[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important driver of amphibian declines is chytridiomy-cosis, a disease caused by the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; Berger et al. 1998; Daszak et al. 1999, 2003; Ron and Merino-Viteri 2000; Bosch et al. 2001; Collins and Stor-fer 2003, Ron et al. 2003; La Marca et al. 2005; Wake and Vre-denburg 2008; Walker et al. 2010). Bd is now known to be an emerging pathogen that is rapidly expanding its global range (Fisher et al. 2009) and now has attained a global distribution on all continents that contain amphibians (www.bd-maps.net). Research by Weldon et al. (2004) on the potential origin of Bd suggests that the panzootic originated in South Africa and has perhaps been dispersed by international trade in amphibians, becoming established around the word (Rödder et al. 2009). To date, the rapid and widespread distribution of Bd infection across hundreds of amphibian species is alarming. In Spain, outbreaks of chytridiomycosis and mass mortali-ties has been reported in many species and in different regions of the country (Bosch et al. 2001; Bosch and Martínez-Solano 2006; Walker et al. 2008, 2010). In the south of Spain, Bd is widely distributed (www.bd-maps.net); Bosch et al., unpubl. data), suggesting that its occurrence in the north of Morocco is plausible. The two regions are spatially proximate with similar Mediterranean ecologies, however are separated by the straits of Gibraltar. In addition, ecological niche modelling has shown that the environmental envelope in the north of Morocco is suitable for the establishment of Bd where susceptible amphib-ians occur (Ron 2005; Rödder et al. 2009). The legal and illegal increase in the transport of animals for pet trade (Fisher and Garner 2007), and the possibility that the fungus could be vec-tored into Morocco on the feathers of water birds, are potential modes of transmission between Spain and Morocco. However, no systematic surveillance for Bd has been undertaken across this region, where several endemic species occur with a high ecological value. The aim of the present study is to conduct the first survey for Bd in north Morocco in order to determine the presence, prevalence and intensity of infection in the amphib-ian populations that occur within region. These data will allow us to understand the distributional patterns of Bd, providing
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The very high energy (VHE) \gamma-ray source HESS J0632+057 has recently been
confirmed to be a \gamma-ray binary. The optical counterpart is the Be star MWC
148, and a compact object of unknown nature orbits it every ~321 d with a high
eccentricity of ~0.8. We monitored HESS J0632+057 with the stereoscopic MAGIC
telescopes from 2010 October to 2011 March and detected significant VHE
\gamma-ray emission during 2011 February, when the system exhibited an X-ray
outburst. We find no \gamma-ray signal in the other observation periods when
the system did not show increased X-ray flux. Thus HESS J0632+057 exhibits
\gamma-ray variability on timescales of the order of one to two months possibly
linked to the X-ray outburst that takes place about 100 days after the
periastron passage. Furthermore our measurements provide for the first time the
\gamma-ray spectrum down to about 140 GeV and indicate no turnover of the
spectrum at low energies. We compare the properties of HESS J0632+057 with the
similar \gamma-ray binary LS I +61 303, and discuss on the possible origin of
the multi-wavelength emission of the source
The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2012; 754(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The use of techniques such as low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) allows the study of lichen thalli in different states of hydration and also near the natural state. The spatial organization of desiccated thalli, with reduced, very compact algal layers, is different from that of hydrated ones. Sometimes, the observation with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of photobiont pyrenoids from desiccated thalli reports pyrenoids with a central part of a weak stained matrix lacking pyrenoglobuli, named “empty zones”. “Empty zones” are not distinguishable with LTSEM and do not present immunolabelling with rubisco antibody in TEM. These zones could be originated by an expansion process during rehydration produced in chemical fixation.
