Rosanne M Crooke

Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Carlsbad, California, United States

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Publications (61)307.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies demonstrated that L-Fabp knockout mice are more susceptible to LD induced gallstones because of altered hepatic cholesterol metabolism and increased canalicular cholesterol secretion. Other studies demonstrated that liver-specific deletion of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp-LKO) reduced lithogenic diet (LD) induced gallstone formation by increasing biliary phospholipid secretion. Here we show that mice with combined deletion (ie DKO mice) are protected from LD induced gallstone formation. Following two weeks LD feeding, 73% of wild-type (WT) and 100% of L-Fabp knockout mice developed gallstones versus 18% of Mttp-LKO and 23% of DKO mice. This phenotype was recapitulated in both WT and L-Fabp knockout mice treated with an Mttp antisense oligonucleotide (M-ASO). Biliary cholesterol secretion was increased in LD fed L-Fabp knockout mice and decreased in DKO mice. However, phospholipid secretion was unchanged in LD fed Mttp-LKO and DKO mice as well as in M-ASO treated mice. Expression of the canalicular export pump ABCG5/G8 was reduced in LD fed DKO mice and in M-ASO treated L-Fabp knockout mice. We conclude that liver-specific Mttp deletion not only eliminates apical lipoprotein secretion from hepatocytes but also attenuates canalicular cholesterol secretion, which in turn decreases LD induced gallstone susceptibility.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 01/2014; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raised blood C-reactive protein (CRP) level is a predictor of cardiovascular events, but whether blood CRP is causal in the disease process is unknown. The latter would best be defined by pharmacological inhibition of the protein in the context of a randomized case-control study. However, no CRP specific drug is currently available so such a prospective study cannot be performed. Blood CRP is synthesized primarily in the liver and the liver is an organ where antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) drugs accumulate. Taking advantage of this we evaluated the efficacy of CRP specific ASOs in rodents with experimentally induced cardiovascular damage. Treating rats for 4 weeks with a rat CRP-specific ASO achieved >60% reduction of blood CRP. Notably, this effect was associated with improved heart function and pathology following myocardial infarction (induced by ligation of the left anterior descending artery). Likewise in human CRP transgenic mice treated for 2 weeks with a human CRP-specific ASO, blood human CRP was reduced by >70% and carotid artery patency was improved (2 weeks after surgical ligation). CRP specific ASOs might pave the way towards a placebo-controlled trial that could clarify the role of CRP in cardiovascular disease.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:353614. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-reactive protein (CRP) binds to damaged cells, activates the classical complement pathway, is elevated in multiple inflammatory conditions, and provides prognostic information on risk of future atherosclerotic events. It is controversial, however, as to whether inhibiting CRP synthesis would have any direct anti-inflammatory effects in humans.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(4).
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    ABSTRACT: An effective way to reduce LDL cholesterol, the primary risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, is to increase cholesterol excretion from the body. Our group and others have recently found that cholesterol excretion can be facilitated by both hepatobiliary and transintestinal pathways. However, the lipoprotein that moves cholesterol through the plasma to the small intestine for transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) is unknown. To test the hypothesis that hepatic very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) support TICE, antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) were used to knockdown hepatic expression of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), which is necessary for VLDL assembly. While maintained on a high cholesterol diet, Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 hepatic transgenic (L1Tg) mice, which predominantly excrete cholesterol via TICE, and wild type (WT) littermates were treated with control ASO or MTP ASO. In both WT and L1Tg mice, MTP ASO decreased VLDL triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol secretion. Regardless of treatment, L1Tg mice had reduced biliary cholesterol compared to WT mice. However, only L1Tg mice treated with MTP ASO had reduced fecal cholesterol excretion. Based upon these findings, we conclude that VLDL or a byproduct such as LDL can move cholesterol from the liver to the small intestine for TICE.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e84418. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are closely associated with cardiovascular diseases, but whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still under debate. Many controversial and contradictory results using transgenic mice and rabbits have been published but it is also unclear whether CRP lowering can be used for the treatment of atherosclerosis. In the current study, we examined the effects of the rabbit CRP antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) on the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits. CRP ASO treatment led to a significant reduction of plasma CRP levels; however, both aortic and coronary atherosclerotic lesions were not significantly changed compared to those of control WHHL rabbits. These results suggest that inhibition of plasma CRP does not affect the development of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.
