Justin Schoenwald

Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, United States

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Publications (39)90.68 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($<$ 0.1 $\mu m$) and large ($>$ 1 $\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report first science results from our new spectrometer, the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), recently commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope (APEX). ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 microns. It utilizes a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come due to its synergy with ALMA and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post Herschel era. Here we report on our first detection of the [CII] 158 $\mu m$ line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ~ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of $(6.44 \pm 0.42) \times 10^{-18} W m^{-2}$. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 $\mu m $ line we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, $G \approx 2 \times 10^{4} G_{0}$, gas density, $n \approx 1 \times 10^{3} cm^{-3}$ and size between ~ 0.4 and 1 kpc. Based on this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2013; 780(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the design for the Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) that we are proposing for use on the 25 meter CCAT submillimeter telescope. SWCam utilizes the absorber-coupled MKID based detector arrays that are being developed at JPL, and will soon be tested in the MAKO camera on the CSO. The primary SWCam band is centered on the 350 um telluric window but we plan capabilities in the 450 and 200 um telluric windows as well. Due to the curvature of the CCAT focal plane, the camera is split into 7 sub-cameras - a central camera and six cameras in a closed-packed outer ring. Each silicon lens-based camera illuminates an array consisting of ~7750 pixels with a plate scale of 3”/pixel which corresponds to an image plane sampling of lambda/D per pixel at 350 um. The combined pixel count is ~ 54,000 and the effective instantaneous field of view is ~ 13’ in diameter. All the cameras are contained in a single closed-cycle cryostat simplifying the optical/cryo/mechanical systems. The system is expected to achieve a back-ground limited sensitivity ~20 to 30 mJy/sqrt(Hz) under good weather conditions 0.43 mm precipitatable water vapor burden), so that the SWCam on CCAT approaches (5 sigma) the expected confusion noise for distant infrared bright galaxies on CCAT (<1 mJy) in about 4 hours integration time, and can map a degree of sky to this limit in about 100 hours of integration time. The primary science for SWCam is to investigate star, galaxy and structure formation over cosmic time through large scale (10s of square degrees) surveys in the submm continuum bands. SWCam is a key part of a triad of instruments that enable this science, including a long wavelength camera (LWCam), and a broad-band direct detection spectrometer (X-Spec) - instruments also described within this session.
    American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts; 01/2013
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    ABSTRACT: FORCAST is a mid-infrared (5–40 μm) facility instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). After achieving first light flight in 2010 May, FORCAST has completed two observatory characterization flights and thirteen science flights on SOFIA. In this paper we describe the photometric calibration of FORCAST which involves some subtleties in correction for array artifacts and uncertainties due to the airborne environment. At present FORCAST is able to achieve approximately 20% (3σ) uncertainty in the calibration.
    Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 01/2013; 125(933):1393-1404. · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FORCAST has completed 16 engineering and science flights as the "First Light" U. S. science instrument aboard SOFIA and will be commissioned as a SOFIA facility instrument in 2013. FORCAST offers dual channel imaging (diffractionlimited at wavelengths < 15 microns) using a 256 x 256 pixel Si:As blocked impurity band (BIB) detector at 5 - 28 microns and a 256 x 256 pixel Si:Sb BIB detector at 28 - 40 microns. FORCAST images a 3.4 arcmin × 3.2 arcmin fieldof- view on SOFIA with a rectified plate scale of 0.768 arcsec/pixel. In addition to imaging capability, FORCAST offers a facility mode for grism spectroscopy that will commence during SOFIA Cycle 1. The grism suite enables spectroscopy over nearly the entire FORCAST wavelength range at low resolution (~140 - 300). Optional cross-dispersers boost the spectroscopic resolution to ~1200 at 5 - 8 microns and ~800 at 9.8 - 13.7 microns. Here we describe the FORCAST instrument including observing modes for SOFIA Cycle 1. We also summarize in-flight results, including detector and optical performance, sensitivity performance, and calibration.
