[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centromere is an essential chromosomal structure that is required for the faithful distribution of replicated chromosomes to daughter cells. Defects in the centromere can compromise the stability of chromosomes resulting in segregation errors. We have characterised the centromeric structure of the spontaneous mutant mouse strain, BALB/cWt, which exhibits a high rate of Y chromosome instability. The Y centromere DNA array shows a de novo interstitial deletion and a reduction in the level of the foundation centromere protein, CENP-A, when compared to the non-deleted centromere array in the progenitor strain. These results suggest there is a lower threshold limit of centromere size that ensures full kinetochore function during cell division.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86875. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The condensin complex is essential for correct packaging and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis in all eukaryotes. To date, the genome-wide location and the nature of condensin-binding sites have remained elusive in vertebrates. Here we report the genome-wide map of condensin I in chicken DT40 cells. Unexpectedly, we find that condensin I binds predominantly to promoter sequences in mitotic cells. We also find a striking enrichment at both centromeres and telomeres, highlighting the importance of the complex in chromosome segregation. Taken together, the results show that condensin I is largely absent from heterochromatic regions. This map of the condensin I binding sites on the chicken genome reveals that patterns of condensin distribution on chromosomes are conserved from prokaryotes, through yeasts to vertebrates. Thus in three kingdoms of life, condensin is enriched on promoters of actively transcribed genes and at loci important for chromosome segregation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced DNA methylation has been reported in DICER1-deficient mouse ES cells. Reductions seen at pericentric satellite repeats have suggested that siRNAs are required for the proper assembly of heterochromatin. More recent studies have postulated that the reduced methylation is an indirect effect: the loss of Mir290 cluster miRNAs leads to upregulation of the transcriptional repressor RBL2 that targets the downregulation of DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt) genes. However, the observations have been inconsistent. We surmised that the inconsistency could be related to cell line "age," given that DNA methylation is lost progressively with passage in DNMT-deficient ES cells. We therefore subjected Dicer1(-/-) ES cells to two experimental regimes to rigorously test the level of functional DNMT activity. First, we cultured them for a prolonged period. If DNMT activity was reduced, further losses of methylation would occur. Second, we measured their DNMT activity in a rebound DNA methylation assay: DNA methylation was stripped from Cre/loxP conditionally mutant Dicer1 ES cells using a shRNA targeting Dnmt1 mRNA. Cre expression then converted these cells to Dicer1(-/-), allowing for DNMT1 recovery and forcing the cells to remethylate in the absence of RNAi. In both cases, we found functional DNMT activity to be normal. Finally, we also show that the level of RBL2 protein is not at excess levels in Dicer1(-/-) ES cells as has been assumed. These studies reveal that reduced functional DNMT activity is not a salient feature of DICER1-deficient ES cells. We suggest that the reduced DNA methylation sometimes observed in these cells could be due to stochastic alterations in DNA methylation patterns that could offer growth or survival advantages in culture, or to the dysregulation of pathways acting in opposition to the DNMT pathway.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centromere is a chromosomal structure that is essential for the accurate segregation of replicated eukaryotic chromosomes to daughter cells. In most centromeres, the underlying DNA is principally made up of repetitive DNA elements, such as tandemly repeated satellite DNA and retrotransposable elements. Paradoxically, for such an essential genomic region, the DNA is rapidly evolving both within and between species. In this review, we show that the centromere locus is a resilient structure that can undergo evolutionary cycles of birth, growth, maturity, death and resurrection. The birth phase is highlighted by examples in humans and other organisms where centromere DNA deletions or chromosome rearrangements can trigger the epigenetic assembly of neocentromeres onto genomic sites without typical features of centromere DNA. In addition, functional centromeres can be generated in the laboratory using various methodologies. Recent mapping of the foundation centromere mark, the histone H3 variant CENP-A, onto near-complete genomes has uncovered examples of new centromeres which have not accumulated centromere repeat DNA. During the growth period of the centromere, repeat DNA begins to appear at some, but not all, loci. The maturity stage is characterised by centromere repeat accumulation, expansions and contractions and the rapid evolution of the centromere DNA between chromosomes of the same species and between species. This stage provides inherent centromere stability, facilitated by repression of gene activity and meiotic recombination at and around the centromeres. Death to a centromere can result from genomic instability precipitating rearrangements, deletions, accumulation of mutations and the loss of essential centromere binding proteins. Surprisingly, ancestral centromeres can undergo resurrection either in the field or in the laboratory, via as yet poorly understood mechanisms. The underlying principle for the preservation of a centromeric evolutionary life cycle is to provide resilience and perpetuity for the all-important structure and function of the centromere.