[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The early immune response to microbes is dominated by the recruitment of neutrophils whose primary function is to clear invading pathogens. However, there is emerging evidence that neutrophils play additional effector and regulatory roles. The present study demonstrates that human neutrophils assume Ag cross-presenting functions and suggests a plausible scenario for the local generation of APC-like neutrophils through the mobilization of unconventional T cells in response to microbial metabolites. Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells and mucosal-associated invariant T cells are abundant in blood, inflamed tissues, and mucosal barriers. In this study, both human cell types responded rapidly to neutrophils after phagocytosis of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria producing the corresponding ligands, and in turn mediated the differentiation of neutrophils into APCs for both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells through secretion of GM-CSF, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. In patients with acute sepsis, circulating neutrophils displayed a similar APC-like phenotype and readily processed soluble proteins for cross-presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells, at a time when peripheral Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells were highly activated. Our findings indicate that unconventional T cells represent key controllers of neutrophil-driven innate and adaptive responses to a broad range of pathogens.
Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). 08/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-based immunotherapy strategies target tumors directly (via cytolytic effector cells) or aim at mobilizing endogenous anti-tumor immunity. The latter approach includes dendritic cells (DC), most frequently in the form of in vitro cultured peripheral blood monocytes-derived DC. Human blood γδT cells are selective for a single class of non-peptide agonists (“phosphoantigens”) and develop into potent antigen-presenting cells (APC), termed γδT-APC, within 1-3 days of in vitro culture. Availability of large numbers of γδT-APC would be advantageous for use as a novel cellular vaccine. We here report optimal γδT cell expansion (>107 cells/ml blood) when peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy individuals and melanoma patients were stimulated with zoledronate and then cultured for 14 days in the presence of IL-2 and IL-15, yielding γδT cell cultures of variable purity (77±21% and 56±26%, respectively). They resembled effector-memory αβT (TEM) cells and retained full functionality as assessed by in vitro tumor cell killing as well as secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IFNγ, TNFα) and cell proliferation in response to stimulation with phosphoantigens. Importantly, day 14 γδT cells expressed numerous APC-related cell surface markers and, in agreement, displayed potent in vitro APC functions. Day 14 γδT cells from PBMC of patients with cancer were equally effective as their counterparts derived from blood of healthy individuals and triggered potent CD8+ αβT cell responses following processing and cross-presentation of simple (influenza M1) and complex (tuberculin purified protein derivative) protein antigens. Of note, and in clear contrast to peripheral blood γδT cells, the ability of day 14 γδT cells to trigger antigen-specific αβT cell responses did not depend on re-stimulation. We conclude that day 14 γδT cell cultures provide a convenient source of autologous APC for use in immunotherapy of patients with various cancers.
Frontiers in Immunology 07/2014; doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00344.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMMUNOTHERAPY IS A FAST ADVANCING METHODOLOGY INVOLVING ONE OF TWO APPROACHES: (1) compounds targeting immune checkpoints and (2) cellular immunomodulators. The latter approach is still largely experimental and features in vitro generated, live immune effector cells, or antigen-presenting cells. γδ T cells are known for their efficient in vitro tumor killing activities. Consequently, many laboratories worldwide are currently testing the tumor killing function of γδ T cells in clinical trials. Reported benefits are modest; however, these studies have demonstrated that large γδ T-cell infusions were well tolerated. Here, we discuss the potential of using human γδ T cells not as effector cells but as a novel cellular vaccine for treatment of cancer patients. Antigen-presenting γδ T cells do not require to home to tumor tissues but, instead, need to interact with endogenous, tumor-specific αβ T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Newly mobilized effector αβ T cells are then thought to overcome the immune blockade by creating proinflammatory conditions fit for effector T-cell homing to and killing of tumor cells. Immunotherapy may include tumor antigen-loaded γδ T cells alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Human γδ T cells reactive to the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP) contribute to acute inflammatory responses. We have previously shown that peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated infections with HMB-PP producing bacteria are characterized by locally elevated γδ T-cell frequencies and poorer clinical outcome compared with HMB-PP negative infections, implying that γδ T cells may be of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic value in acute disease. The regulation by local tissue cells of these potentially detrimental γδ T-cell responses remains to be investigated.Methods
Freshly isolated γδ or αβ T cells were cultured with primary mesothelial cells derived from omental tissue, or with mesothelial cell-conditioned medium. Stimulation of cytokine production and proliferation by peripheral T cells in response to HMB-PP or CD3/CD28 beads was assessed by flow cytometry.ResultsResting mesothelial cells were potent suppressors of pro-inflammatory γδ T cells as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) αβ T cells. The suppression of γδ T-cell responses was mediated through soluble factors released by primary mesothelial cells and could be counteracted by SB-431542, a selective inhibitor of TGF-β and activin signalling. Recombinant TGF-β1 but not activin-A mimicked the mesothelial cell-mediated suppression of γδ T-cell responses to HMB-PP.Conclusions
