[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of RNA occurs in many species, including humans. Unlike the familiar phenomenon of polyadenylation, nontemplated addition of uridines to RNA is poorly characterized in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies have reported nontemplated 3'-end oligouridylation of small RNAs and mRNAs. Oligouridylation is involved in many aspects of microRNA biology from biogenesis to turnover of the mature species, and it may also mark long mRNAs for degradation by promoting decapping of the protective 5'-cap structure. To determine the prevalence of oligouridylation in higher eukaryotes, we used next-generation sequencing technology to deeply examine the population of small RNAs in human cells. Our data revealed widespread nontemplated nucleotide addition to the 3' ends of many classes of RNA, with short stretches of uridine being the most frequently added nucleotide.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that act as potent regulators of gene expression. The discovery of miRNAs with specific temporal and spatial expression patterns revealed a hidden layer of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Furthermore, differential expression of miRNAs during disease progression identified miRNAs as relevant candidate genes in human pathologies. Currently the exact roles of miRNAs in human development and disease progression remain largely unknown. There have been recent efforts to study the loss of these genes in vivo and this review will discuss published miRNA knockout mouse models, highlighting their potential mechanisms of action in vivo.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2010; 19(R2):R169-75. · 7.69 Impact Factor