International Microbiology; Vol. 2, Núm. 4 (1999); 251-257. 01/2010;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The existence of a relationship between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity has been the subject of several studies in the last years. Generally, activity in basaltic volcanoes such as Villarica (Chile) and Tungurahua (Ecuador) shows very little changes after the occurrence of regional earthquakes. In a few cases volcanic activity has changed before the occurrence of regional earthquakes, such as observed at Teide, Tenerife, in 2004 and 2005 (Tárraga et al., 2006). In this paper we explore the possible link between regional seismicity and changes in volcanic activity at Mt. Etna in 2006 and 2007. On 24 November, 2006 at 4:37:40 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 4.7 stroke the eastern coast of Sicily. The epicenter was localized 50 km SE of the south coast of the island, and at about 160 km from the summit craters of Mt. Etna. The SSEM (Spectral Seismic Energy Measurement) of the seismic signal at stations at 1 km and 6 km from the craters highlights that four hours before this earthquake the energy associated with volcanic tremor increased, reached a maximum, and finally became steady when the earthquake occurred. Conversely, neither before nor after the earthquake, the SSEM of stations located between 80 km and 120 km from the epicentre and outside the volcano edifice showed changes. On 5 September, 2007 at 21:24:13 GMT an earthquake of magnitude 3.2 and 7.9 km depth stroke the Lipari Island, at the north of Sicily. About 38 hours before the earthquake occurrence, there was an episode of lava fountain lasting 20 hours at Etna volcano. The SSEM of the seismic signal recorded during the lava fountain at a station located at 6 km from the craters highlights changes heralding this earthquake ten hours before its occurrence using the FFM method (e.g., Voight, 1988; Ortiz et al., 2003). A change in volcanic activity – with the onset of ash emission and Strombolian explosions – was observed a couple of hours before the occurrence of the regional earthquakes. It can be interpreted as the magmatic response to a change of the distribution of tectonic stress in the edifice before the earthquake. In the light of this hypothesis, we surmise that the magmatic system behaved similar to a dilatometer and promise news lines to forecasting the volcano activity. EGU Published Vienna (Austria) 1.4. TTC - Sorveglianza sismologica delle aree vulcaniche attive
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the Classification Societies has changed today. Their task projection addresses issues of safety in navigation and protection of human life at sea and of the marine environment. The importance of their technical expertise is to be outlined in the perspective of third-party rights and general duty of care. The Classification Societies do not have an international regulation that will define their liability at present. They effectively protect themselves within the framework of the classification contract with Owners. Classification Societies, as much as Shipbuilders, have a responsibility for damage to third parties out of negligence in the performance of their work. They are exposed to Court decisions in the various jurisdictions. As international Convention is necessary and to that effect the works of the CMI should be taken into account.
Collected Papers of Zagreb Law Faculty (email@example.com); Vol.58 No.1-2. 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract: This paper reports on a comprehensive model evaluation protocol for urban scale flow and dispersion models that has been developed within the framework of the COST action 732 on Quality Assurance and Improvement of Micro-Scale Meteorological Models. It briefly discusses the different components forming model evaluation with particular emphasis on model validation and on the implementation of the protocol for a specific test case: the MUST (Mock Urban Setting Test) experiment. The protocol was first developed with building-resolving models in mind, but more traditional integral models have also been included. Currently the Action is finalising the MUST exercise results and will suggest the best approach for further model evaluation and for the standardization of CFD modelling practise for micro-scale meteorological applications.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Herein is described the synthesis of several analogs of the natural product IB-01211 from concatenated azoles, via a biomimetic pathway based on cyclization–oxidation of serine containing peptides combined with the Hantzsch synthesis. The macrocyclization of rigid peptide compounds 1 and 2 to give IB-01211 and its epimer 12b was explored, and the results are compared here to those previously obtained for the macrocyclization of more flexible structures in the syntheses of YM-216391, telomestatin, and IB-01211. Lastly, the preliminary results of anti-tumor activity screening of the synthesized analogs are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Libre (free / open source) software is a good example of global software development. Thousands of projects, in a wide range of