[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 is a tumor suppressor that contributes to the host immune response against viral infections in addition to its well-established protective role against cancer development. In response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection, p53 is activated and plays an essential role in inhibiting IAV replication. As a transcription factor, p53 regulates the expression of a range of downstream responsive genes either directly or indirectly in response to viral infection. We compared the expression profiles of immune-related genes between IAV-infected wild-type p53 (p53WT) and p53-deficient (p53KO) mice to gain an insight into the basis of p53-mediated antiviral response.
p53KO and p53WT mice were infected with influenza A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (PR8) strain. Clinical symptoms and body weight changes were monitored daily. Lung specimens of IAV-infected mice were collected for analysis of virus titers and gene expression profiles. The difference in immune-related gene expression levels between IAV-infected p53KO and p53WT mice was comparatively determined using microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.
p53KO mice showed an increased susceptibility to IAV infection compared to p53WT mice. Microarray analysis of gene expression profiles in the lungs of IAV-infected mice indicated that the increased susceptibility was associated with significantly changed expression levels in a range of immune-related genes in IAV-infected p53KO mice. A significantly attenuated expression of Ifng (encoding interferon (IFN)-gamma), Irf7 (encoding IFN regulator factor 7), and antiviral genes, such as Mx2 and Eif2ak2 (encoding PKR), were observed in IAV-infected p53KO mice, suggesting an impaired IFN-mediated immune response against IAV infection in the absence of p53. In addition, dysregulated expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as Ccl2 (encoding MCP-1), Cxcl9, Cxcl10 (encoding IP-10), and Tnf, were detected in IAV-infected p53KO mice during early IAV infection, reflecting an aberrant inflammatory response.
Lack of p53 resulted in the impaired expression of genes involved in IFN signaling and the dysregulated expression of cytokine and chemokine genes in IAV-infected mice, suggesting an essential role of p53 in the regulation of antiviral and inflammatory responses during IAV infection.
BMC Medical Genomics 12/2015; 8(1):52. DOI:10.1186/s12920-015-0127-8 · 2.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can impact viral infections by binding to sequences with partial complementarity on viral RNA transcripts, usually resulting in the repression of virus replication. In the present study, we identified a potential binding site for miR-130 in the 5' untranslated region (bps 155-162) of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) genome. We found that the delivery of multiple miR-130 family mimics, especially miR-130b, resulted in inhibition of PRRSV replication in vitro. miR-130 was effective in inhibiting the replication of multiple type 2 PRRSV strains, but not against vSHE, a classical type 1 strain. miR-130 over-expression did not induce IFN-α or TNF-α expression in either uninfected or PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages. Results from luciferase reporter assays indicated that miR-130 directly targeted the PRRSV 5' UTR. Intranasal inoculation of piglets with miR-130b exhibited antiviral activity in vivo and partially protected piglets from an otherwise lethal challenge with HP-PRRSV strain vJX143. Overall, these results demonstrate the importance of the miR-130 family in modulating PRRSV replication and also provide a scientific basis for using cellular miRNAs in anti-PRRSV therapies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tannin grafted on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (tannin-MSNs) was synthesized by the amidation reaction of carboxyl benzyl borate with amino group modified MSN. Tannin-MSNs were an MCM-41 type of mesoporous material with a uniform diameter of about 150 nm. The XRD and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherm results demonstrated that the rhodamine was effectively loaded and the pores of MSN were blocked by tannin. Rhodamine as a model cargo was used to evaluate the loading and releasing behaviors of tannin-MSNs. The drug release rate of tannin-MSNs was pH dependent. An in vitro cellular cytotoxicity test indicated that tannin-MSNs were highly biocompatible and suitable to be used as drug carriers. The cellular uptake was investigated by confocal laser scan microscopy. The results showed that tannin-MSNs are promising platforms to construct a pH-responsive controlled drug delivery system for cancer and stomach therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complete genome sequence of classic swine fever virus (CSFV) strain JSZL was determined in this study. JSZL was originally isolated from an immune pig farm in Jiangsu Province, China. JSZL is more closely related to subgenotype 2.1b than to 2.1a and 2.1c. Importantly, JSZL was classified into a new subgenotype, 2.1d.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
At least 10 different genotypes of novel reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses with 2009 pandemic H1N1 [A(H1N1)pdm09] gene(s) have been identified in U.S. pigs, including the H3N2 variant with a single A(H1N1)pdm09 M gene, which has infected more than 300 people. To date, only three genotypes of these viruses have been evaluated in animal models, and the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the other seven genotype viruses remain unknown. Here, we show that three H3N2 reassortant viruses that contain 3 (NP, M, and NS) or 5 (PA, PB2, NP, M, and NS) genes from A(H1N1)pdm09 were pathogenic in pigs, similar to the endemic H3N2 swine virus. However, the reassortant H3N2 virus with 3 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes and a recent human influenza virus N2 gene was transmitted most efficiently among pigs, whereas the reassortant H3N2 virus with 5 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes was transmitted less efficiently than the endemic H3N2 virus. Interestingly, the polymerase complex of reassortant H3N2 virus with 5 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes showed significantly higher polymerase activity than those of endemic and reassortant H3N2 viruses with 3 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes. Further studies showed that an avian-like glycine at position 228 at the hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding site is responsible for inefficient transmission of the reassortant H3N2 virus with 5 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes. Taken together, our results provide insights into the pathogenicity and transmissibility of novel reassortant H3N2 viruses in pigs and suggest that a mammalian-like serine at position 228 in the HA is critical for the transmissibility of these reassortant H3N2 viruses.