    Proc SPIE 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present infrared observations of the ultra-compact H II region W3(OH) made by the FORCAST instrument aboard SOFIA and by Spitzer/IRAC. We contribute new wavelength data to the spectral energy distribution, which constrains the optical depth, grain size distribution, and temperature gradient of the dusty shell surrounding the H II region. We model the dust component as a spherical shell containing an inner cavity with radius ~ 600 AU, irradiated by a central star of type O9 and temperature ~ 31,000 K. The total luminosity of this system is 71,000 L_solar. An observed excess of 2.2 - 4.5 microns emission in the SED can be explained by our viewing a cavity opening or clumpiness in the shell structure whereby radiation from the warm interior of the shell can escape. We claim to detect the nearby water maser source W3 (H2O) at 31.4 and 37.1 microns using beam deconvolution of the FORCAST images. We constrain the flux densities of this object at 19.7 - 37.1 microns. Additionally, we present in situ observations of four young stellar and protostellar objects in the SOFIA field, presumably associated with the W3 molecular cloud. Results from the model SED fitting tool of Robitaille et al. (2006, 2007} suggest that two objects (2MASS J02270352+6152357 and 2MASS J02270824+6152281) are intermediate-luminosity (~ 236 - 432 L_solar) protostars; one object (2MASS J02270887+6152344) is either a high-mass protostar with luminosity 3000 L_solar or a less massive young star with a substantial circumstellar disk but depleted envelope; and one object (2MASS J02270743+6152281) is an intermediate-luminosity (~ 768 L_solar) protostar nearing the end of its envelope accretion phase or a young star surrounded by a circumstellar disk with no appreciable circumstellar envelope.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 757(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present infrared observations of the ultra-compact H II region W3(OH) made with Spitzer/IRAC and SOFIA/FORCAST. We contribute new wavelength data to the spectral energy distribution, which constrains the optical depth, grain size distribution, and temperature gradient of the dusty shell surrounding the H II region. We do not detect the nearby water maser source W3(H2O) at 19.7 - 37.1 microns. Additionally, we present observations of three protostellar objects in the SOFIA W3(OH) field. Models (Robitaille et al. 2007) suggest that two of these sources (2MASS J02270824+6152281, and 2MASS J02270743+6152281) are intermediate-mass protostars with luminosities 300 - 750 L_sun and 100 - 250 L_sun, respectively. Model fits to the third source (2MASS J02270887+6152344) have a luminosity range of 2800 - 4200 L_sun, which is consistent with a young B-type star with an optically thick circumstellar envelope still in its accretion phase.
    American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #220; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: We present 75"x75" size maps of M82 at 6.4 micron, 6.6 micron, 7.7 micron, 31.5 micron, and 37.1 micron with a resolution of ~4" that we have obtained with the mid-IR camera FORCAST on SOFIA. We find strong emission from the inner 60" (~1kpc) along the major axis, with the main peak 5" west-southwest of the nucleus and a secondary peak 4" east-northeast of the nucleus. The detailed morphology of the emission differs among the bands, which is likely due to different dust components dominating the continuum emission at short mid-IR wavelengths and long mid-IR wavelengths. We include Spitzer-IRS and Herschel/PACS 70 micron data to fit spectral energy distribution templates at both emission peaks. The best fitting templates have extinctions of A_V = 18 and A_V = 9 toward the main and secondary emission peak and we estimated a color temperature of 68 K at both peaks from the 31 micron and 37 micron measurement. At the emission peaks the estimated dust masses are on the order of 10^{4} M_sun.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) completed its first light flight in May of 2010 using the facility mid-infrared instrument FORCAST. Since then, FORCAST has successfully completed thirteen science flights on SOFIA. In this paper we describe the design, operation and performance of FORCAST as it relates to the initial three Short Science flights. FORCAST was able to achieve near diffraction-limited images for lambda > 30 microns allowing unique science results from the start with SOFIA. We also describe ongoing and future modifications that will improve overall capabilities and performance of FORCAST.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new mid-infrared images of the central region of the Orion Nebula using the newly commissioned SOFIA airborne telescope and its 5 -- 40 micron camera FORCAST. The 37.1 micron images represent the highest resolution observations (<4") ever obtained of this region at these wavelengths. After BN/KL (which is described in a separate letter in this issue), the dominant source at all wavelengths except 37.1 micron is the Ney-Allen Nebula, a crescent-shaped extended source associated with theta 1D. The morphology of the Ney-Allen nebula in our images is consistent with the interpretation that it is ambient dust swept up by the stellar wind from theta 1D, as suggested by Smith et al. (2005). Our observations also reveal emission from two "proplyds" (proto-planetary disks), and a few embedded young stellar objects (YSOs; IRc9, and OMC1S IRS1, 2, and 10). The spectral energy distribution for IRc9 is presented and fitted with standard YSO models from Robitaille et al. (2007) to constrain the total luminosity, disk size, and envelope size. The diffuse, nebular emission we observe at all FORCAST wavelengths is most likely from the background photodissociation region (PDR) and shows structure that coincides roughly with H_alpha and [N II] emission. We conclude that the spatial variations in the diffuse emission are likely due to undulations in the surface of the background PDR.