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vertebrates, two condensin complexes exist, condensin I and condensin II, which have differing but unresolved roles in organizing mitotic chromosomes. To dissect accurately the role of each complex in mitosis, we have made and studied the first vertebrate conditional knockouts of the genes encoding condensin I subunit CAP-H and condensin II subunit CAP-D3 in chicken DT40 cells. Live-cell imaging reveals highly distinct segregation defects. CAP-D3 (condensin II) knockout results in masses of chromatin-containing anaphase bridges. CAP-H (condensin I)-knockout anaphases have a more subtle defect, with chromatids showing fine chromatin fibres that are associated with failure of cytokinesis and cell death. Super-resolution microscopy reveals that condensin-I-depleted mitotic chromosomes are wider and shorter, with a diffuse chromosome scaffold, whereas condensin-II-depleted chromosomes retain a more defined scaffold, with chromosomes more stretched and seemingly lacking in axial rigidity. We conclude that condensin II is required primarily to provide rigidity by establishing an initial chromosome axis around which condensin I can arrange loops of chromatin.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell biologists face the need to rapidly analyse their proteins of interest in order to gain insight into their function. Often protein purification, cellular localisation and Western blot analyses can be multi-step processes, where protein is lost, activity is destroyed or effective antibodies have not yet been generated.
To develop a method that simplifies the critical protein analytical steps of the laboratory researcher, leading to easy, efficient and rapid protein purification, cellular localisation and quantification.
We have tagged the SMC2 subunit of the condensin complex with the Streptavidin-Binding Peptide (SBP), optimising and demonstrating the efficacious use of this tag for performing these protein analytical steps. Based on silver staining, and Western analysis, SBP delivered an outstanding specificity and purity of the condensin complex. We also developed a rapid and highly specific procedure to localise SBP-tagged proteins in cells in a single step procedure thus bypassing the need for using antibodies. Furthermore we have shown that the SBP tag can be used for isolating tagged proteins from chemically cross-linked cell populations for capturing DNA-protein interactions.
The small 38-amino acid synthetic SBP offers the potential to successfully perform all four critical analytical procedures as a single step and should have a general utility for the study of many proteins and protein complexes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) affects older males carrying premutation, that is, expansions of the CGG repeat (in the 55-200 range), in the FMR1 gene. The neurological changes are linked to the excessive FMR1 messenger RNA (mRNA), becoming toxic through a 'gain-of-function'. Because elevated levels of this mRNA are also found in carriers of the smaller expansion (grey zone) alleles, ranging from 40 to 54 CGGs, we tested for a possible role of these alleles in the origin of movement disorders associated with tremor. We screened 228 Australian males affected with idiopathic Parkinson's disease and other causes of parkinsonism recruited from Victoria and Tasmania for premutation and grey zone alleles. The frequencies of either of these alleles were compared with the frequencies in a population-based sample of 578 Guthrie spots from consecutive Tasmanian male newborns (controls). There was a significant excess of premutation carriers (Fisher's exact test p = 0.006). There was also a more than twofold increase in grey zone carriers in the combined sample of the Victorian and Tasmanian cases, with odds ratio (OR ) = 2.36, and 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.20-4.63, as well as in Tasmanian cases only (OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 1.06-5.13), compared with controls. The results suggest that the FMR1 grey zone alleles, as well as premutation alleles, might contribute to the aetiology of disorders associated with parkinsonism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many mammalian genes are arranged in a bidirectional manner, sharing a common promoter and regulatory elements. This is especially true for promoters containing a CpG island, usually unmethylated and associated with an 'open' or accessible chromatin structure. In evolutionary terms, a primary function of genomic methylation is postulated to entail protection of the host genome from the disruption associated with activity of parasitic or transposable elements. These are usually epigenetically silenced following insertion into mammalian genomes, becoming sequence degenerate over time. Despite this, it is clear that many transposable element-derived DNAs have evaded host-mediated epigenetic silencing to remain expressed (domesticated) in mammalian genomes, several of which have demonstrated essential roles during mammalian development.