domains which involve hundreds of thousands of developers and contributors from all around the world. Some large (both in size and developer community) libre software projects have shown evidence of producing code with complete functionality and fast evolution (with linear or superlinear growth), while maintaining low defect den-sity. Many companies are exploring how to benefit from this situation, considering several approaches related to li-bre software development. For instance, some of them have hired full-time developers, focusing their work on some libre software projects they consider strategic. However, before joining the core development team of the project, these hired developers have to follow a process of software comprehension, and get used to the rules and com-munication mechanisms used in the project. We were inter-ested in the differences between this case and that of volun-teer developers working in the same project, Therefore, we studied the duration and basic characteristics of this joining process for the developers of GNOME (a well known, large, libre software project). In our analysis, we have found two groups with clearly different joining patterns. Moreover, we have related those patterns to the different behaviors of volunteer and hired developers: volunteers tend to follow a step-by-step joining process, while hired developers usually experience a "sudden" integration. Some reasons for this different behavior are also discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antirrhinum lopesianum Rothm. is a narrow endemic of the Lusitan Duriensean biogeographical sector (central western Spain and north-eastern Portugal). The species is listed as threatened in several Spanish documents, although it does not figure as such in any Portuguese document. This paper provides a detailed study of its distribution, estimates of the sizes of its populations, the threats it faces, and its current conservation status. The total number of individuals thought to exist is only 768, distributed along the valley of the River Duero on the Spanish – Portuguese border (562, 71.2%), and in the Portuguese Sabor River valley (206, 26.8%). The main threat to the species is loss of habitat: about one third of the Iberian populations can be considered threatened; one population containing 37.6% of all these plants (289) is severely threatened. To determine the Area of Occupancy and the Extent of Occurrence, an exhaustive bibliographical survey was carried out, and herbarium specimens deposited in several institutions were revised. It is, therefore, classifiable as Critically Endangered in Portugal and Endangered in Spain.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty patients withuri nary tuberculosis were treated withofloxac in (200 mg/day, 6 months), rifampin (600 mg/day, 3 months) and isoniazid (300 mg/day, 3 months) between 1989 and 1990. All patients were new cases, diagnosed by observation and/or isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in one of the three morning urine samples. Bacteriological culture conversion (negativization) was assessed as a clinical guide of efficacy, comparing it, as the only parameter, against a control group (150 patients) withurina ry tuberculosis who received conventional therapy. Bacteriological follow-up studies were performed in bothgroups monthly for 6 months, then again 6 months later and then every year for 10 years after completion of treatment. In the 20 patients, the initial culture was positive with over 100 colonies per culture (>50%); the smear was positive in 45% of the patients (most were 2+). All strains were susceptible to rifampin, isoniazid and ofloxacin. Two patients discontinued treatment. Beginning withth e first monthof treatment, the bacteriological conversion was 100%, 89.5% and 100% in the remaining controls. In the control group, which received conventional treatment, the conversion was: 90%, 87%, 93% and 100% in the remaining controls. Treatment withofloxacin resulted in a bacteriological conversion similar to that following conventional treatment (p>0.05, Fisher’s exact test). After 10 years of patient follow-up, we conclude that ofloxacin, in combination withrifampin and isoniazid (bothfor 3 months only is effective against M. tuberculosis, providing satisfactory bacteriological and clinical efficacy.
International Microbiology; Vol. 5, Núm. 3 (2002); 139-144. 01/2002;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deception Island - South Shetlands, Antarctica is site of active volcanism. Since 1988 field surveys have been carried out with the aim of seismic monitoring, and in 1994 a seismic array was set up near the site of the Spanish summer base in order to better constrain the source location and spectral properties of the seismic events related to the volcanic activity. The array was maintained during the Antarctic summer of 1995 and the last field survey was carried out in 1996. Data show the existence of three different groups (or families) of seismic events: 1) long period events, with a quasi-monochromatic spectral content (1-3 Hz peak frequency) and a duration of more than 50 s, often occurring in small swarms lasting from several minutes to some day; 2) volcanic