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examine eight young stellar objects in the OMC-2 star forming region based on observations from the SOFIA/FORCAST early science phase, the Spitzer Space Telescope, the Herschel Space Observatory, 2MASS, APEX, and other results in the literature. We show the spectral energy distributions of these objects from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths, and compare the SEDs with those of sheet collapse models of protostars and circumstellar disks. Four of the objects can be modelled as protostars with infalling envelopes, two as young stars surrounded by disks, and the remaining two objects have double-peaked SEDs. We model the double-peaked sources as binaries containing a young star with a disk and a protostar. The six most luminous sources are found in a dense group within a 0.15 x 0.25 pc region; these sources have luminosities ranging from 300 L_sun to 20 L_sun. The most embedded source (OMC-2 FIR 4) can be fit by a class 0 protostar model having a luminosity of ~50 L_sun and mass infall rate of ~10^-4 solar masses per year.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present 37\micron\ imaging of the S140 complex of infrared sources centered on IRS1 made with the FORCAST camera on SOFIA. These observations are the longest wavelength imaging to resolve clearly the three main sources seen at shorter wavelengths, IRS 1, 2 and 3, and are nearly at the diffraction limit of the 2.5-m telescope. We also obtained a small number of images at 11 and 31\micron\ that are useful for flux measurement. Our images cover the area of several strong sub-mm sources seen in the area -- SMM 1, 2, and 3 -- that are not coincident with any mid-infrared sources and are not visible in our longer wavelength imaging either. Our new observations confirm previous estimates of the relative dust optical depth and source luminosity for the components in this likely cluster of early B stars. We also investigate the use of super-resolution to go beyond the basic diffraction limit in imaging on SOFIA and find that the van Cittert algorithm, together with the "multi-resolution" technique, provides excellent results.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The massive star forming region W3 was observed with the faint object infrared camera for the SOFIA telescope (FORCAST) as part of the Short Science program. The 6.4, 6.6, 7.7, 19.7, 24.2, 31.5 and 37.1 \um bandpasses were used to observe the emission of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, Very Small Grains and Big Grains. Optical depth and color temperature maps of W3A show that IRS2 has blown a bubble devoid of gas and dust of $\sim$0.05 pc radius. It is embedded in a dusty shell of ionized gas that contributes 40% of the total 24 \um emission of W3A. This dust component is mostly heated by far ultraviolet, rather than trapped Ly$\alpha$ photons. This shell is itself surrounded by a thin ($\sim$0.01 pc) photodissociation region where PAHs show intense emission. The infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) of three different zones located at 8, 20 and 25\arcsec from IRS2, show that the peak of the SED shifts towards longer wavelengths, when moving away from the star. Adopting the stellar radiation field for these three positions, DUSTEM model fits to these SEDs yield a dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized gas similar to that in the diffuse ISM. However, the ratio of the IR-to-UV opacity of the dust in the ionized shell is increased by a factor $\simeq$3 compared to the diffuse ISM.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 02/2012; 749(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Faint Object Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) is a mid-infrared facility instrument for the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). In late May of this year, FORCAST achieved first light on SOFIA during a Telescope Assembly characterization flight, successfully taking photometry of Jupiter, its moons, and M82 from an altitude of 35,000 ft. Analysis of images of Jupiter and one of its moons, Ganymede, show the in-flight sensitivity to be comparable to that expected from preflight (lab) measurements and models. In preparation for SOFIA Short Science, we constructed Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) for known proplyds and protostars (Smith et al. 2005) in the core of the Orion molecular cloud using 2MASS (Skrutskie et al. 2006), IRAC on Spitzer, TReCS on Gemini South (Smith et al. 2005), and 880mm SCUBA data (Mann and Williams 2009). FORCAST will provide important wavelength coverage (20 - 40 microns) which when used in conjunction with previous data will constrain the physical properties of the proplyds and protostars. We fit the observed SEDs with those from radiative transfer models for circumstellar disks and protostars from Robitaille et al (2006, 2007). With these models, we can extrapolate into the 20 - 40 micron region of FORCAST and determine the range of models that FORCAST is capable of detecting. Using the FORCAST sensitivity model and the SEDs of known proplyds, we expect to detect 67% of the proplyds found by other investigations. However, detectability will be greatly influenced by the presence of structures in the diffuse dust emission associated with the HII region complex. Comparing FORCAST observations with the radiative transfer models will help to understand the physical properties of proplyds and protostars, and perhaps illuminate the impact of their environments, such as photoevaporation of disks and effects from crowding.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: FORCAST is the "first light" U. S. science instrument to fly aboard SOFIA. FORCAST offers dual channel imaging in discrete filters at 5 - 25 microns and 30 - 40 microns, with diffraction-limited imaging at wavelengths > 15 microns. FORCAST has a plate scale of 0.75 arcsec per pixel, giving it a 3.2 arcmin x 3.2 arcmin FOV on SOFIA. We give a status update on FORCAST development, including the performance of new far-IR filters; design and performance of the calibration box; laboratory operations and performance; and results from ground-based and first flight operations.
