[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) circulate in plasma in a tight non-covalent complex, being critical to hemostasis. Although structurally unrelated, both share the presence of sialylated glycan-structures, making them potential ligands for sialic-acid-binding-immunoglobulin-like-lectins (Siglecs).
Design and methods:
We explored the potential interaction between FVIII/VWF and Siglec-5, a receptor expressed in macrophages using various experimental approaches, including binding experiments with purified proteins and cell-binding studies with Siglec-5 expressing cells. Finally, Siglec-5 was overexpressed in mice via hydrodynamic gene transfer.
In different systems using purified proteins, saturable, dose-dependent and reversible interactions between a soluble Siglec-5 fragment and both hemostatic proteins were found. Sialidase treatment of VWF resulted in a complete lack of Siglec-5 binding. In contrast, sialidase treatment left interactions between FVIII and Siglec-5 unaffected. FVIII and VWF also bound to cellsurface exposed Siglec-5, as was visualized by classical immunostaining as well as by Duolinkproximity ligation assays. Co-localization of FVIII and VWF with early endosomal markers further suggested that binding to Siglec-5 is followed by endocytosis of the proteins. Finally, overexpression of human Siglec-5 in murine hepatocytes following hydrodynamic gene transfer resulted in a significant decrease in plasma levels of FVIII and VWF in these mice.
Our data indicate that FVIII and VWF may act as a ligand for Siglec-5, and that Siglec-5 may contribute to the regulation of plasma levels of the FVIII/VWF complex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) has remained elusive for years. Indeed, despite a reported absence of interaction between both proteins, liver-specific deletion of LRP1 results in increased VWF levels. To investigate this discrepancy, we used mice with a macrophage-specific deficiency of LRP1 (macLRP1(-)) because we previously found that macrophages dominate VWF clearance. Basal VWF levels were increased in macLRP1(-) mice compared with control mice (1.6 ± 0.4 vs 1.0 ± 0.4 U/mL). Clearance experiments revealed that half-life of human VWF was significantly increased in macLRP1(-) mice. Ubiquitous blocking of LRP1 or additional lipoprotein receptors by overexpressing receptor-associated protein in macLRP1(-) mice did not result in further rise of VWF levels (0.1 ± 0.2 U/mL), in contrast to macLRP1(+) mice (rise in VWF, 0.8 ± 0.4 U/mL). This points to macLRP1 being the only lipoprotein receptor regulating VWF levels. When testing the mechanism(s) involved, we observed that VWF-coated beads adhered efficiently to LRP1 but only when exposed to shear forces exceeding 2.5 dyne/cm(2), implying the existence of shear stress-dependent interactions. Furthermore, a mechanism involving β2-integrins that binds both VWF and LRP1 also is implicated because inhibition of β2-integrins led to increased VWF levels in control (rise, 0.19 ± 0.16 U/mL) but not in macLRP1(-) mice (0.08 ± 0.15 U/mL).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a heavily glycosylated protein, its potential to associate with glycan-binding proteins is poorly investigated. Here, we explored its interaction with the glycan-binding proteins galectin-1 and galectin-3.
Immunofluorescence analysis using Duolink proximity ligation assays revealed that VWF colocalizes with galectin-1 and galectin-3 in endothelial cells, both before and after stimulation of endothelial cells. Moreover, galectin-1 was found along the typical VWF bundles that are released by endothelial cells. Galectin-1 and galectin-3 could be coprecipitated with VWF from plasma in immunoprecipitation assays, whereas plasma levels of galectin-1 and galectin-3 were significantly reduced in VWF-deficient mice. Binding studies using purified proteins confirmed that VWF could directly interact with both galectins, predominantly via its N-linked glycans. In search of the physiological relevance of the VWF-galectin interaction, we found that inhibition of galectins in in vitro perfusion assays was associated with increased VWF-platelet string formation, a phenomenon that was reproduced in galectin-1/galectin-3 double-deficient mice. These mice were also characterized by a more rapid formation of initial thrombi following ferric chloride-induced injury.
We have identified galectin-1 and galectin-3 as novel partners for VWF, and these proteins may modulate VWF-mediated thrombus formation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The formation of thrombi is a multistep process involving several components, including von Willebrand factor (VWF). VWF is an adhesive multimeric protein, which acts as a molecular bridge between the subendothelial matrix and the glycoprotein Ib/IX/V receptor complex. Furthermore, VWF promotes the expansion of the platelet plug by cross-linking platelets via binding to integrin alphaIIbbeta3. In terms of thrombus formation, it is essential that VWF-platelet interactions occur timely, that is: it should happen not too early or too late. Given the co-existence of VWF and platelets in the circulation, this implies that there must be regulatory mechanisms that prevent premature formation of VWF-rich platelet aggregates that could occlude the vasculature. Indeed, several mechanisms have been identified at the level of VWF, which are dedicated to the prevention of excessive VWF-platelet interactions following endothelial release of VWF (which may include limited exposure to shear stress, the presence of Mg2+ ions, inhibition of VWF-platelet interactions by endothelial proteins, ADAMTS13-mediated proteolysis) and of circulating VWF-platelet aggregates during normal circulation (shielding of the platelet-binding A1 domain by other regions of the VWF molecule, inhibition of VWF-platelet interactions by beta2-glycoprotein I). In the present review an overview of these mechanisms will be discussed.
Thrombosis and Haemostasis 09/2010; 104(3):449-55. DOI:10.1160/TH09-11-0777 · 4.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SUMMARY: Although factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are products of two distinct genes, they circulate in plasma as a tight non-covalent complex. Moreover, they both play a critical role in the haemostatic process, a fact that is illustrated by the severe bleeding tendency associated with the functional absence of either protein. FVIII is an essential cofactor for coagulation factor IX, while VWF is pertinent to the recruitment of platelets to the injured vessel wall under conditions of rapid flow. FVIII and VWF have in common that they are heavily glycosylated: full-length FVIII contains 20 N-linked and at least seven O-linked glycans, while VWF contains 12 N-linked and 10 O-linked glycans. Three decades of research have revealed that the carbohydrate structures of FVIII and VWF contribute to many of the steps that can be distinguished in the life-cycle of these proteins, including biosynthesis/secretion, function and clearance. In this review, several of these aspects will be discussed. In addition, the interaction of the FVIII/VWF complex with two families of carbohydrate-binding proteins, i.e. Galectins and Siglecs, and their potential physiological relevance will be discussed.