[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C (HCV) and B (HBV) virus infection on semen parameters. Semen samples were obtained from 27 HCV, 34 HIV, 30 HBV and 41 HCV-HIV-seropositive patients and compared with those of a control population of healthy seronegative subjects. Tests for detection of HIV, HCV and HBV were performed on seminal samples. The sperm concentration was significantly decreased in HCV- and HBV-seropositive males compared to that of controls (P < 0.001). The mean sperm motility (a + b) was significantly decreased in HCV- and HBV-seropositive (P < 0.001) and in HCV-HIV-seropositive subjects (P < 0.05) compared to that of controls. The sperm viability was significantly lower in HCV- and HBV-seropositive men than in controls (P < 0.001). The normal morphology was significantly reduced in HCV-seropositive and HBV-seropositive men (P < 0.05) with respect to that of controls (P < 0.05). The sperm concentration after sperm wash was significantly higher in controls than in HCV-, HIV-, HBV- and HIV-HCV-seropositive men (P < 0.001). We can conclude that HBV- and HCV-infected men have a significantly impaired sperm quality compared with that of controls. The reason for the better sperm quality in our series of HIV- and HCV-HIV-infected men is still under debate. Further investigations in a larger case series are warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors predisposing to implants of endometriotic lesions in normal ovarian cortexes of women with and without endometriosis by assessing the expression of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic factors and follicular density. Ovarian biopsies were performed during laparoscopy in 18 patients with endometrioma and in 10 healthy women. Detection of apoptosis was performed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling assay. p53 and BCL2 proteins were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate BAX , BAK , BCL2 , BCL-XL , survivin and beta-actin ( ACTB ) expression. The p53 protein was positive in a significantly higher number of secondary follicles, whereas the B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) protein was positive in all follicles in unaffected tissue of endometriotic women, compared with the controls. Overexpression of the BCL2 and survivin genes and a decreased BAX and BAK gene expression were observed in the endometriotic group although only the difference in survivin expression was significant (P = 0.016). The BCL2 / BAX ratio showed an increased value in the ovarian cortex in controls compared with endometriosis patients. In conclusion, the reduction of apoptosis in unaffected tissue in women with endometriosis suggests that they may be predisposed to develop endometriosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to treatment in a group of patients undergoing IVF and randomised to receive GnRH-antagonist or the GnRH-agonist. The endpoints were the pattern of follicular growth, the maturity of the oocytes collected, the embryo quality and the pregnancy outcome.
A total of 136 patients undergoing IVF were included. Sixty-seven patients were allocated to the GnRH antagonist and 69 patients to the GnRH agonist. GnRH antagonist was administered when the leading follicle reached a diameter of 12-14 mm. GnRH agonist was administered in a long luteal protocol.
The mean numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significantly higher in the agonist than in the antagonist group (p < 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). Embryo quality, implantation rate, clinical pregnancy rates, ongoing pregnancy rate and miscarriage rate were similar in both groups.
Better follicular growth and oocyte maturation are achieved with GnRH agonist treatment. However, both regimens seem to have similar efficacy in terms of implantation and pregnancy rates. Further studies clarifying the effect of the GnRH antagonist on ovarian function are needed, as well as a clear definition of the best period of the follicular phase for the GnRH antagonist administration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of recombinant and urinary human chorionic gonadotropin (rhCG and uhCG, respectively) for the induction of follicle maturation in women undergoing intrauterine insemination (IUI).
Patients were randomized to receive rhCG or uhCG. IUI was carried out 24 h (day 1) and 48 h (day 2) after hCG administration, except for all cases in which ovulation occurred after 24 h.
The two treatments were comparable in terms of progesterone levels on day 7 and day 12. Pregnancy rates were comparable between the treatment groups. Of the 64 women who received rhCG, 29.7% became pregnant; there were 16.7% clinical pregnancies and 3.1% biochemical pregnancies per started cycle, and an ongoing pregnancy rate of 93.7% was reported. Of the 61 patients who received uhCG, 24.6% became pregnant; there were 15.9% clinical pregnancies and 1.1% biochemical pregnancies per started cycle, and ongoing pregnancy rate was 92.9%. No adverse effects were noted in either group.
The recombinant products can be effectively used instead of urinary products; moreover, apart from the equivalent efficacy in ovulation induction and safety described in this study, it is necessary to consider the advantages provided by the recombinant form.