Timo H Mäkikallio

Oulu University Hospital, Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland

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Publications (134)677.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data on the outcome of young patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are scarce. Data on 2,209 consecutive patients aged ≤50 years who underwent CABG or PCI were retrospectively collected from 15 European institutions. PCI and CABG had similar 30-day mortality rates (0.8% vs 1.4%, p = 0.27), late survival (at 5 years, 97.8% vs 94.9%, p = 0.082), and freedom from stroke (at 5 years, 98.0% and 98.0%, p = 0.731). PCI was associated with significantly lower freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (at 5 years, 73.9% vs 85.0%, p <0.0001), repeat revascularization (at 5 years, 77.6% vs 92.5%, p <0.0001), and myocardial infarction (at 5 years, 89.9% vs 96.6%, p <0.0001) compared with CABG. These findings were confirmed in propensity score-adjusted and matched analyses. Freedom from major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events after PCI was particularly low in diabetics (at 5 years, 58.0% vs 75.9%, p <0.0001) and in patients with multivessel disease (at 5 years, 63.6% vs 85.1%, p <0.0001). PCI in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction was associated with significantly better 5-year survival (97.5% vs 88.8%, p = 0.001), which was driven by its lower 30-day mortality rate (1.5% vs 6.0%, p = 0.017). In conclusion, patients aged ≤50 years have an excellent immediate outcome after either PCI or CABG with similar long-term survival when used according to the current clinical practice. PCI was associated with significantly lower freedom from myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization.
    The American journal of cardiology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The value of SBP during exercise and recovery period as a risk marker for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is not known. Thus, we assessed the association of SBP during recovery from exercise testing with the risk of SCD. SBP was measured every 2 min during and at 2 min after a progressive cycle ergometer exercise in a representative sample of 2366 men (aged 42-61 years). During an average follow-up period of 18.9 years, a total of 180 SCDs occurred. SBP during recovery from exercise was associated with the risk of SCD (hazard ratio 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.06-1.45, P = 0.007 for 1 SD increment), after adjustment for age, risk factors and exercise test findings. Men with elevated SBP of over 195 mmHg at 2 min recovery from exercise had a 1.74-fold (95% confidence interval 1.18-2.54, P = 0.005) risk of an SCD as compared to those with SBP less than 170 mmHg, after adjustment for age, risk factors and other exercise test findings. However, after further adjustment for resting SBP, the association between SBP at 2 min recovery from exercise and the risk of SCD became non-significant. This study shows that SBP during recovery phase from exercise is related to the risk of SCD, although its prognostic value is limited in conjunction with the assessment of resting SBP in the general male population.
    Journal of Hypertension 12/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fruit and vegetable intake has been associated with lower risk for cardiovascular diseases, but data on congestive heart failure (CHF) are inconsistent. The association of serum carotenoids, biomarkers reflecting fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of CHF has not been well documented in previous studies. We therefore examined the association between carotenoid levels and the risk of CHF. METHODS: Data were available for 1031 males aged 46 to 65years participating in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (Finland). Baseline data for the present study were collected between 1991 and 1993. The association between serum concentrations of carotenoids and the risk of CHF was examined by using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: During the median of 17.8 follow-up years, CHF occurred in 72 patients. Age and examination year adjusted risk (hazard ratio, HR) for CHF among men within the lowest quartile of serum β-carotene was 4.08 (95% CI, 1.90-8.78, p<0.001) as compared to men in the highest quartile of serum β-carotene. After further adjustment for many potential confounders, men with the lowest quartile of β-carotene had almost 3-fold increased risk of CHF (HR=2.78, 95% CI, 1.23-6.25, p=0.014). However, serum concentrations of lycopene and α-carotene were not related to the risk of CHF. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that low concentrations of serum β-carotene may be associated with an increased risk of CHF.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2013; · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine whether a rating of perceived exertion scale (RPE) obtained during submaximal exercise could be used to predict peak exercise capacity (METpeak) in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Angiographically documented CAD patients (n = 124, 87% on β blockade) completed a symptom-limited peak exercise test on a bicycle ergometer, reporting RPE values at every second load on a scale of 6-20. Regression analysis was used to develop equations for predicting METpeak. We found that submaximal METs at a workload of 60/75 W (for women and men, respectively) and the corresponding RPE (METs/RPE ratio) was the most powerful predictor of METpeak (r = 0.67, p < 0.0001). The final model included the submaximal METs/RPE ratio, body mass index (BMI), sex, resting heart rate, smoking history, age, and use of a β blockade (r = 0.86, p < 0.0001, SEE 0.98 METs). These data suggest that RPE at submaximal exercise intensity is related to METpeak in CAD patients. The model based on easily measured variables at rest and during "warm-up" exercise can reasonably predict absolute METpeak in patients with CAD.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2013; 4:243.