The current study provides evidence that many CpG island-associated promoters associated with single genes exhibit inherent bidirectionality, facilitating "hijack" by transposable elements to create novel antisense 'head-to-head' bidirectional gene pairs in the genome that facilitates escape from host-mediated epigenetic silencing. This is often associated with an increase in CpG island length and transcriptional activity in the antisense direction. From a list of over 60 predicted protein-coding genes derived from transposable elements in the human genome and 40 in the mouse, we have found that a significant proportion are orientated in a bidirectional manner with CpG associated regulatory regions.
These data strongly suggest that the selective force that shields endogenous CpG-containing promoter from epigenetic silencing can extend to exogenous foreign DNA elements inserted in close proximity in the antisense orientation, with resulting transcription and maintenance of sequence integrity of such elements in the host genome. Over time, this may result in "domestication" of such elements to provide novel cellular and developmental functions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Y centromere sequence of house mouse, Mus musculus, remains unknown despite our otherwise significant knowledge of the genome sequence of this important mammalian model organism. Here, we report the complete molecular characterization of the C57BL/6J chromosome Y centromere, which comprises a highly diverged minor satellite-like sequence (designated Ymin) with higher-order repeat (HOR) sequence organization previously undescribed at mouse centromeres. The Ymin array is approximately 90 kb in length and resides within a single BAC clone that provides sequence information spanning an endogenous animal centromere for the first time. By exploiting direct patrilineal inheritance of the Y chromosome, we demonstrate stability of the Y centromere DNA structure spanning at least 175 inbred generations to beyond the time of domestication of the East Asian M.m. molossinus "fancy" mouse through which the Y chromosome was first introduced into the classical inbred laboratory mouse strains. Despite this stability, at least three unequal genetic exchange events have altered Ymin HOR unit length and sequence structure since divergence of the ancestral Mus musculus subspecies around 900,000 yr ago, with major turnover of the HOR arrays driving rapid divergence of sequence and higher-order structure at the mouse Y centromere. A comparative sequence analysis between the human and chimpanzee centromeres indicates a similar rapid divergence of the primate Y centromere. Our data point to a unique DNA sequence and organizational architecture for the mouse Y centromere that has evolved independently of all other mouse centromeres.
Genome Research 10/2009; 19(12):2202-13. · 13.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conserved centromere protein C (CENP-C) is indispensable for kinetochore function. Yet its mechanism of action has remained elusive. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Tanaka et al. report that the fission yeast homolog, Cnp3, acts as a linker protein that fulfills a variety of different roles in the bi- and mono-orientation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis I.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The centromere is a complex structure required for equal segregation of newly synthesised sister chromatids at mitosis. One of the significant objectives in centromere research is to determine the complete repertoire of protein components that constitute the kinetochore. Here, we identify a novel centromere protein using a centromere-positive autoimmune serum from a patient with watermelon stomach disease. Western blot and screening of a lambda phage expression library revealed a 60-kDa protein, ZNF397. This protein belongs to the classical Cys(2)His(2) group of the zinc-finger protein superfamily and contains two conserved domains: a leucine-rich SCAN domain and nine Cys(2)His(2) zinc fingers. Bioinformatic analysis shows that ZNF397 is conserved in placental mammals. Stable GFP:ZNF397-expressing human cells show co-localisation of ZNF397 with the constitutive centromere protein CENP-A during interphase and early prophase. Deletion and domain-swap constructs indicate that the SCAN domain is necessary but not sufficient for centromere localisation. Gene-knockout studies in mice using the mouse orthologue (Zfp397) reveal that ZNF397 is a non-essential protein. These properties define ZNF397 as a member of a new class of interphase to early prophase-specific and SCAN domain-containing mammalian centromere protein. The possible role of this protein in transcription at the centromere is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fragile X syndrome (OMIM #300624) is the most common, recognised, heritable cause of mental retardation. Widespread testing is warranted by the relatively high frequency of the disorder, the benefits of early detection and the identification of related carriers whose offspring are at a 1 in 2 risk of inheriting the expanded pathogenic mutation. However, cost-effective screening of mentally retarded individuals has been impeded by the lack of a single, simple laboratory test. Currently, Fragile X syndrome can be excluded in males and a majority of females using a simple high-throughput PCR test. Due to the limited sensitivity of the PCR test, we find in our diagnostic service that approximately 40% of females appear homozygous and a labour intensive and expensive Southern blot test is required to distinguish these from females carrying one normal allele and an expanded allele.