Swine influenza is a highly contagious zoonotic disease that threatens animal and public health. Introduction of 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] into swine herds has resulted in novel reassortant influenza viruses in swine, including H3N2 and H1N2 variants that have caused human infections in the United States. We showed that reassortant H3N2 influenza viruses with 3 or 5 genes from A(H1N1)pdm09 isolated from diseased pigs are pathogenic and transmissible in pigs, but the reassortant H3N2 virus with 5 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes displayed less efficient transmissibility than the endemic and reassortant H3N2 viruses with 3 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes. Further studies revealed that an avian-like glycine at the HA 228 receptor binding site of the reassortant H3N2 virus with 5 A(H1N1)pdm09 genes is responsible for less efficient transmissibility in pigs. Our results provide insights into viral pathogenesis and the transmission of novel reassortant H3N2 viruses that are circulating in U.S. swine herds and warrant future surveillance.
Journal of Virology 03/2015; 89(5):2831-2841. DOI:10.1128/JVI.03355-14 · 4.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The N gene of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was amplified by RT-PCR using specific primers, and inserted into the expression vector pCold-I to construct a recombinant plasmid pCold-I-N. The recombinant plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) under IPTG induction. Then, female BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified recombinant N protein and one strain of hybridoma cells named 2B8 secreting anti-N protein monoclonal antibodies (MAb) was obtained by hybridoma technique. The MAb was specifically reacted with PEDV and identified by Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays. This work indicated that the MAb would be a valuable tool as a specific diagnostic reagent for PEDV epidemiological surveys and diagnosis in the future.
Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy 02/2015; 34(1):51-54. DOI:10.1089/mab.2014.0062
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to be an important problem for the swine industry. Inactivated vaccines and modified-live virus vaccines are widely used in the field; however, the efficacy of these PRRSV vaccines is suboptimal due to poor immunogenicity. Granulocyte¿macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been extensively used as an effective genetic and protein adjuvant to enhance the efficiencies vaccines expressing tumor or pathogen antigens. The purpose of this study was to determine if GM-CSF could increase the efficiency of PRRSV vaccine.Methods
The GM-CSF gene was inserted in the HuN4-F112 vaccine strain by overlap PCR. The expression of GM-CSF by the recombinant virus was confirmed with methods of indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) and Western blotting. The stability of recombinant virus was assessed by cDNA sequence and IFA after 20 passages. To detect the biological activity of GM-CSF expressed by the recombinant virus, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were isolated and co-cultured with the recombinant virus or parental virus and the surface phenotypes of BMDCs were examined by flow cytometric analysis. The cytokines secreted by BMDCs infected with PRRSV,or treated with LPS, GM-CSF or medium alone were evaluated by ProcartaPlexTM Multiplex Immunoassays and qRT-PCR.ResultsA novel modified-live PRRSV vaccine strain expressing GM-CSF (rHuN4-GM-CSF) was successfully constructed and rescued. The GM-CSF protein was stable expressed in recombinant virus-infected cells after 20 passages. Analysis of virus replication kinetics showed that the novel vaccine strain expressing GM-CSF had a similar replication rate as the parental virus. In vitro studies showed that infection of porcine BMDCs with rHuN4-GM-CSF resulted in increased surface expression of MHCI+, MHCII¿+¿and CD80/86+ that was dependent on virus expressed GM-CSF. The expression of representative cytokines was significantly up-regulated when BMDCs were incubated with the recombinant GM-CSF expressing virus.Conclusions