    Mediators of Inflammation 01/2014; 2014:979132. · 3.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The primary risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is LDL cholesterol, which can be reduced by increasing cholesterol excretion from the body. Fecal cholesterol excretion can be driven by a hepatobiliary as well as a non-biliary pathway known as transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE). We previously showed that chronic knockdown of the hepatic cholesterol esterifying enzyme sterol O-acyltransferase 2 (SOAT2) increased fecal cholesterol loss via TICE. To elucidate the initial events that stimulate TICE, C57Bl/6 mice were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce hepatic cholesterol accumulation and were then treated for 1 or 2 weeks with an antisense oligonucleotide targeting SOAT2. Within 2 weeks of hepatic SOAT2 knockdown (SOAT2HKD), the concentration of cholesteryl ester in the liver was reduced by 70% without a reciprocal increase in hepatic free cholesterol. The rapid mobilization of hepatic cholesterol stores resulted in a ∼2-fold increase in fecal neutral sterol loss but no change in biliary cholesterol concentration. Acute SOAT2HKD increased plasma cholesterol carried primarily in lipoproteins enriched in apoB and apoE. Collectively, our data suggest that acutely reducing SOAT2 causes hepatic cholesterol to be swiftly mobilized and packaged onto nascent lipoproteins that feed cholesterol into the TICE pathway for fecal excretion.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e98953. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The serine hydrolase α/β hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) has recently been implicated as a key lipase for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) in the brain. However, the biochemical and physiological function for ABHD6 outside of the central nervous system has not been established. To address this, we utilized targeted antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) to selectively knock down ABHD6 in peripheral tissues in order to identify in vivo substrates and understand ABHD6's role in energy metabolism. Here, we show that selective knockdown of ABHD6 in metabolic tissues protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and systemic insulin resistance. Using combined in vivo lipidomic identification and in vitro enzymology approaches, we show that ABHD6 can hydrolyze several lipid substrates, positioning ABHD6 at the interface of glycerophospholipid metabolism and lipid signal transduction. Collectively, these data suggest that ABHD6 inhibitors may serve as therapeutics for obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type II diabetes.
    Cell reports. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Antisense oligonucleotides and small interfering RNAs, which suppress the translation of specific mRNA target proteins, are emerging as important therapeutic modalities for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Over the last 25 years, the advances in all aspects of antisense technology, as well as a detailed understanding of the mechanism of action of antisense drugs, have enabled their use as therapeutic agents. These advancements culminated in the FDA approval of the first chronically administered cardiovascular antisense therapeutic, mipomersen, which targets hepatic apolipoprotein B mRNA. This review provides a brief history of antisense technology, highlights the progression of mipomersen from preclinical studies to multiple Phase III registration trials, and gives an update on the status of other cardiovascular antisense therapeutics currently in the clinic.
    Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research 07/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Due to their ability to promote positive effects across all of the lipoprotein classes, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors are currently being developed as therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease. In these studies we compared an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) inhibitor of CETP to the CETP small molecule inhibitor, anacetrapib. In hyperlipidemic CETP transgenic mice, both drugs provided comparable reductions in total plasma cholesterol, decreases in CETP activity and increases in HDL-C. However, only mice treated with the antisense inhibitor showed an enhanced effect on macrophage reverse cholesterol transport, presumably due to differences in HDL apolipoprotein composition and decreases in plasma TG. Additionally, the ASO mediated reductions in CETP mRNA were associated with less accumulation of aortic cholesterol. These preliminary findings suggest that CETP ASOs may represent an alternative means to inhibit that target and further, support their continued development as a treatment for cardiovascular disease in man.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 06/2013; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) represents both an independent risk factor and a key regulatory factor of plasma TG concentrations. Further, elevated apoC-III levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. To date, no selective apoC-III therapeutic agent has been evaluated in the clinic. Objective: To test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of apoC-III with antisense drugs in preclinical models and in healthy volunteers would reduce plasma apoC-III and TG levels. Methods and Results: Rodent and human-specific second generation antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were identified and evaluated in preclinical models, including rats, mice, human apoC-III transgenic mice and non-human primates. We demonstrate the selective reduction of both apoC-III and TG in all preclinical pharmacological evaluations. We also show that inhibition of apoC-III was well tolerated and not associated with increased liver TG deposition or hepatotoxicity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase I clinical study was performed in healthy subjects. Administration of the human apoC-III antisense drug resulted in dose-dependent reductions in plasma apoC-III, concomitant lowering of TG levels and produced no clinically meaningful signals in the safety evaluations. Conclusions: Antisense inhibition of apoC-III in preclinical models and in a Phase I clinical trial with healthy subjects produced potent, selective reductions in plasma apoC-III and TG, two known risk factors for CV disease. This compelling pharmacological profile supports further clinical investigations in hypertriglyceridemic subjects.
    Circulation Research 03/2013; · 11.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Circulating trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) levels are strongly associated with atherosclerosis. We now examine genetic, dietary, and hormonal factors regulating TMAO levels. We demonstrate that two flavin mono-oxygenase family members, FMO1 and FMO3, oxidize trimethylamine (TMA), derived from gut flora metabolism of choline, to TMAO. Further, we show that FMO3 exhibits 10-fold higher specific activity than FMO1. FMO3 overexpression in mice significantly increases plasma TMAO levels while silencing FMO3 decreases TMAO levels. In both humans and mice, hepatic FMO3 expression is reduced in males compared to females. In mice, this reduction in FMO3 expression is due primarily to downregulation by androgens. FMO3 expression is induced by dietary bile acids by a mechanism that involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a bile acid-activated nuclear receptor. Analysis of natural genetic variation among inbred strains of mice indicates that FMO3 and TMAO are significantly correlated, and TMAO levels explain 11% of the variation in atherosclerosis.
    Cell metabolism 01/2013; 17(1):49-60. · 17.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNA targeted therapeutics are being developed in a broad array of therapeutic areas, and more recently a growing number of RNA targeted antisense approaches for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases have progressed into clinical development. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are growing health issues with significant associated morbidity and mortality. RNA represents a growing and accessible target space that has been shown to be specifically and selectively targeted utilizing short single strand antisense oligonucleotides. Antisense drugs are relatively small synthetic oligonucleotides with predictable safety and pharmacokinetics across a given chemical platform. Once identified, the remaining risk in development as a therapeutic is associated with selection of the right target, sufficient to affect a clinically meaningful change in the course of disease. This review focuses primarily on the translated mRNAs currently being targeted using antisense therapies in cardiovascular and metabolic disease.