We describe an improved PCR test which displays a high level of precision allowing alleles differing by a single triplet to be resolved. Using the new assay, we detected 46/83 (53%) cryptic heterozygotes previously labelled as homozygotes. The assay also extended the range of repeats amplifiable, up to 170 CGG repeats in males and 130 CGG repeats in females. Combined with the high precision, the assay also improves discrimination of normal (CGG repeats < 45) from grey zone (45 < CGG repeats < 54) alleles and grey zone alleles from small premutations (55 < CGG repeats < 100).
Use of this PCR test provides significantly improved precision and amplification of longer alleles. The number of follow-up Southern blot tests required is reduced (up to 50%) with consequent improvement in turnaround time and cost.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The telomere and centromere are two specialized structures of eukaryotic chromosomes that are essential for chromosome stability and segregation. These structures are usually characterized by large tracts of tandemly repeated DNA. In mouse, the two structures are often located in close proximity to form telocentric chromosomes. To date, no detailed sequence information is available across the mouse telocentric regions. The antagonistic mechanisms for the stable maintenance of the mouse telocentric karyotype and the occurrence of whole-arm Robertsonian translocations remain enigmatic. We have identified large-insert fosmid clones that span the telomere and centromere of several mouse chromosome ends. Sequence analysis shows that the distance between the telomeric T2AG3 and centromeric minor satellite repeats range from 1.8 to 11 kb. The telocentric regions of different mouse chromosomes comprise a contiguous linear order of T2AG3 repeats, a highly conserved truncated long interspersed nucleotide element 1 repeat, and varying amounts of a recently discovered telocentric tandem repeat that shares considerable identity with, and is inverted relative to, the centromeric minor satellite DNA. The telocentric domain as a whole exhibits the same polarity and a high sequence identity of >99% between nonhomologous chromosomes. This organization reflects a mechanism of frequent recombinational exchange between nonhomologous chromosomes that should promote the stable evolutionary maintenance of a telocentric karyotype. It also provides a possible mechanism for occasional inverted mispairing and recombination between the oppositely oriented TLC and minor satellite repeats to result in Robertsonian translocations.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2006; 103(23):8786-91. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins have been shown to play a crucial role in the accurate segregation of chromosomes during cell division. Bub3 is a member of a group of mitotic checkpoint proteins that are essential for this process. To investigate the role of Bub3 in chromosome segregation and cancer development, we analyzed haploinsufficient cells in mice. Heterozygous Bub3 embryonic fibroblasts displayed increased aneuploidy and premature sister-chromatid separation. In addition, when challenged with the microtubule disruptor nocodazole, the cells showed a slight increase in chromatid breakage and a decrease in the mitotic index. No substantial differences were observed between wild-type and Bub3 heterozygous mice in the frequency or the rate at which tumors appeared. Crossing Bub3(+/-) mice onto a heterozygous tumor-suppressor background of Trp53 or Rb1 similarly revealed no substantial differences in either the number or the rate at which tumors appeared. These results suggest that haploinsufficiency of Bub3 causes a slight increase in chromosome instability but is not clearly associated with a noticeable rise in the probability of tumor formation in the animal, possibly because of a partially functional mitotic checkpoint, or cells exhibiting chromosome instability could have activated the apoptosis pathway and thus escaped tumor induction and detection.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 10/2005; 44(1):29-36. · 3.