The present findings indicate an important regulatory function of mesothelial cells in the peritoneal cavity by dampening pro-inflammatory T-cell responses, which may help preserve the tissue integrity of the peritoneal membrane in the steady state and possibly during the resolution of acute inflammation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The localization of memory T cells to human skin is essential for long-term immune surveillance and the maintenance of barrier integrity. Although the mechanisms controlling memory T cell migration to peripheral tissues are poorly understood, the current paradigm includes the localized secretion of "imprinting" signals from tissue-resident DCs in the draining lymph nodes. Here, we show that CCR8 expression by newly activated naïve T cells is regulated by skin-specific factor(s) derived primarily from epidermal keratinocytes, whereas co-culture with primary cells from skin-unrelated epithelia, including the mesothelium and small intestine, failed to so; thereby providing a mechanism for the preferential expression of CCR8 by skin-resident memory T cells. The keratinocyte-derived CCR8-inducing factor(s) were soluble, and independent of vitamins A and D. Furthermore, the induction of CCR8 under these conditions correlated with an increase in CLA expression. Our findings challenge current tissue homing paradigms, especially those involving CCR10, and emphasize the importance of steady-state epidermis rather than tissue-resident DCs in controlling the localization of memory T cells within human skin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The large family of chemoattractant cytokines (chemokines) embraces multiple, in part unrelated functions that go well beyond chemotaxis. Undoubtedly, the control of immune cell migration (chemotaxis) is the single, unifying response mediated by all chemokines, which involves the sequential engagement of chemokine receptors on migrating target cells. However, numerous additional cellular responses are mediated by some (but not all) chemokines, including angiogenesis, tumor cell growth, T-cell co-stimulation, and control of HIV-1 infection. The recently described antimicrobial activity of several chemokines is of particular interest because antimicrobial peptides are thought to provide an essential first-line defense against invading microbes at the extremely large body surfaces of the skin, lungs, and gastrointestinal-urinary tract. Here we summarize the current knowledge about chemokines with antimicrobial activity and discuss their potential contribution to the control of bacterial infections that may take place at the earliest stage of antimicrobial immunity. In the case of homeostatic chemokines with antimicrobial function, such as CXCL14, we propose an immune surveillance function in healthy epithelial tissues characterized by low-level exposure to environmental microbes. Inflammatory chemokines, i.e., chemokines that are produced in tissue cells in response to microbial antigens (such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns) may be more important in orchestrating the cellular arm in antimicrobial immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells are a minor subset of T cells in human blood and differ from all other lymphocytes by their specific responsiveness to (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), a metabolite produced by a large range of microbial pathogens. Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells can be skewed towards distinct effector functions, in analogy to, and beyond, the emerging plasticity of CD4(+) T cells. As such, depending on the microenvironment, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells can assume features reminiscent of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells as well as professional APCs. We here demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells express markers associated with follicular B helper T (T(FH) ) cells when stimulated with HMB-PP in the presence of IL-21. HMB-PP induces upregulation of IL-21R on Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. In return, IL-21 plays a co-stimulatory role in the expression of the B-cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13, the CXCL13 receptor CXCR5 and the inducible co-stimulator by activated Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, and enhances their potential to support antibody production by B cells. The interaction between HMB-PP-responsive Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, IL-21-producing T(FH) cells and B cells in secondary lymphoid tissues is likely to impact on the generation of high affinity, class-switched antibodies in microbial infections.
European Journal of Immunology 01/2012; 42(1):110-9. · 4.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The series of seminal articles in this book clearly illustrate the multi-functional nature of γδ T cells. Some of the functions correlate with the tissue tropism of distinct γδ T cell subsets whereas others appear to result from oligoclonal selection. Here, we discuss the antigen-presenting cell (APC) function of the major subset of circulating γδ T cells, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, present in human blood. During tissue culture, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells uniformly respond to a class of non-peptide antigens, so-called prenyl pyrophosphates, derived from stressed host cells or from microbes. It is this feature that distinguishes human (and primate) Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells from αβ and γδ T cells of all other species and that forms the basis for detailed studies of human Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. One of the consequences of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cell activation is the rapid acquisition of APC characteristics (γδ T-APCs) reminiscent of mature dendritic cells (DCs). In the following discussion, we will discriminate between the potential use of γδ T-APCs as a cellular vaccine in immunotherapy and their role in anti-microbial immunity. Exploiting the APC function in γδ T-APCs represents a true novelty in current immunotherapy research and may lead to effective, anti-tumor immunity in cancer patients.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 07/2011; 68(14):2443-52. · 5.62 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human blood Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells, monocytes and neutrophils share a responsiveness toward inflammatory chemokines and are rapidly recruited to sites of infection. Studying their interaction in vitro and relating these findings to in vivo observations in patients may therefore provide crucial insight into inflammatory events. Our present data demonstrate that Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells provide potent survival signals resulting in neutrophil activation and the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant CXCL8 (IL-8). In turn, Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells readily respond to neutrophils harboring phagocytosed bacteria, as evidenced by expression of CD69, interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. This response is dependent on the ability of these bacteria to produce the microbial metabolite (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP), requires cell-cell contact of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells with accessory monocytes through lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), and results in a TNF-α dependent proliferation of Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells. The antibiotic fosmidomycin, which targets the HMB-PP biosynthesis pathway, not only has a direct antibacterial effect on most HMB-PP producing bacteria but also possesses rapid anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting γδ T cell responses in vitro. Patients with acute peritoneal-dialysis (PD)-associated bacterial peritonitis--characterized by an excessive influx of neutrophils and monocytes into the peritoneal cavity--show a selective activation of local Vγ9/Vδ2 T cells by HMB-PP producing but not by HMB-PP deficient bacterial pathogens. The γδ T cell-driven perpetuation of inflammatory responses during acute peritonitis is associated with elevated peritoneal levels of γδ T cells and TNF-α and detrimental clinical outcomes in infections caused by HMB-PP positive microorganisms. Taken together, our findings indicate a direct link between invading pathogens, neutrophils, monocytes and microbe-responsive γδ T cells in early infection and suggest novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.