    Drug Discovery Today Therapeutic Strategies 01/2013;
  • Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham
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    ABSTRACT: Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are a new class of specific therapeutic agents that alter the intermediary metabolism of mRNA, resulting in the suppression of disease-associated gene products. ASOs exert their pharmacological effects after hybridizing, via Watson-Crick base pairing, to a specific target RNA. If appropriately designed, this event results in the recruitment of RNase H, the degradation of targeted mRNA or pre-mRNA, and subsequent inhibition of the synthesis of a specific protein. A key advantage of the technology is the ability to selectively inhibit targets that cannot be modulated by traditional therapeutics such as structural proteins, transcription factors, and, of topical interest, lipoproteins. In this chapter, we will first provide an overview of antisense technology, then more specifically describe the status of lipoprotein-related genes that have been studied using the antisense platform, and finally, outline the general methodology required to design and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of those drugs.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2013; 1027:309-24. · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of apolipoprotein B (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) are being developed in the clinic to benefit patients who are unable to reach target LDL-C levels with maximally tolerated lipid-lowering agents. In order to compare and contrast the metabolic consequences of inhibiting these targets, murine-specific apoB or MTP antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) were administered to chow and high fat fed C57BL/6, or chow and western diet fed LDLr -/- mice for periods ranging from two to twelve weeks and detailed analyses of various factors affecting fatty acid metabolism were performed. Administration of these inhibitors significantly reduced both target hepatic mRNA and protein leading to similar inhibition of hepatic VLDL/triglyceride secretion. MTP ASO treatment consistently led to increases in both hepatic triglyceride accumulation and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity relative to apoB ASO due in part to enhanced expression of PPAR gamma target genes and the inability to reduce hepatic fatty acid synthesis.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 12/2012; · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dissecting the role of insulin in the complex regulation of triglyceride metabolism is necessary for understanding dyslipidemia and steatosis. Liver insulin receptor knockout (LIRKO) mice show that in the physiological context of feeding, hepatic insulin signaling is not required for the induction of mTORC1, an upstream activator of the lipogenic regulator, SREBP-1c. Feeding induces SREBP-1c mRNA in LIRKO livers, though not to the extent observed in controls. A high fructose diet also partially induces SREBP-1c and lipogenic gene expression in LIRKO livers. Insulin signaling becomes more important in the pathological context of obesity, as knockdown of the insulin receptor in ob/ob mice, a model of Type 2 diabetes, using antisense oligonucleotides, abolishes the induction of SREBP-1c and its targets by obesity and ameliorates steatosis. Thus, insulin-independent signaling pathways can partially compensate for insulin in the induction of SREBP-1c by feeding but the further induction by obesity/Type 2 diabetes is entirely dependent upon insulin.
    Cell metabolism 06/2012; 15(6):873-84. · 17.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lipid droplets in the liver are coated with the perilipin family of proteins, notably adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47). ADRP is increased in hepatic steatosis and is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. We have shown that reducing ADRP in the liver via antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment attenuates steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that TIP47 has similar effects on hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism. We found that TIP47 mRNA and protein levels were increased in response to a high-fat diet (HFD) in C57BL/6J mice. TIP47 ASO treatment decreased liver TIP47 mRNA and protein levels without altering ADRP levels. Low-dose TIP47 ASO (15 mg/kg) and high-dose TIP47 ASO (50 mg/kg) decreased triglyceride content in the liver by 35% and 52%, respectively. Liver histology showed a drastic reduction in hepatic steatosis following TIP47 ASO treatment. The high dose of TIP47 ASO significantly blunted hepatic triglyceride secretion, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity in liver, adipose tissue, and muscle. These findings show that TIP47 affects hepatic lipid and glucose metabolism and may be a target for the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver and related metabolic disorders.