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the cloning and characterisation of Spef1, a novel testis-specific gene. Spef1 has evolutionary orthologues in a wide range of species including mammals, other vertebrates, Drosophila, and protozoans with motile cilia or flagella. A second homologue of the gene, Spef2, is also present in several species, suggesting that these genes form part of a novel gene family. The Spef1 protein has two conserved domains, one of which is more strongly conserved in both homologues of the gene. Expression analysis of Spef1 in mice shows that it is expressed predominantly in adult testis, suggesting a role in spermatogenesis. Using an antibody generated to recombinant Spef1, we demonstrate a specific pattern of Spef1 localisation in the seminiferous epithelium of adult mouse testis. Further immunohistochemical analysis using electron microscopy shows Spef1 to be present in the tails of developing and epididymal sperm, internal to the fibrous sheath and around the outer dense fibres of the sperm flagellum.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: At each mitosis, accurate segregation of every chromosome is ensured by the assembly of a kinetochore at each centromeric locus. Six foundation kinetochore proteins that assemble hierarchically and co-dependently have been identified in vertebrates. CENP-A, Mis12, CENP-C, CENP-H and CENP-I localize to a core domain of centromeric chromatin. The sixth protein, CENP-B, although not essential in higher eukaryotes, has homologues in fission yeast that bind pericentric DNA and are essential for heterochromatin formation. Foundation kinetochore proteins have various roles and mutual interactions, and their associations with centromeric DNA and heterochromatin create structural domains that support the different functions of the centromere. Advances in molecular and microscopic techniques, coupled with rare centromere variants, have enabled us to gain fresh insights into the linear and 3D organization of centromeric chromatin.
Trends in Cell Biology 08/2004; 14(7):359-68. · 12.31 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CENP-A is an essential histone H3-like protein that localizes to the centromeric region of eukaryotic chromosomes. Heterozygous and homozygous Cenpa-GFP fusion-protein mouse mutants, generated through targeted insertion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene into the mouse Cenpa gene locus, show specific localized fluorescence at all the centromeres. Heterozygous mice are healthy and fertile. Cenpa-GFP homozygotes (Cenpag/g) undergo many cell divisions, giving rise to up to one million cells that show relatively accurate differentiation into distinct mouse embryonic tissues until day 10.5 when significant levels of chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy and apoptosis result in death. Cenpag/g embryos assemble functional kinetochores that bind to a host of centromere-specific structural and mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins (Cenpc, BubR1, Mad2 and Zw10). Examination of the nucleosomal phasing of centromeric minor and pericentromeric major satellite sequences indicates that the formation of Cenpag/g homotypic nucleosomes is not accompanied by any overt alteration to the overall size of the monomeric nucleosomal structure or the spacing of these structures. This study provides the first example of an essential centromeric protein gene variant in which subtle perturbation at the centromeric nucleosomal/chromatin level manifests in a significantly delayed lethality when compared with Cenpa null mice.
Chromosome Research 02/2003; 11(4):345-57. · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 2 (PARP-2) is a newly discovered member of the PARP family. We report the association of PARP-2 with mammalian centromeres in a cell-cycle-dependent manner, accumulating at centromeres during prometaphase and metaphase, disassociating during anaphase, and disappearing from the centromeres by telophase. Analysis of a pseudodicentric chromosome and a human neocentromere indicates that PARP-2 binding occurs only at active centromeres in a sequence-independent manner. Centromere binding peaks at the outer centromere region, and is significantly enhanced upon treatment with microtubule-inhibiting drugs. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrates interaction between PARP-2 and its functional homolog PARP-1, constitutive centromere proteins Cenpa and Cenpb, and spindle checkpoint protein Bub3, but not with a third constitutive centromere protein Cenpc. These results, together with our previous demonstration that PARP-1 displays an identical binding pattern with Cenpa, Cenpb and Bub3, but not Cenpc, and that all three proteins undergo significant poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation upon gamma-irradiation of cells, point to possible diverse roles of PARP-2 and PARP-1 in modulating the structure and checkpoint functions of the mammalian centromere, in particular during radiation-induced DNA damage.
Human Molecular Genetics 10/2002; 11(19):2319-29. · 6.68 Impact Factor