Sudhir Kumar Jain

Madhya Pradesh Pashu-Chikitsa Vigyan Vishwavidyalaya, Jubbulpore, Madhya Pradesh, India

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Publications (14)22.07 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Skeletal muscle is the major component of lean tissue that is used for consumption, and myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Downregulation of this gene therefore offers a strategy for developing superior animals with enhanced muscle growth. Knockdown of myostatin was achieved by RNA interference technology. The anti-myostatin shRNA were designed and stably transfected in caprine fibroblast cells. The reduced expression of target gene was achieved and measured in clonal fibroblast cells by real-time PCR. Two single-cell clones induced significant decrease of myostatin gene expression by 73.96 and 72.66 %, respectively (P < 0.05). To ensure the appropriate growth of transfected cell, seven media were tested. The best suited media was used for transfected fibroblast cell proliferation. The findings suggest that shRNA provides a novel potential tool for gene knockdown and these stably transfected cells can be used as the donor cells for animal cloning.
    Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12010-015-1757-1 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) is major threat to poultry industry. It causes severe immunosuppression and mortality in chicken generally at 3 to 6 weeks of age. RNA intereference (RNAi) emerges as a potent gene regulatory tool in last few years. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of RNAi to inhibit the IBD virus (IDBV) replication in-vitro. VP2 gene of virus encodes protein involved in capsid formation, cell entry and induction of protective immune responses against it. Thus, VP2 gene of IBDV is the candidate target for the molecular techniques applied for IBDV detection and inhibition assay. In this study, IBDV was isolated from field cases and confirmed by RT-PCR. The virus was then adapted on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF) in which it showed severe cytopathic effects (CPE). The short hairpin RNA (shRNAs) constructs homologous to the VP2 gene were designed and one, having maximum score and fulfilling maximum Reynolds criteria, was selected for evaluation of effective inhibition. Selected shRNA construct (i.e., VP2-shRNA) was observed to be the most effective for inhibiting VP2 gene expression. Real time PCR analysis was performed to measure the relative expression of VP2 gene in different experimental groups. The VP2 gene was less expressed in virus infected cells co-transfected with VP2-shRNA as compared to mock transfected cells and IBDV+ cells (control) at dose 1.6 µ g. The result showed ∼95% efficient down regulation of VP2 gene mRNA in VP2-shRNA treated cells. These findings suggested that designed shRNA construct achieved high level of inhibition of VP2 gene expression in-vitro.
    Animal Biotechnology 01/2015; 26(1):58-64. DOI:10.1080/10495398.2014.886584 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 15 microsatellite loci were investigated for studying the genetic polymorphism in Sahiwal (30) and Tharparker (30) breeds of cattle. Polymerase chain reactions (PCR) were carried out and amplified products were resolved in 6% (denaturing) urea PAGE and stained with silver nitrate. Out of the 15 microsatellite loci, 14 were found polymorphic. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 7. The overall polymorphic information content (pp values ranged from 0.293 to 0.775. Wright's F statistics was carried out to determine the between breed (Fst) and within breed (Fis) genetic divergence. Fst value of 0.128 (P<0.01) revealed moderate genetic diversity between these two breeds. The Fis values were -0.08 and -0.01 in Sahiwal and Tharparker breeds, respectively. The results indicated that the microsatellite markers can be used for genetic diversity analysis in other cattle breeds and identification of individual animals.
    Indian Journal of Animal Research 10/2014; 48(5):418. DOI:10.5958/0976-0555.2014.00004.1 · 0.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: RNAi is an evolutionary conserved, highly efficient, and cost effective technique of gene silencing. It holds considerable promise and success has been achieved both in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, it is not devoid of undesirable side effects as dsRNA can trigger the immune response and can also cause non-specific off-target gene silencing. In the present study, silencing of myostatin gene, a negative regulator of myogenesis, was evaluated in caprine fetal fibroblasts using three different shRNA constructs. Out of these three constructs, two constructs sh1 and sh2 showed, 72% and 50% reduction (p<0.05) of myostatin mRNA, respectively. Efficient suppression (42-86%) of MSTN gene (p<0.05) was achieved even by reducing the concentration of shRNA constructs. The induction of classical interferon stimulated gene (Oligoandenylate Synthetase-1, OAS-1) was studied to analyze the immune response against shRNAs. Notably, a reduction in the potency of shRNAs to induce interferon response was observed at lower concentration for OAS1 gene. The results obtained in the study would be helpful in the abrogation of the bystander effects of RNAi for long term stable expression of anti-MSTN expression constructs in the muscle.
    Animal Biotechnology 07/2012; 23(3):174-83. DOI:10.1080/10495398.2012.664598 · 0.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to detect infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), bursal tissue was collected from 10 IBD-suspected birds from a 30-day-old, IBDV-vaccinated commercial broiler chicken flock of 2000 birds exhibiting clinical signs suggestive of infectious bursal disease (IBD). The presence of IBDV was confirmed by partial amplification of the VP2 gene by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Isolates were identified as very virulent strains of IBDV (vvIBDV) by nucleotide sequence analysis. The comparison of the VP2 nucleotide sequences among the isolates revealed the presence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the VP2 gene of IBDV in the same flock. The comparative analysis indicated that these viruses were genetically close to the vvIBDVs previously detected in India. Our analysis provided information about the existence of vvIBDV in Central India.
    Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 03/2012; 60(1):165-74. DOI:10.1556/AVet.2012.014 · 0.80 Impact Factor
  • Hemlata Jain · Sanjeev Singh · Sudhir Kumar Jain
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have revealed that organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticides-exposed workers. Present study was designed to determine the influence of CYP2C9, GSTM1, GSTT1 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms on DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 268 subjects including 134 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Acetylcholinesterase and paraoxonase activity were found to be significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects which were analyzed as biomarkers of toxicity due to OPs exposure (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) compared to control subjects (14.32±2.17 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail % DNA, p<0.001). GSTM1 null genotype was found to influence DNA TM in workers (p<0.05). DNA TM was also found to be increased with concomitant presence of NAT2 slow acetylation and CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes (p<0.05). DNA TM was found increased in NAT2 slow acetylators with mild and heavy smoking habits in control subjects and workers, respectively (p<0.05). The results of this study suggest that GSTM1 null genotypes, and an association of NAT2 slow acetylation genotypes with CYP2C9*3/*3 or GSTM1 null genotypes may modulate DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 11/2011; 741(1-2):101-8. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.11.001 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are primarily metabolized by several xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (XMEs). Very few studies have explored genetic polymorphisms of XMEs and their association with DNA damage in pesticide-exposed workers. The present study was designed to determine the role of genetic polymorphisms of CYP1A1, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, and PON1 in the modulation of DNA damage in workers occupationally exposed to OPs. We examined 284 subjects including 150 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and 134 normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP. The results revealed that the PONase activity toward paraoxonase and AChE activity was found significantly lowered in workers as compared to control subjects (p<0.001). Workers showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to control subjects (14.37±2.15 vs. 6.24±1.37 tail% DNA, p<0.001). Further, the workers with CYP2D6*3PM and PON1 (QQ and MM) genotypes were found to have significantly higher DNA damage when compared to other genotypes (p<0.05). In addition, significant increase in DNA damage was also observed in workers with concomitant presence of certain CYP2D6 and PON1 (Q192R and L55M) genotypes which need further extensive studies. In conclusion, the results indicate that the PON1 and CYP2D6 genotypes can modulate DNA damage elicited by some OPs possibly through gene-environment interactions.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 09/2011; 257(1):84-92. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2011.08.021 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: GSTM1, T1 and P1 are important enzymes of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), involved in the metabolism of many endogenous and exogenous compounds. Individual genetic variation in these metabolizing enzymes may influence the metabolism of their substrates. The present study was designed to determine the genotoxic effects using DNA damage and its association with GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 (Ile105Val) genetic polymorphisms in workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides (OPs). We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers occupationally exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The DNA damage was evaluated using the alkaline comet assay and genotyping was done using individual PCR or PCR-RFLP. Significantly higher DNA tail moment (TM) was observed in workers as compared to control subjects (14.41 ± 2.25 vs. 6.36 ± 1.41 tail % DNA, p<0.001). The results revealed significantly higher DNA TM in workers with GSTM1 null genotype than those with GSTM1 positive (15.18 vs. 14.15 tail % DNA, p=0.03). A significantly higher DNA TM was also observed in workers with homozygous Ile-Ile GSTP1 genotype than heterozygous (Ile-Val) and mutant (Val-Val) GSTP1 genotype (p=0.02). In conclusion, the results show that null deletion of GSTM1 and homozygote wild GSTP1 genotype could be related to inter-individual differences in DNA damage arises from the gene-environment interactions in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/2011; 725(1-2):36-42. DOI:10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.06.006 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity, acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity, hepatic and renal toxicity in occupational workers exposed to mixture of pesticides (n=70) with same number of healthy subjects as controls. The mean comet tail DNA % (TD %) and tail moment (TM) were used to measure DNA damage, while AChE activity and other biochemical parameters such as markers of nephrotoxicity (urea and creatinine) and hepatotoxicity (AST, ALT and ALP) were measured as biomarkers for toxicity due to exposure of pesticides. The occupational workers were continuously exposed to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion on a regular interval as per usage and activity. The comet assay using lymphocytes of exposed workers showed significantly higher TD percentage value (60.43% vs. 31.86%, p<0.001) and TM value (14.48 μm vs. 6.42 μm, p<0.001) in occupational workers as compared to controls. AChE activity in erythrocytes was found to be decreased (3.45 KAU/L vs. 9.55 KAU/L in controls, p<0.001) and associated with the duration of exposure to pesticides used by the workers. Enzyme levels for hepatic and renal functions were also found significantly different in occupational workers than healthy controls (p<0.001). These results suggest that the exposure to mixture of pirimiphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, temephos and malathion may induce DNA damage, decrease in AChE activity, hepatotoxicity as well as nephrotoxicity. Periodic biomonitoring of these biomarkers along with imparting education and training to occupational workers for safe application of pesticides is recommended for its potential hazards.
    03/2011; 31(2):278-85. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2010.11.005
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    ABSTRACT: Human paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a lipoprotein-associated enzyme involved in the detoxification of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) by hydrolyzing the bioactive oxons. Polymorphisms of the PON1 gene are responsible for variation in the expression and catalytic activity of PON1 enzyme. In the present study, we have determined (a) the prevalence of two common PON1 polymorphisms, (b) the activity of PON1 and acetylcholinesterase enzymes, and (c) the influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes variation on DNA damage in workers exposed to OPs. We examined 230 subjects including 115 workers exposed to OPs and an equal number of normal healthy controls. The results revealed that PON1 activity toward paraoxon (179.19±39.36 vs. 241.52±42.32nmol/min/ml in controls) and phenylacetate (112.74±17.37 vs. 134.28±25.49μmol/min/ml in controls) was significantly lower in workers than in control subjects (p<0.001). No significant difference was observed in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of PON1(192)QR (Gln/Arg) and PON1(55)LM (Leu/Met) in workers and control subjects (p>0.05). The PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was found to be significantly higher in the R/R (Arg/Arg) genotypes than Q/R (Gln/Arg) and lowest in Q/Q (Gln/Gln) genotypes in both workers and control subjects (p<0.001). For PON1(55)LM (Leu/Met), PON1 activity toward paraoxonase was observed to be higher in individuals with L/L (Leu/Leu) genotypes and lowest in individuals with M/M (Met/Met) genotypes in both groups (p<0.001). No influence of PON1 genotypes and phenotypes was seen on the activity of acetylcholinesterase and arylesterase. The DNA damage was observed to be significantly higher in workers than in control subjects (p<0.05). Further, the individuals who showed least paraoxonase activity i.e., those with (Q/Q [Gln/Gln] and M/M [Met/Met]) genotypes showed significantly higher DNA damage compared to other isoforms in workers exposed to OPs (p<0.05). The results indicate that the individuals with PON1 Q/Q and M/M genotypes are more susceptible toward genotoxicity. In conclusion, the study suggests wide variation in enzyme activities and DNA damage due to polymorphisms in PON1 gene, which might have an important role in the identification of individual risk factors in workers occupationally exposed to OPs.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 02/2011; 252(2):130-7. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2011.01.014 · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), protect cells from reactive chemical intermediates and oxidative stress. Among different classes of GSTs, GSTM1 (Mu) and GSTT1 (theta) are found to be genetically deleted. Present study was intended to genotype homozygous null distribution of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in healthy individuals of Delhi, located in Northern India. Out of 309 healthy individuals included in this study, we have found genetic deletion in 21% and 27.4%, GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, respectively. A small proportion (0.7%) population showed deletion of both the genes. The prevalence of the GSTM1(*)0/0 and GSTT1(*)0/0 genotypes varied within India compared to communities in Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Caucasian.
    Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 07/2009; 28(1):25-9. DOI:10.1016/j.etap.2009.01.010 · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Hemlat Jain · Sanjeev Singh · Sudhir Kumar Jain