Our results indicated that the expression of GM-CSF during infection with a vaccine strain could enhance the activation of BMDCs and increase cytokine response, which is expected to result in higher immune responses and may improve vaccine efficacy against PRRSV infection.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in viral infections, especially by modulating the expression of cellular factors essential to viral replication or the host innate immune response to infection. To identify host miRNAs important to controlling porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, we screened 15 miRNAs that were previously implicated in innate immunity or antiviral functions. Over-expression of the miR-26 family strongly inhibited PRRSV replication in vitro, as shown by virus titer assays, western blotting, and qRT-PCR assays. MiR-26a inhibited the replication of both type 1 and type 2 PRRSV strains. Mutating the seed region of miR-26 restored viral titers. Luciferase reporters showed that miR-26a does not target the PRRSV genome directly but instead affects the expression of type I interferon and the IFN-stimulated genes MX1 and ISG15 during PRRSV infection. These results demonstrate the important role of miR-26a in modulating PRRSV infection and also support the possibility of using host miR-26a to achieve RNAi-mediated antiviral therapeutic strategies.
Virus Research 09/2014; 195. DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2014.08.012 · 2.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sterile alpha motif and HD domain 1 (SAMHD1) protein is an novel innate immunity restriction factor that inhibits HIV-1 infection in myeloid cells. Here, we cloned the full-length SAMHD1 complementary DNA (cDNA) from porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes. The porcine SAMHD1 cDNA was of 3951 bp with an open reading frame of 1884 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 627 amino acids. Porcine SAMHD1 mRNA was detected in all swine tissues examined, with the higher expression in the tonsil, lung, liver, and lymph node tissues. The SAMHD1 protein was localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of SAMHD1 blocked the proliferation of HuN4, a highly pathogenic strain of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV), in MARC-145 cells, by inhibiting the synthesis of the HuN4 complement RNA. The antiviral effects of the simian SAMHD1 protein were nearly equivalent to those of porcine SAMHD1 in the HuN4-infected MARC-145 cells. Phosphorylation analysis of SAMHD1 showed that overexpressed SAMHD1 protein was in primarily an unphosphorylated state. SAMHD1 overexpression increased the transcript abundance of IFN-stimulated genes ISG15 and ISG56. The mRNA levels of SAMHD1 and ISGs were significantly increased in porcine alveolar macrophages infected with HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 protein level was also elevated, and the protein was not phosphorylated during infection. Collectively, our data indicate that SAMHDI inhibits HP-PRRSV proliferation through inhibiting the replication of HP-PRRSV. SAMHD1 might be the protein participating in the IFN signaling and is thus an important immunoregulatory protein in innate immunity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The factors that determine the transcription-regulating sequence (TRS) activity of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unclear. In this study, the effect of mutagenesis of conserved C nucleotides at positions 5 and 6 in the leader TRS (TRS-L) and/or canonical body TRS7 (TRS-B7) on the synthesis of subgenomic (sg) mRNA and virus infectivity was investigated in the context of a type 2 PRRSV infectious cDNA clone. The results showed that a double C mutation in the leader TRS completely abolished sg mRNAs synthesis and virus infectivity, but a single C mutation did not. A single C or double C mutation in TRS-B7.1 or/and TRS-B7.2 impaired or abolished the corresponding sg mRNA synthesis. Introduction of identical mutations in the leader and body TRSs partially restored sg mRNA7.1 and/or sg mRNA7.2 transcription, indicating that the base-pairing interaction between sense TRS-L and cTRS-B is a crucial factor influencing sg mRNA synthesis. Analysis of the mRNA leader-body junctions of mutants provided evidence for a mechanism of discontinuous minus-strand transcription. This study also showed that mutational inactivation of TRS-B7.1 or TRS-B7.2 did not affect the production of infectious progeny virus, and the sg mRNA formed from each of them could express N protein. However, TRS-B7.1 plays more important roles than TRS-B7.2 in maintaining the growth characteristic of type 2 PRRSV. These results provide more insight into the molecular mechanism of genome expression and subgenomic mRNA transcription of PRRSV.
Archives of Virology 02/2014; 159(8). DOI:10.1007/s00705-014-2018-2 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that is causing massive economic loss in the Chinese duck industry. To obtain a live vaccine candidate against the disease, the DTMUV isolate FX2010 was passaged serially in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Characterization of FX2010-180P revealed that it was unable to replicate efficiently in chicken embryonated eggs, nor intranasally infect mice or shelducks at high doses of 5.5 log10 tissue culture infectious doses (TCID50). FX2010-180P did not induce clinical symptoms, or pathological lesions in ducks at a dose of 5.5 log10 TCID50. The attenuation of FX2010-180P was due to 19 amino acid changes and 15 synonymous mutations. Importantly, FX2010-180P elicited good immune responses in ducks inoculated at low doses (3.5 log10 TCID50) and provided complete protection against challenge with a virulent strain. These results indicate that FX2010-180P is a promising candidate live vaccine for prevention of duck Tembusu viral disease.
Virology 02/2014; s 450–451:233–242. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.028 · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vaccination is considered as the most effective preventive method to control influenza. The hallmark of influenza virus is the remarkable variability of its major surface glycoproteins, HA and NA, which allows the virus to evade existing anti-influenza immunity in the target population. So it is necessary to develop a novel vaccine to control animal influenza virus. Also we know that the ectodomain of influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved in animal influenza A viruses, so a vaccine based on the M2e could avoid several drawbacks of the traditional vaccines. In this study we designed a novel tetra-branched multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) based vaccine, which was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper (Th) cell epitope, and then investigated its immune responses.
Our results show that the M2e-MAP induced strong M2e-specific IgG antibody,which responses following 2 doses immunization in the presence of Freunds' adjuvant. M2e-MAP vaccination limited viral replication substantially. Also it could attenuate histopathological damage in the lungs of challenged mice and counteracted weight loss. M2e-MAP-based vaccine protected immunized mice against the lethal challenge with PR8 virus.
Based on these findings, M2e-MAP-based vaccine seemed to provide useful information for the research of M2e-based influenza vaccine. Also it show huge potential to study vaccines for other similarly viruses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Goose parvovirus (GPV), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), goose herpesvirus (GHV) and goose adenovirus (GAV) are considered collectively to be four of the most important and widespread viruses of geese. Because all of these viruses cause similar pathological changes, histological differentiation among these viruses is difficult. A reliable, specific and sensitive multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay was developed for the combined detection of GPV, NDV, GHV and GAV in clinical samples of geese. Using the mPCR technique, single infections with GPV (28/76;36.8%), NDV (9/76;11.8%), GHV (3/76;3.9%) and GAV (12/76;15.8%) were identified in the samples; co-infections with GAV and either GPV or NDV (31.6%; 24/76) were also identified with this approach. The results for all of the samples tested were the same in both the uPCR and mPCR systems. The mPCR approach is considered to be useful for routine molecular diagnosis and epidemiological applications in geese.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), including the poly (A) tail, reportedly plays an important role in arterivirus replication, but the roles of the cis-acting elements present in the 3' UTR of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) remain largely unknown. In the present study, PCR-based mutagenic analysis was conducted on the 3' UTR of PRRSV infectious full-length cDNA clone pAPRRS to investigate the structure and function of the conserved terminal nucleotides between the poly (A) tail and the 3' UTR region. Our findings indicated that the conservation of the primary sequence of the 3' terminal nucleotides, rather than the surrounding secondary structure, was vital for viral replication and infectivity. Four nucleotides (nt) (5'-(15517)AAUU(15520)-3') at the 3' proximal end of the 3' UTR and the dinucleotide 5'-AU-3' exerted an important regulatory effect on viral viability. Of the five 3'-terminal nucleotides of the 3' UTR (5'-(15503)AACCA(15507)-3'), at least three, including the last dinucleotide (5'-CA-3'), were essential for maintaining viral infectivity. Taken together, the 3'-terminal conserved sequence plays a critical role in PRRSV replication and may function as a contact site for specific assembly of the replication complex.