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine whether impaired fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes may be risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective study was based on 2,641 middle-aged men 42-60 years of age at baseline. Impaired FPG level (≥5.6 mmol/L) among nondiabetic subjects (501 men) was defined according to the established guidelines, and the group with type 2 diabetes included subjects (159 men) who were treated with oral hypoglycemic agents, insulin therapy, and/or diet.RESULTSDuring the 19-year follow-up, a total of 190 SCDs occurred. The relative risk (RR) for SCD was 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.07-2.14, P = 0.020) for nondiabetic men with impaired FPG and 2.86-fold (1.87-4.38, P < 0.001) for men with type 2 diabetes as compared with men with normal FPG levels, after adjustment for age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, serum LDL cholesterol, smoking, prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD), and family history of CHD. The respective RRs for out-of-hospital SCDs (157 deaths) were 1.79-fold (1.24-2.58, P = 0.001) for nondiabetic men with impaired FPG and 2.26-fold (1.34-3.77, P < 0.001) for men with type 2 diabetes. Impaired FPG and type 2 diabetes were associated with the risk of all-cause death. As a continuous variable, a 1 mmol/L increment in FPG was related to an increase of 10% in the risk of SCD (1.10 [1.04-1.20], P = 0.001).CONCLUSIONS Impaired FPG and type 2 diabetes represent risk factors for SCD.
    Diabetes care 12/2012; · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and atrial fibrosis are identified as the main mechanisms for atrial fibrillation (AF). Antioxidant micronutrients may have antiarrhythmic benefit in humans. We studied whether plasma carotenoids are related to the risk of AF in elderly subjects. The study population consisted of 1,847 Finnish subjects (620 women and 1,227 men) aged 61-82 years from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor study cohort. Plasma concentrations of carotenoids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of plasma carotenoids were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard's model. During a median follow-up of 2.8 years a total of 105 subjects developed incident AF. The HRs of AF among subjects with levels in the highest through the lowest tertile after adjustment for age, examination year, gender, systolic blood pressure, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, diabetes, use of antihypertensive medication, congestive heart failure, recurrent AF, prevalent coronary heart disease and baseline prevalence of myocardial infarction were 1.70 (95 % CI: 1.01-2.86, p = 0.047) for lutein, 1.99 (95 % CI: 1.14-3.48, p = 0.016) for zeaxanthin. Risk of AF was borderline significant for β-carotene (HR = 1.69, 95 % CI: 1.00-2.87, p = 0.050). Results remained unchanged, when season was added to the multivariable model. Lycopene, β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene and total carotenoids were not associated with the risk of AF. Results of the present study suggest that low plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin were associated with an increased risk of AF in elderly population.
    European Journal of Epidemiology 12/2012; · 5.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To examine whether serum concentrations of carotenoids are related to the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in middle-aged men. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1031 Finnish men aged 46-65 years of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The hazard ratios (HR) of serum β-carotene, lycopene and α-carotene were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age and other potential confounding factors. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 15.9 years a total of 59 incidents of SCD occurred. After controlling for age, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, years of education, serum LDL cholesterol, serum hs-CRP, diabetes, prevalent coronary heart disease (CHD) and congestive heart failure (CHF), men in the lowest tertile of serum concentrations of β-carotene had a 2-fold increased risk of SCD (HR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.02-4.51; p=0.044) as compared to those in the highest tertile. The risk of SCD was borderline significant for lycopene. In addition, low serum β-carotene concentrations increased the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and total mortality. Lycopene and α-carotene were not related to the risk of SCD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that low serum β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk of SCD in middle-aged Finnish men. Furthermore, low serum β-carotene concentrations may be related to the risk of CVD and total mortality.