    AJP Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology 02/2012; 302(8):R996-1003. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The tissue-specific sources and regulated production of physiological signals that modulate food intake are incompletely understood. Previous work showed that L-Fabp(-/-) mice are protected against obesity and hepatic steatosis induced by a high-fat diet, findings at odds with an apparent obesity phenotype in a distinct line of aged L-Fabp(-/-) mice. Here we show that the lean phenotype in L-Fabp(-/-) mice is recapitulated in aged, chow-fed mice and correlates with alterations in hepatic, but not intestinal, fatty acid amide metabolism. L-Fabp(-/-) mice exhibited short-term changes in feeding behavior with decreased food intake, which was associated with reduced abundance of key signaling fatty acid ethanolamides, including oleoylethanolamide (OEA, an agonist of PPARα) and anandamide (AEA, an agonist of cannabinoid receptors), in the liver. These reductions were associated with increased expression and activity of hepatic fatty acid amide hydrolase-1, the enzyme that degrades both OEA and AEA. Moreover, L-Fabp(-/-) mice demonstrated attenuated responses to OEA administration, which was completely reversed with an enhanced response after administration of a nonhydrolyzable OEA analog. These findings demonstrate a role for L-Fabp in attenuating obesity and hepatic steatosis, and they suggest that hepatic fatty acid amide metabolism is altered in L-Fabp(-/-) mice.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 02/2012; 53(4):744-54. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mutations of comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) in humans cause Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disease in which excess triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulates in multiple tissues. CGI-58 recently has been ascribed two distinct biochemical activities, including coactivation of adipose triglyceride lipase and acylation of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). It is noteworthy that both the substrate (LPA) and the product (phosphatidic acid) of the LPA acyltransferase reaction are well-known signaling lipids. Therefore, we hypothesized that CGI-58 is involved in generating lipid mediators that regulate TAG metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Here, we show that CGI-58 is required for the generation of signaling lipids in response to inflammatory stimuli and that lipid second messengers generated by CGI-58 play a critical role in maintaining the balance between inflammation and insulin action. Furthermore, we show that CGI-58 is necessary for maximal TH1 cytokine signaling in the liver. This novel role for CGI-58 in cytokine signaling may explain why diminished CGI-58 expression causes severe hepatic lipid accumulation yet paradoxically improves hepatic insulin action. Collectively, these findings establish that CGI-58 provides a novel source of signaling lipids. These findings contribute insight into the basic mechanisms linking TH1 cytokine signaling to nutrient metabolism.
    Diabetes 02/2012; 61(2):355-63. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Existing evidence suggests that endothelial lipase (EL) plays an important role in high-densitylipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. Because rabbits are a useful animal model for the study of human lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis, we characterized rabbit EL (rEL) expression and investigated its relationship with plasma HDL levels in normal and hyperlipidemic rabbits. We cloned the rEL cDNA and analyzed the EL tissue expression using Northern blotting, real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, and in situ hybridization. We evaluated the effects of rEL antisense on plasma HDL levels. We found that rEL mRNA was highly expressed in cholesterol synthesis-related organs, including the liver, testis, and adrenal along with its expression in the lung, kidney, bone marrow, and small intestine. Interestingly, Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits, a model of human familial hypercholesterolemia, had lower plasma levels of HDLs than normal rabbits. The plasma HDL levels in WHHL rabbits were inversely associated with high levels of plasma rEL proteins and hepatic expression of rEL mRNA. Injection of rEL-specific antisense oligonucleotides into rabbits resulted in the elevation of plasma large HDLs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that rEL mRNA was expressed by both endothelial cells and macrophages in the lesions of aortic atherosclerosis of WHHL rabbits. rEL is expressed in multiple tissues and may have many physiological and pathophysiological functions, such as in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. Our results suggest that EL is an important regulator of plasma HDL levels in rabbits.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 01/2012; 19(3):213-26. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Observational studies of patients with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA) document a positive correlation between C-reactive protein (CRP) blood concentration and worsening of RA symptoms, but whether this association is causal or not is not known. Using CRP transgenic mice (CRPTg) with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA; a rodent model of RA), we explored causality by testing if CRP lowering via treatment with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting human CRP mRNA was efficacious and of clinical benefit. We found that in CRPtg with established CIA, ASO-mediated lowering of blood human CRP levels improved the clinical signs of arthritis. In addition, in healthy human volunteers the ASO was well tolerated and efficacious i.e., treatment achieved significant CRP lowering. ASOs targeting CRP should provide a specific and effective way to lower human CRP levels, which might be an effective therapy in patients with established RA.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e52; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.44; published online 13 November 2012.
    Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids. 01/2012; 1:e52.

Publication Stats

1k Citations
307.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
      Carlsbad, California, United States
  • 2007–2011
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Medicine
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • Tufts University
      Georgia, United States
  • 2006
    • Academisch Medisch Centrum Universiteit van Amsterdam
      • Department of Vascular Medicine
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands