Stephen A Back

Oregon Health and Science University, Los Angeles, CA, United States

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Publications (59)385.8 Total impact

  • Stephen A Back, Steven P Miller
    Annals of Neurology 03/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
  • Praveen Ballabh, Stephen A Back
    Clinics in perinatology 03/2014; 41(1):xvii-xix. · 1.54 Impact Factor
  • Stephen A Back
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing numbers of preterm neonates survive with motor and cognitive disabilities related to less destructive forms of cerebral injury that still result in reduced cerebral growth. White matter injury results in myelination disturbances related to aberrant responses to death of pre-myelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs). PreOLs are rapidly regenerated but fail to mature to myelinating cells. Although immature projection neurons are more resistant to hypoxia-ischemia than preOLs, they display widespread disturbances in dendritic arbor maturation, which provides an explanation for impaired cerebral growth. Thus, large numbers of cells fail to fully mature during a critical window in development of neural circuitry. These recently recognized forms of cerebral gray and white matter dysmaturation suggest new therapeutic directions centered on reversal of the processes that promote dysmaturation.
    Clinics in perinatology 03/2014; 41(1):1-24. · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: White matter (WM) injury due to a myelination defects is believed to be responsible for the motor deficits seen in cerebral palsy. We tested the hypothesis that the predominant injury is to functional electrical connectivity in unmyelinated WM fibers by conducting a longitudinal study of central WM tracts in newborn rabbit kits with hypertonia, in our model of cerebral palsy. Methods: Pregnant rabbits at 70% gestation underwent 40-min uterine ischemia. Motor deficits in newborn kits, including muscle hypertonia, were assessed by neurobehavioral testing. Major central white matter tracts, including internal capsule, corpus callosum, anterior commissure and fimbria hippocampi, were investigated for structural and functional injury using diffusion tensor MRI, electrophysiological recordings of fiber conductivity in perfused brain slices, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry of oligodendrocyte lineage. Results: Motor deficits were observed on postnatal day 1 (P1) when WM tracts were unmyelinated. Myelination occurred later and was obvious by P18. Hypertonia was associated with microstructural WM injury and unmyelinated axon loss at P1, diagnosed by diffusion tensor MRI and electron microscopy. Axonal conductivity from electrophysiological recordings in hypertonic P18 kits, decreased only in unmyelinated fibers, despite a loss in both myelinated and unmyelinated axons. Interpretation: Motor deficits in cerebral palsy were associated with loss of unmyelinated white matter tracts. The contribution of injury to myelinated fibers that was observed at P18 is probably a secondary etiological factor in the motor and sensory deficits in the rabbit model of cerebral palsy. ANN NEUROL 2014. © 2014 American Neurological Association
    Annals of Neurology 02/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Recently we reported that the neocortex displays impaired growth after transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at preterm gestation that is unrelated to neuronal death but is associated with decreased dendritic arbor complexity of cortical projection neurons. We hypothesized that these morphological changes constituted part of a more widespread neuronal dysmaturation response to HI in the caudate nucleus (CN), which contributes to motor and cognitive disability in preterm survivors. Methods: Ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), immunohistochemistry and Golgi staining defined CN growth, cell death, proliferation and dendritic maturation in preterm fetal sheep four weeks after HI. Patch-clamping recording was used to analyze glutamatergic synaptic currents in CN neurons. Results: MRI-defined growth of the CN was reduced after ischemia compared to controls. However, no significant acute or delayed neuronal death was seen in the CN or white matter. Neither was there significant loss of calbindin-positive medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) or CN interneurons expressing somatostatin, calretinin, parvalbumin, or tyrosine hydroxylase. Morphologically, ischemic MSNs showed a markedly immature dendritic arbor, with fewer dendritic branches, nodes, endings and spines. The magnitude and kinetics of synaptic currents, and the relative contribution of glutamate receptor subtypes in the CN were significantly altered. Interpretation: The marked MSN dendritic and functional abnormalities after preterm cerebral HI, despite the marked resistance of immature CN neurons to cell death, are consistent with widespread susceptibility of projection neurons to HI-induced dysmaturation. These global disturbances in dendritic maturation and glutamatergic synaptic transmission suggest a new mechanism for long-term motor and behavioral disabilities in preterm survivors via widespread disruption of neuronal connectivity. ANN NEUROL 2013. © 2013 American Neurological Association.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2014; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children surviving premature birth have a high risk of cognitive and learning disabilities and attention deficit. In turn, adverse outcomes are associated with persistent reductions in cerebral growth on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is striking that modern care has been associated with a dramatic reduction in the risk of cystic white matter damage, but modest improvements in terms of neurodevelopmental impairment. This review will explore the hypothesis that the disability is primarily associated with impaired neural connectivity rather than cell death alone. Very preterm infants exhibit reduced thalamocortical connectivity and cortical neuroplasticity compared with term-born controls. In preterm fetal sheep, moderate cerebral ischemia with no neuronal loss, but significant diffuse failure of maturation of cortical pyramidal neurons, was associated with impaired dendritic growth and synapse formation, consistent with altered connectivity. These changes were associated with delayed decline in cortical fractional anisotropy (FA) on MRI. Supporting these preclinical findings, preterm human survivors showed similar enduring impairment of microstructural development of the cerebral cortex defined by FA, consistent with delayed formation of neuronal processes. These findings offer the promise that better understanding of impairment of neural connectivity may allow us to promote normal development and growth of the cortex after preterm birth.Pediatric Research (2013); doi:10.1038/pr.2013.189.
    Pediatric Research 10/2013; · 2.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The authors have previously shown that exposure of the neonatal nonhuman primate (NHP) brain to isoflurane for 5 h causes widespread acute apoptotic degeneration of neurons and oligodendrocyte. The current study explored the potential apoptogenic action of isoflurane in the fetal NHP brain. Fetal rhesus macaques at gestational age of 120 days (G120) were exposed in utero for 5 h to isoflurane anesthesia (n = 5) or to no anesthesia (control condition; n = 4), and all regions of the brain were systematically evaluated 3 h later for evidence of apoptotic degeneration of neurons or glia. Exposure of the G120 fetal NHP brain to isoflurane caused a significant increase in apoptosis of neurons and of oligodendrocytes at a stage when oligodendrocytes were just beginning to myelinate axons. The neuroapoptosis response was most prominent in the cerebellum, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and several cerebrocortical regions. Oligodendrocyte apoptosis was diffusely distributed over many white matter regions. The total number of apoptotic profiles (neurons + oligodendrocytes) in the isoflurane-exposed brains was increased 4.1-fold, compared with the brains from drug-naive controls. The total number of oligodendrocytes deleted by isoflurane was higher than the number of neurons deleted. Isoflurane anesthesia for 5 h causes death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in the G120 fetal NHP brain. In the fetal brain, as the authors previously found in the neonatal NHP brain, oligodendrocytes become vulnerable when they are just achieving myelination competence. The neurotoxic potential of isoflurane increases between the third trimester (G120) and the neonatal period in the NHP brain.
    Anesthesiology 10/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Children who survive preterm birth exhibit persistent unexplained disturbances in cerebral cortical growth with associated cognitive and learning disabilities. The mechanisms underlying these deficits remain elusive. We used ex vivo diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to demonstrate in a preterm large-animal model that cerebral ischemia impairs cortical growth and the normal maturational decline in cortical fractional anisotropy (FA). Analysis of pyramidal neurons revealed that cortical deficits were associated with impaired expansion of the dendritic arbor and reduced synaptic density. Together, these findings suggest a link between abnormal cortical FA and disturbances of neuronal morphological development. To experimentally investigate this possibility, we measured the orientation distribution of dendritic branches and observed that it corresponds with the theoretically predicted pattern of increased anisotropy within cases that exhibited elevated cortical FA after ischemia. We conclude that cortical growth impairments are associated with diffuse disturbances in the dendritic arbor and synapse formation of cortical neurons, which may underlie the cognitive and learning disabilities in survivors of preterm birth. Further, measurement of cortical FA may be useful for noninvasively detecting neurological disorders affecting cortical development.