tremor, with a spectral shape similar to the long period events but with a duration of several minutes (2-10); 3) hybrid events, with a waveform characterised by the presence of a high frequency initial phase, followed by a low frequency phase with characteristics similar to those of the long period events. The high frequency phase of the hybrid events was analysed using polarisation techniques, showing the presence of P waves. This phase is presumably located at short epicentral distances and shallow source depth. All the analysed seismic events show back-azimuths between 120 and 330 degrees from north (corresponding to zones of volcanic activity) showing no seismic activity in the middle of the caldera. Particle motion, Fourier spectral and spectrogram analysis show that the low frequency part of the three groups of the seismic signals have similar patterns. Moreover careful observations show that the high frequency phase which characterises the hybrid events is present in the long period and in the tremor events, even with lower signal to noise ratios. This evidence suggests that long period events are events in which the high frequency part is simply difficult to observe, due to a very shallow source and/or hypocentral distance higher than that of hybrids, while the tremor is composed of rapidly occurring hybrid events. We propose a possible interpretation for the three groups of seismic events. These may be generated by multiple pressure-steps due to the rapid phase change from liquid to vapour in a shallow aquifer which comes in contact with hot materials. The pressure change can put a crack in resonance or excite the generation of multiple surface waves modes in the shallow layered structure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of the influent COD concentration on the performance of anaerobic fluidized bed reactors treating winery wastewaters from grape-red wine (GRWW) and guava wine production (GWW) was studied at laboratory scale. Two reactors were used: one treating GRWW (AFB1) and the other processing GWW (AFB2). The behaviour of these reactors packed with Chilean zeolite as biomass immobilization support was compared at mesophilic temperature (35 °C). Influent COD varied from γ = 1–24 g L–1 and the HRT was maintained constant at 1 day throughout the experiment. During the experiment, influent and effluent pH, TVFA, COD and methane gas production were determined. COD removal efficiency increased with the influent COD up to a maximum of around γ = 19 g L–1 for GRWW and up to around 22 g L–1 for GWW due to the increase of the concentration of phenols. Process performance was slightly better with guava winery wastewater than with grape-red winery wastewater due its lower phenolic content. During the period of non-inhibition the methane yield was virtually constant.
Chemical & Biochemical Engineering Quarterly (firstname.lastname@example.org); Vol.24 No.2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To contribute to our understanding of the structure of the Teide volcano, a detailed aeromagnetic survey was carried out covering the area of Las Cañadas caldera and the Teide-Pico Viejo complex. Taking into account the rugged relief of the area (altitude ranges from sea level to almost 4000 m), a terrain correction has been applied. As a first approximation, the topography has been characterized by a uniform magnetization of 5 Am-1 (based on field and laboratory rock magnetic data). Several enhancement techniques have been applied to the residual map (original map minus topographic effect), such as reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. In the reduced-to-the-pole map the large positive anomaly that appears centered to the north of Pico Viejo is noteworthy and could be caused by a basaltic intrusion responsible for the last eruptions in this area. Also, a small magnetic low appears over Teide peak, which should be related to slightly-magnetized shallow phonolitic materials. The main tectonic direction of Tenerife, SW-NE, is also clearly reflected on the magnetic anomaly map. The comparison between the pseudogravity and the Bouguer anomaly maps indicates a good correlation between magnetic and gravimetric sources.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of class 1, 2, and 3 integrons was investigated in four pediatric isolates of Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). A class 1 integron was detected in one S. Typhimurium strain, the only one that also showed resistance to various aminoglycoside antibiotics. This integron, called InJR06, and the aminoglycoside resistance determinants were located in pS06, a large (≥55 kb) conjugative plasmid. Asingle mobile cassette (encoding the aminoglycoside adenylyltransferase ANT(3´´)-Ia) was detected in the variable region of InJR06, while the architecture of the attI1 and attC sites was conserved. [Int Microbiol 2005; 8(4):287-290]