    Atherosclerosis 11/2012; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction, which is a common complication of diabetes, is associated with increased mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the reasons of autonomic dysfunction in CAD patients with or without diabetes are not well known. We examine the association between heart rate recovery (HRR) and other potential factors among CAD patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). Correlations between HRR 60 s after exercise (HRR60), characteristics, laboratory and echocardiographic variables, exercise capacity and physical activity were assessed in 50 CAD patients with T2D and 55 patients with CAD alone. HRR60 had the closest univariate correlation with physical activity and exercise capacity in patients with T2D (r = 0.38, p = 0.006 and r = 0.37, p = 0.008, respectively). Age, exercise capacity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level explained 30% of the HRR60 in patients with T2D (p = 0.001), while the high intensity physical activity was the only predictor of HRR60 in CAD patients (12%, p = 0.010). HRR60 was reduced in patients with T2D as compared with those without (34 ± 9 vs. 39 ± 9 bpm, p = 0.005), but the difference was no longer significant after adjustments for physical activity, exercise capacity, body mass index and the use of calcium antagonists and nitrates (p = 0.273). In conclusion, blunted HRR is more common among CAD patients with T2D than in those without, and this is more closely related to physical activity and obesity than to the duration of T2D or associated co-morbidities.
    Autonomic neuroscience: basic & clinical 11/2012; 171(s 1–2):79–84. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Promotion of and adherence to increased physical activity (PA) is an important part of the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD). We hypothesized that individually tailored home-based exercise prescriptions will increase long-term PA and maximal exercise capacity among CAD patients without and with type 2 diabetes (CAD+T2D). Physical activity of patients with CAD (n = 44) and CAD+T2D (n = 39), matched by age, sex and ejection fraction, was measured over 5 days with an accelerometer pre- and postexercise prescription. PA was assessed as the average time per day of moderate (METs = 2-5) and high (METs > 5) intensities. Six-month exercise prescriptions were introduced based on individual maximal heart rate reserve. At the baseline, patients with CAD+T2D engaged in less moderate-intensity PA (2:40 ± 1:23 versus 3:24 ± 1:17 h, P = 0·014) and exhibited a non-significant trend to reduced high-intensity PA (2:08 ± 2:57 versus 5:02 ± 9:19 min, P = 0·091) compared with patients with CAD. High-intensity PA increased markedly in CAD (5:02 ± 9:19 versus 9:59 ± 15:03 min) and patients with CAD+T2D (2:08 ± 2:57 versus 6:14 ± 10:18 min) after exercise prescription (main effect for time P = 0·001). Also maximal exercise capacity increased in both groups (main effect for time P<0·001). Patients with CAD with T2D are physically less active than CAD patients without diabetes in their daily life. Individually tailored home-based exercise prescriptions are an effective way to promote more active lifestyles and improve fitness in both patient groups.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 11/2012; 32(6):445-54. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies indicate that increased QRS duration in ECG is related to the risk of all-cause death. However, the association of QRS duration with the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) is not well documented in large population-based studies. Our aim was to examine the relation of QRS duration with SCD in a population-based sample of men. This prospective study was based on a cohort of 2049 men aged 42 to 60 years at baseline with a 19-year follow-up, during which a total of 156 SCDs occurred. As a continuous variable, each 10-ms increase in QRS duration was associated with a 27% higher risk for SCD (relative risk, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-1.40; P<0.001). Subjects with QRS duration of >110 ms (highest quintile) had a 2.50-fold risk for SCD (relative risk, 2.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.38-4.55; P=0.002) compared with those with QRS duration of <96 ms (lowest quintile), after adjustment for established key demographic and clinical risk factors (age, alcohol consumption, previous myocardial infarction, smoking, serum low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and cardiorespiratory fitness). In addition to QRS duration, smoking, previous myocardial infarction, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were independently associated with the risk of SCD. QRS duration is an independent predictor of the risk of SCD and may have utility in estimating SCD risk in the general population.