    Science translational medicine 01/2013; 5(168):168ra7. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the spectrum of perinatal white matter injury (WMI) in preterm infants is shifting from cystic encephalomalacia to milder forms of WMI, the factors that contribute to this changing spectrum are unclear. We hypothesized that the variability in WMI quantified by immunohistochemical markers of inflammation could be correlated with the severity of impaired blood oxygen, glucose and lactate. We employed a preterm fetal sheep model of in utero moderate hypoxemia and global severe but not complete cerebral ischemia that reproduces the spectrum of human WMI. Since there is small but measurable residual brain blood flow during occlusion, we sought to determine if the metabolic state of the residual arterial blood was associated with severity of WMI. Near the conclusion of hypoxia-ischemia, we recorded cephalic arterial blood pressure, blood oxygen, glucose and lactate levels. To define the spectrum of WMI, an ordinal WMI rating scale was compared against an unbiased quantitative image analysis protocol that provided continuous histo-pathological outcome measures for astrogliosis and microgliosis derived from the entire white matter. A spectrum of WMI was observed that ranged from diffuse non-necrotic lesions to more severe injury that comprised discrete foci of microscopic or macroscopic necrosis. Residual arterial pressure, oxygen content and blood glucose displayed a significant inverse association with WMI and lactate concentrations were directly related. Elevated glucose levels were the most significantly associated with less severe WMI. Our results suggest that under conditions of hypoxemia and severe cephalic hypotension, WMI severity measured using unbiased immunohistochemical measurements correlated with several physiologic parameters, including glucose, which may be a useful marker of fetal response to hypoxia or provide protection against energy failure and more severe WMI.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(12):e82940. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Developing central white matter is subject to ischemic-type injury during the period that precedes myelination. At this stage in maturation, central axons initiate a program of radial expansion and ion channel redistribution. Here we test the hypothesis that during radial expansion axons display heightened ischemic sensitivity, when clusters of Ca(2+) channels decorate future node of Ranvier sites. Functionality and morphology of central axons and glia were examined during and after a period of modeled ischemia. Pathological changes in axons undergoing radial expansion were probed using electrophysiological, quantitative ultrastructural, and morphometric analysis in neonatal rodent optic nerve and periventricular white matter axons studied under modeled ischemia in vitro or after hypoxia-ischemia in vivo. Acute ischemic injury of central axons undergoing initial radial expansion was mediated by Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) channels expressed in axolemma clusters. This form of injury operated only in this axon population, which was more sensitive to injury than neighboring myelinated axons, smaller axons yet to initiate radial expansion, astrocytes, or oligodendroglia. A pharmacological strategy designed to protect both small and large diameter premyelinated axons proved 100% protective against acute ischemia studied under modeled ischemia in vitro or after hypoxia-ischemia in vivo. Recent clinical data highlight the importance of axon pathology in developing white matter injury. The elevated susceptibility of early maturing axons to ischemic injury described here may significantly contribute to selective white matter pathology and places these axons alongside preoligodendrocytes as a potential primary target of both injury and therapeutics. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:936-951.
    Annals of Neurology 12/2012; 72(6):936-51. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) recruited to demyelinating lesions often fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) that remyelinate spared axons. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in demyelinating lesions and has been implicated in the failure of OPC maturation and remyelination. We tested the hypothesis that OPCs in demyelinating lesions express a specific hyaluronidase, and that digestion products of this enzyme inhibit OPC maturation. METHODS: Mouse OPCs grown in vitro were analyzed for hyaluronidase expression and activity. Gain of function studies were used to define the hyaluronidases that blocked OPC maturation. Mouse and human demyelinating lesions were assessed for hyaluronidase expression. Digestion products from different hyaluronidases and a hyaluronidase inhibitor were tested for their effects on OPC maturation and functional remyelination in vivo. RESULTS: OPCs demonstrated hyaluronidase activity in vitro and expressed multiple hyaluronidases, including HYAL1, HYAL2, and PH20. HA digestion by PH20 but not other hyaluronidases inhibited OPC maturation into OLs. In contrast, inhibiting HA synthesis did not influence OPC maturation. PH20 expression was elevated in OPCs and reactive astrocytes in both rodent and human demyelinating lesions. HA digestion products generated by the PH20 hyaluronidase but not another hyaluronidase inhibited remyelination following lysolecithin-induced demyelination. Inhibition of hyaluronidase activity lead to increased OPC maturation and promoted increased conduction velocities through lesions. INTERPRETATION: We determined that PH20 is elevated in demyelinating lesions and that increased PH20 expression is sufficient to inhibit OPC maturation and remyelination. Pharmacological inhibition of PH20 may therefore be an effective way to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis and related conditions. ANN NEUROL 2013;
    Annals of Neurology 10/2012; · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Shiverer-immunodeficient (Shi-id) mice demonstrate defective myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) and significant ataxia by 2 to 3 weeks of life. Expanded, banked human neural stem cells (HuCNS-SCs) were transplanted into three sites in the brains of neonatal or juvenile Shi-id mice, which were asymptomatic or showed advanced hypomyelination, respectively. In both groups of mice, HuCNS-SCs engrafted and underwent preferential differentiation into oligodendrocytes. These oligodendrocytes generated compact myelin with normalized nodal organization, ultrastructure, and axon conduction velocities. Myelination was equivalent in neonatal and juvenile mice by quantitative histopathology and high-field ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging, which, through fractional anisotropy, revealed CNS myelination 5 to 7 weeks after HuCNS-SC transplantation. Transplanted HuCNS-SCs generated functional myelin in the CNS, even in animals with severe symptomatic hypomyelination, suggesting that this strategy may be useful for treating dysmyelinating diseases.
    Science translational medicine 10/2012; 4(155):155ra136. · 10.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previously we reported that exposure of 6-day-old (P6) rhesus macaques to isoflurane for 5 hours triggers a robust neuroapoptosis response in developing brain. We have also observed (unpublished data) that isoflurane causes apoptosis of cellular profiles in the white matter that resemble glia. We analyzed the cellular identity of the apoptotic white matter profiles and determined the magnitude of this cell death response to isoflurane. Neonatal (P6) rhesus macaques were exposed for 5 hours to isoflurane anesthesia according to current clinical standards in pediatric anesthesia. Brains were collected 3 hours later and examined immunohistochemically to analyze apoptotic neuronal and glial death. Brains exposed to isoflurane displayed significant apoptosis in both the white and gray matter throughout the central nervous system. Approximately 52% of the dying cells were glia, and 48% were neurons. Oligodendrocytes (OLs) engaged in myelinogenesis were selectively vulnerable, in contrast to OL progenitors, astrocytes, microglia, and interstitial neurons. When adjusted for control rates of OL apoptosis, the percentage of OLs that degenerated in the forebrain white matter of the isoflurane-treated group was 6.3% of the total population of myelinating OLs. Exposure of the infant rhesus macaque brain to isoflurane for 5 hours is sufficient to cause widespread apoptosis of neurons and OLs throughout the developing brain. Deletion of OLs at a stage when they are just beginning to myelinate axons could potentially have adverse long-term neurobehavioral consequences that might be additive to the potential consequences of isoflurane-induced neuroapoptosis. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:525-535.