Archives of Virology 03/2013; 158(8). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1661-3 · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 5' untranslated region (UTR) is believed to be vital for the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), yet its functional mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, to define the cis-acting elements for viral replication and infectivity, The 5' UTR swapping chimeric clones pTLV8 and pSHSP5 were constructed based on two different genotypes full-length infectious cDNA clone pAPRRS and pSHE backbones. Between them, vTLV8 could be rescued from pTLV8 and had similar virological properties to vAPRRS, including phenotypic characteristic and RNA synthesis level. However, pSHSP5 exhibited no evidence of infectivity. Taken together, the results presented here demonstrate that only the 5' UTR of type 1 PRRSV did not affect the infectivity and replication of type 2 PRRSV in vitro. The 5' UTR of type 2 PRRSV could be functionally replaced by its counterpart from type 1.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human guanylate-binding protein 1 (hGBP1) is an interferon-inducible protein involved in the host immune response against viral infection. In response to infection by influenza A virus (IAV), hGBP1 transcript and protein were significantly upregulated. Overexpression of hGBP1 inhibited IAV replication in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. The lysine residue at position 51 (K51) of hGBP1 was essential for inhibition of IAV replication. Mutation of K51 resulted in an hGBP1 that was unable to inhibit IAV replication. The viral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) was found to interact directly with hGBP1. K51 of hGBP1 and a region between residues 123 and 144 in NS1 were demonstrated to be essential for the interaction between NS1 and hGBP1. Binding of NS1 to hGBP1 resulted in a significant reduction in both GTPase activity and the anti-IAV activity of hGBP1. These findings indicated that hGBP1 contributed to the host immune response against IAV replication and that hGBP1-mediated antiviral activity was antagonized by NS1 via binding to hGBP1.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2):e55920. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055920 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt is an important cellular pathway that has been shown to participate in various replication steps of multiple viruses. In the present study, we compared the phosphorylation status of Akt during infection of MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain HuN4. We observed that biphasic activation of Akt was induced in at both the early stage (5, 15 and 30 min postinfection) and the late stage (12 and 24 h postinfection) of HP-PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells, while an early-phase activation of Akt was found exclusively in virus-infected PAMs in vitro. Analysis with the PI3K-specific inhibitor LY294002 confirmed that PI3K acted as the upstream activator for the virus-induced activation of Akt. UV-irradiation-inactivated virus still induced the early event in PAMs but not in MARC-145 cells, suggesting that different mechanisms are employed for the early-stage induction of phosphorylated Akt within different cell cultures. We further demonstrated that FoxO1 and Bad, which serve as downstream targets of Akt, were phosphorylated in virus-infected MARC-145 cells. Moreover, the suppression of phosphorylated Akt with LY294002 significantly inhibited the virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on MARC-145 cells, but it had a negligible effect on virus propagation. Collectively, our data provide new evidence of a novel role for the PI3K/Akt pathway in PRRSV infection of MARC-145 cells.
Archives of Virology 02/2013; 158(6). DOI:10.1007/s00705-013-1620-z · 2.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia and domestic pigs are its amplifying hosts. In the present study, the full genomic sequences of two JEV strains HEN0701 and SH0601 isolated from pigs in China were determined and compared with other 12 JEV strains deposited in GenBank. These two strains shared 88.8% of nucleotide sequence and 97.9% of deduced amino acid sequence. HEN0701 had high nucleotide sequence identity and high amino acid sequence identity with the GI strains, and SH0601 had high nucleotide sequence identity and high amino acid sequence identity with GIII strains at both the gene level and full genome. Further phylogenetic analysis showed that HEN0701 belonged to JEV genotype I (GI) and SH0601 to GIII. Analysis of codon usage showed there were a few differences in nucleotide composition and codon usage for open reading frames between GI strains and GIII strains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been shown that ORF5a protein in EAV is important but not essential for virus infectivity. In this study, we found that RNA changes in the overlapping region (1-104 nucleotide, nt) between ORF5 and ORF5a introduced by codon-optimized GP5 was lethal for virus viability, suggesting that the nt changes or amino acid (aa) mutations in the GP5 or ORF5a protein did not permit the production of infectious virus. Furthermore, inactivation of ORF5a expression in the context of type 1 (pSHE) and type 2 (pAJXM and pAPRRS) full-length PRRSV cDNA clones was lethal for the production of infectious virus, while viable PRRSV could be recovered by expressing ORF5a protein in trans, suggesting that ORF5a protein was essential for virus viability. Finally, ORF5a protein could be putatively extended to 63 aas by inactivation of the downstream stop codon candidates, thereby demonstrating that the C-terminus of ORF5a may be variable.
Virus Research 12/2012; 197(1). DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2012.11.005 · 2.32 Impact Factor