    Proc SPIE 07/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) is one of three science instruments on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The IRS comprises four separate spectrograph modules covering the wavelength range from 5.3 to 38 μm with spectral resolutions, R = λ/Δλ ≈ 90 and 600, and it was optimized to take full advantage of the very low background in the space environment. The IRS is performing at or better than the prelaunch predictions. An autonomous target acquisition capability enables the IRS to locate the mid-infrared centroid of a source, providing the information so that the spacecraft can accurately offset that centroid to a selected slit. This feature is particularly useful when taking spectra of sources with poorly known coordinates. An automated data-reduction pipeline has been developed at the Spitzer Science Center.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 154(1):18. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: FORCAST has been selected to be the "first light" U.S. science instrument aboard SOFIA. FORCAST will offer dual channel imaging in discrete filters at 5 - 25 microns and 30 - 40 microns, with diffraction-limited imaging at wavelengths > 15 microns. FORCAST will have a plate scale of 0.75 arcsec per pixel, giving it a 3.2 arcmin x 3.2 arcmin FOV on SOFIA. We give a status update on FORCAST, including filter configuration for SOFIA's early science phase; anticipated in-flight performance; SOFIA facility testing with FORCAST; ground-based testing performance at Palomar Observatory; performance of its new dichroic beamsplitter; and a preliminary design of the in-flight calibration box.
    Proc SPIE 08/2008;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on new development and testing of FORCAST, the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope. FORCAST will offer dual channel imaging in discrete filters at 5 - 25 microns and 30 - 40 microns, with diffraction-limited imaging at wavelengths > 15 microns. FORCAST will have a plate scale of 0.75 arcsec per pixel, giving it a 3.2 arcmin x 3.2 arcmin FOV on SOFIA. In addition, a set of grisms will enable FORCAST to perform long slit and cross-dispersed spectroscopic observations at low to moderate resolution (R ~ 140 - 1200) in the bandpasses 4.9 - 8.1 microns, 8.0 - 13.3 microns, 17.1 - 28.1 microns, and 28.6 - 37.4 microns. FORCAST has seen first light at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. It will be available for astronomical observations and facility testing at SOFIA first flight.© (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
    06/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a high speed, flexible, data acquisition system and targeted it to astronomical imaging. The system is based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and provides a gigabit/sec fiber optic link between the electronics located on the instrument and the host computer. The FPGAs are reconfigurable over the fiber optic link for maximum flexibility. The system has initially been targeted at DRS Technologies' 256x256 Si:As and Si:Sb detectors used in FORCAST1, a mid-IR camera/spectrograph built by Cornell University for SOFIA. The initial configuration provides sixteen parallel channels of six Msamples/second 14-bit analog to digital converters. The system can coadd 256x256 images at over 1000 frames per second in up to 64 different memory positions. Array clocking and sampling is generated from uploaded clocking patterns in two independent memories. This configuration allows the user to quickly create, on the fly, any form of array clocking and sampling (destructive, non-destructive, sample up the ramp, additional reset frames, Fowler, single frames, co-added frames, multi-position chop, throw away frames, etc.) The electronics were designed in a modular fashion so that any number of analog channels from arrays or mosaics of arrays can be accommodated by using the appropriate number of FPGA boards and preamps. The preamp/analog to digital converter boards can be replaced as needed to operate any focal plane array or other sensor. The system also provides analog drive capability for controlling an X-Y chopping secondary mirror, nominal two position chopping, and can also synchronize to an externally driven chop source. Multiple array controllers can be synchronized together, allowing multi-channel systems to share a single chopping secondary, yet clock the focal planes differently from each other. Due to the flexibility of the FPGAs, it is possible to develop highly customized operating modes to maximize system performance or to enable novel observations and applications.
    Proc SPIE 01/2006;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on new development and testing of FORCAST, the Faint Object infraRed Camera for the SOFIA Telescope. FORCAST will offer dual channel imaging in discrete filters at 5 - 25 microns and 30 - 40 microns, with diffraction-limited imaging at wavelengths > 15 microns. FORCAST will have a plate scale of 0.75 arcsec per pixel, giving it a 3.2 arcmin x 3.2 arcmin FOV on SOFIA. In addition, a set of grisms will enable FORCAST to perform long slit and cross-dispersed spectroscopic observations at low to moderate resolution (R ~ 140 - 1200) in the bandpasses 4.9 - 8.1 microns, 8.0 - 13.3 microns, 17.1 - 28.1 microns, and 28.6 - 37.4 microns. FORCAST has seen first light at the Palomar 200 inch telescope. It will be available for astronomical observations and facility testing at SOFIA first flight.
    Proc SPIE 01/2006;