    Annals of Neurology 10/2012; 72(4):525-35. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury remains a major cause of cerebral palsy. Although therapeutic hypothermia is now established to improve recovery from hypoxia-ischemia (HI) at term, many infants continue to survive with disability, and hypothermia has not yet been tested in preterm infants. There is increasing evidence from in vitro and in vivo preclinical studies that stem/progenitor cells may have multiple beneficial effects on outcome after hypoxic-ischemic injury. Stem/progenitor cells have shown great promise in animal studies in decreasing neurological impairment; however, the mechanisms of action of stem cells, and the optimal type, dose, and method of administration remain surprisingly unclear, and some studies have found no benefit. Although cell-based interventions after completion of the majority of secondary cell death appear to have potential to improve functional outcome for neonates after HI, further rigorous testing in translational animal models is required before randomized controlled trials should be considered.
    Annals of Neurology 05/2012; 71(5):589-600. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite advances in neonatal intensive care, survivors of premature birth remain highly susceptible to unique patterns of developmental brain injury that manifest as cerebral palsy and cognitive-learning disabilities. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to cerebral white matter injury related to hypoxia-ischemia. Cerebral white matter development in fetal sheep shares many anatomical and physiological similarities with humans. Thus, the fetal sheep has provided unique experimental access to the complex pathophysiological processes that contribute to injury to the human brain during successive periods in development. Recent refinements have resulted in models that replicate major features of acute and chronic human cerebral injury and have provided access to complex clinically relevant studies of cerebral blood flow and neuroimaging that are not feasible in smaller laboratory animals. Here, we focus on emerging insights and methodologies from studies in fetal sheep that have begun to define cellular and vascular factors that contribute to white matter injury. Recent advances include spatially defined measurements of cerebral blood flow in utero, the definition of cellular maturational factors that define the topography of injury and the application of high-field magnetic resonance imaging to define novel neuroimaging signatures for specific types of chronic white matter injury. Despite the higher costs and technical challenges of instrumented preterm fetal sheep models, they provide powerful access to clinically relevant studies that provide a more integrated analysis of the spectrum of insults that appear to contribute to cerebral injury in human preterm infants.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 03/2012; 9(2):359-70. · 5.38 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of pediatrics 02/2012; 160(4):544-552.e4. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The major form of magnetic resonance imaging-defined white matter injury (WMI) comprises diffuse lesions where the burden of small necrotic foci (microscopic necrosis) is poorly defined. We hypothesized that myelination failure associated with diffuse WMI involves an aberrant injury response linked to arrested preoligodendrocyte (preOL) maturation in reactive astrocyte-rich lesions. A retrospective autopsy series (1983-2000) was selected for cases with diffuse WMI and analyzed relative to prospectively collected contemporary cases (2003-2010). Controls were age- and region-matched to address regional variation in preOL maturation. Successive oligodendrocyte stages were analyzed with lineage-specific markers. Microscopic necrosis was quantified with microglial markers. Axon injury markers defined the burden of axonopathy. Extracellular matrix remodeling was defined by detection of hyaluronic acid (HA), an inhibitor of preOL maturation, and the HA receptor, CD44. In the contemporary case series, diffuse WMI was accompanied by a significant reduction in the burden of microscopic necrosis and axonopathy. Diffuse astrogliosis extended into the lesion surround with elevated HA and astrocyte-expressed CD44. The total population of OL lineage stages was significantly increased in lesions. This increase coincided with significant expansion of the preOL pool. Although these data confirm that microscopic necrosis occurs in contemporary cases, the markedly decreased burden supports that it does not contribute substantially to myelination failure. The primary mechanism of myelination failure involves a disrupted cellular response whereby preOLs fail to differentiate in diffuse astrogliotic lesions. PreOL maturation arrest converts chronic WMI to a more immature state related to the burden of astrogliosis.
    Annals of Neurology 01/2012; 71(1):93-109. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: White matter injury (WMI) is the leading cause of brain injury in preterm survivors and results in myelination failure. Although axonal degeneration occurs in necrotic lesions, the role of axonopathy in myelination failure remains controversial for diffuse non-necrotic WMI, which is currently the major form of WMI. We determined the burden of axonopathy in diffuse lesions. We analyzed WMI in a preterm fetal sheep model of global cerebral ischemia that replicates the relative burden of necrotic and non-necrotic human WMI. WMI was analyzed at 1 or 2 weeks after ischemia and identified by ex vivo high-field (11.7 Tesla) magnetic resonance imaging of fixed brain tissue. Axonal integrity was analyzed by immunohistochemical detection of axon injury markers and by transmission electron microscopy to quantify axon loss and degeneration in magnetic resonance imaging-defined lesions. Axonal degeneration, defined by staining for neurofilament protein and β-amyloid precursor protein, was restricted to discrete necrotic foci with robust microglial activation. Unexpectedly, axonal degeneration was not visualized in the major form of WMI, which comprised large non-necrotic lesions with diffuse reactive astrogliosis. In these major lesions, quantitative electron microscopy studies confirmed no significant differences in the density of intact and degenerating axons or in the distribution of axon diameters relative to controls. The mechanism of myelination failure differs significantly in perinatal WMI dependent on the burden of necrosis. Axonopathy is associated with focal necrotic injury but not with primary diffuse non-necrotic lesions, which supports that intact axons in the primary lesions are potential targets for myelination.
    Stroke 11/2011; 43(1):178-84. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying magnetic resonance imaging-defined white matter (WM) changes associated with age-related cognitive decline remain poorly defined. We tested the hypothesis that WM lesions in older adults, defined by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arise in the setting of vascular brain injury (VBI) and are characterized by increased free radical injury and aberrant oligodendrocyte lineage (OL) cell response to injury. We undertook a multimodal analysis of prefrontal cortex (PFC) WM from 25 autopsies derived from a population-based cohort where VBI and Alzheimer disease (AD) frequently coincide. Ex vivo high field strength DTI measurements of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, and axial and radial (D(⊥) ) diffusivity were measured at high magnetic field strength (11.7T) and analyzed relative to quantitative in vivo biomarkers of free radical injury, an OL-specific marker Olig2, and histologic evaluation of hyaluronan (HA), an inhibitor of OL maturation. Coincident AD and VBI showed significant association with lower FA and a robust relationship between decreasing FA and increasing D(⊥) . Free radical injury to docosahexaenoate and adrenate in PFC WM was significantly elevated in cases with VBI independent of AD, and was inversely correlated with FA. Similarly, increased density of Olig2-immunoreactive cells in PFC WM was significantly associated with VBI independent of AD and colocalized with regions enriched in HA. DTI-defined PFC WM lesions in older individuals are characterized by free radical injury to myelin and neuroaxonal elements that coincides with pronounced expansion of the pool of OL cells in HA-rich regions.
    Annals of Neurology 09/2011; 70(3):465-76. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) accumulates in central nervous system lesions where it limits astrogliosis but also inhibits oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) maturation. The role of hyaluronan in normative brain aging has not been previously investigated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HA accumulates in the aging nonhuman primate brain. We found that HA levels significantly increase with age in the gray matter of rhesus macaques. HA accumulation was linked to age-related increases in the transcription of HA synthase-1 (HAS1) expressed by reactive astrocytes but not changes in the expression of other HAS genes or hyaluronidases. HA accumulation was accompanied by increased expression of CD44, a transmembrane HA receptor. Areas of gray matter with elevated HA in older animals demonstrated increased numbers of olig2(+) OPCs, consistent with the notion that HA may influence OPC expansion or maturation. Collectively, these data indicate that HAS1 and CD44 are transcriptionally upregulated in astrocytes during normative aging and are linked to HA accumulation in gray matter.
    Neurobiology of aging 08/2011; 33(4):830.e13-24. · 5.94 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
385.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2001–2013
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2012
    • StemCells, Inc.
      Newark, California, United States
    • Wisconsin National Primate Research Center
      Madison, Wisconsin, United States
  • 2004
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Evanston, IL, United States
  • 1996–2002
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1998
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, MA, United States