e 2.1) and compactness (0.188 e 0.198 kg/cm) were higher to crossbred kids. Mating Saanen goats with Boer bucks improves carcass characteristics of crossbred kids.