International Microbiology; Vol. 8, Núm. 4 (2005); 287-290.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1 Graduanda em Medicina Veterinária – UFPel, Bolsista AT/CNPq email@example.com 2 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Pneumológicas – UFRGS 3 Departamento de Veterinária Preventiva -Faculdade de Veterinária -UFP el 4 Programa de Pós-Graduação em Veterinária -UFPel 5 Profº Associado – Departamento Veterinária Preventiva – Faculdade de Vet erinária – UFP el 1 INTRODUÇÃO Os ambientes veterinários, dentre eles hospitais, clínicas particulares, pet shops com banho e tosa, feiras e canis, representam importantes fontes de contaminação de diversos microrganismos responsáveis por doenças infecciosas superficiais ou até mesmo sistêmicas. Essa condição está diretamente relacionada com fatores como a grande população e/ou circulação de animais nesses locais, estado sanitário dos hospedeiros e a presença dos agentes no ambiente (PANAGOPOULOU et al., 2002). Entre os agentes infecciosos causadores de patologias oportunistas estão os fungos leveduriformes pertencentes aos gêneros Candida, Cryptococcus, Malassezia e Rhodotorula. Por serem ubíquos, esses microrganismos apresentam maior probabilidade de causar infecções hospitalares, pois podem permanecer no ambiente e em superfícies por longos períodos na presença de substrato (PFALLER, 2007; VONBERG, 2006; MORRIS et al., 2000). As infecções causadas por agentes fúngicos ganharam grande importância nos últimos anos, pois estão relacionadas com o aumento da sobrevida de pacientes imunocomprometidos que são os mais suscetíveis às micoses. Além disso, muitas drogas antimicrobianas já enfrentam resistência de algumas cepas presentes nos ambientes hospitalares, o que compromete a eficácia do tratamento e do controle das infecções (FLEMMING et al., 2002; ALMEIDA et al., 1988). Devido a isso, os procedimentos de profilaxia tais como limpeza, desinfecção, esterilização e biossegurança dos ambientes e equipamentos assumem fundamental relevância para o controle das infecções (ANDERSEN et al., 2009). Pesquisas a respeito da presença e identificação dos agentes infecciosos nos ambientes hospitalares e clinicas na área da medicina veterinária são raros. Devido à importância desse tema, o presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e identificar leveduras em ambientes veterinários. Com isto contribuir com informações relevantes a respeito do assunto. 2 MATERIAIS E METODOS As amostras foram coletadas de superfícies do Hospital de Clínicas Veterinária da UFPel (HCV-UFPel) e processadas no Laboratório de Doenças Infecciosas, Setor de Micologia da Faculdade de Veterinária, UFPel.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of the NERIES (Network of Research Infrastructures for European Seismology) project, a catalogue of the larger European earthquakes from 1000-1900 is being newly compiled. A problem with previous pan-European catalogues is that they all involve merging of national catalogues that were compiled in different ways, leading to inconsistencies in the final result. A fundamental goal of the NERIES catalogue is that all events should be assessed using the same homogeneous procedures from the basic raw material, i.e. the intensity data points (IDP). Defining suitable procedures is, however, far from straightforward. A number of competing methods have been proposed in the past, and the issue of calibration is problematic. After extensive surveys of current practices, a test was conducted in which some modern IDP sets were massaged to resemble historical data sets. Results suggest that methods relying on a grid-search, attenuation-fitting approach perform better than other methods. We propose here a method based on the mechanics of earthquake perception, which allows for parameter estimation in different parts of Europe without the need for separate calibration exercises. An initial epicentral estimation is made on the distribution of high intensities. This used as the starting point for fitting an intensity attenuation model, which gives the final solution of both epicentre and depth. Finally, the data set is compared to expected intensity distribution from different magnitude events to provide the estimated magnitude events to provide the estimated magnitude, Mi, equivalent o Mw. Published Santa Fe, New Mexico 5.1. TTC - Banche dati e metodi macrosismici
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A local ground magnetic study of the Furnas caldera (S. Miguel Island, Azores) has provided new insight into the magnetic structure of this volcano. Analysis of the data comprised removal of the IGRF, reduction to the pole, pseudogravity integration and upward continuation. Also, a spectral method was applied to estimate the depth to the magnetic sources, as well as a 2.5D forward modelling technique. Magnetic properties obtained at the laboratory for some representative sample rocks were considered in the modelling process. The most relevant features are the existence of an important negative anomaly inside the caldera and of an intense positive anomaly to the south of the coast. The former points out a decrease in the magnetization of the caldera filling materials with respect to the surrounding rocks, which could be explained as the result of post-eruption processes such as hydrothermal alteration. This is expected as Furnas has an active hydrothermal system probably related with a magmatic reservoir at high temperature. The positive anomaly suggests the existence of a strongly-magnetized body beneath the south coast.