    Circulation 05/2012; 125(21):2588-94. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The role of systolic blood pressure (SBP) as an independent risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD) is not well defined in a general population. Thus, we assessed the association between BP at rest and risk of SCD. BP and other risk factors were measured in a representative population-based sample of 2,666 Finnish men (42 to 61 years of age). During an average follow-up period of 18.9 years (interquartile range 17.9 to 22.6), 213 SCDs occurred. Each increment 10-mm Hg of SBP at rest was associated with an increased risk of SCD (relative hazard 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.25, p <0.001) after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, type 2 diabetes, body mass index, left ventricular hypertrophy, previous myocardial infarction, family history of coronary heart disease, and use of antihypertensive medications. Men with increased SBP of >145 mm Hg had a 2.04-fold (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.52, p = 0.003) adjusted risk for SCD compared to those with SBP <123 mm Hg. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the importance of the definition of SBP at rest because it provides a valuable prognostic measurement for SCD.
    The American journal of cardiology 04/2012; 110(3):378-82. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables is an important factor in prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Some previous epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary and serum carotenoids are associated with decreased CVD mortality, but the results have been inconsistent. We assessed relations between the concentrations of serum carotenoids and CVD mortality among Eastern Finnish men. The study population consisted of 1031 Eastern Finnish men aged 46-65 years in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Subjects were classified quartiles according to concentrations of carotenoids and subgroups according to risk factors. Hazard ratios of serum lycopene, α-carotene and β-carotene were estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for potential confounding factors. During the median 15.9-year follow-up, 122 deaths from CVDs, were identified among the cohort subjects. Low serum concentrations of β-carotene were strongly related to an increased CVD mortality risk after adjustment for confounders. For β-carotene, the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for the lowest versus highest quartile was 2.23 (1.26-3.93; P=0.006). However, the strongest risk of CVD mortality was observed among smokers with lowest levels of β-carotene (HR=3.15, 95%, CI: 1.19-8.33; P=0.020). Other carotenoids and the sum of carotenoids were not significantly related to increased risk of CVD mortality. Low concentrations of serum β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk for CVD mortality among Eastern Finnish men; thus elevated serum concentrations of β-carotene may have clinical and public health relevance.
    Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 04/2012; 22(10):921-8. · 3.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of acute myocardial infarction with stem cell transplantation has achieved beneficial effects in many clinical trials. The bone marrow microenvironment of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients has never been studied even though myocardial infarction is known to cause an imbalance in the acid-base status of these patients. The aim of this study was to assess if the blood gas levels in the bone marrow of STEMI patients affect the characteristics of the bone marrow cells (BMCs) and, furthermore, do they influence the change in cardiac function after autologous BMC transplantation. The arterial, venous and bone marrow blood gas concentrations were also compared. Blood gas analysis of the bone marrow aspirate and peripheral blood was performed for 27 STEMI patients receiving autologous stem cell therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention. Cells from the bone marrow aspirate were further cultured and the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation rate was determined by MTT assay and the MSC osteogenic differentiation capacity by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay. All the patients underwent a 2D-echocardiography at baseline and 4 months after STEMI. As expected, the levels of pO(2), pCO(2), base excess and HCO(3) were similar in venous blood and bone marrow. Surprisingly, bone marrow showed significantly lower pH and Na(+) and elevated K(+) levels compared to arterial and venous blood. There was a positive correlation between the bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels and MSC osteogenic differentiation capacity. In contrast, bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels displayed a negative correlation with the proliferation rate of MSCs. Patients with the HCO(3) level below the median value exhibited a more marked change in LVEF after BMC treatment than patients with HCO(3) level above the median (11.13 ± 8.07% vs. 2.67 ± 11.89%, P = 0.014). Low bone marrow pCO(2) and HCO(3) levels may represent the optimal environment for BMCs in terms of their efficacy in autologous stem cell therapy in STEMI patients.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 04/2012; 10:66. · 3.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Individual responses to aerobic training vary from almost none to a 40% increase in aerobic fitness in healthy subjects. We hypothesized that the baseline self-rated mental stress may influence to the training response. Methods: The study population included 44 healthy sedentary subjects (22 women) and 14 controls. The laboratory controlled training period was 2 weeks, including five sessions a week at an intensity of 75% of the maximum heart rate for 40 min/session. Self-rated mental stress was assessed by inquiry prior to the training period from 1 (low psychological resources and a lot of stressors in my life) to 10 (high psychological resources and no stressors in my life), respectively. Results: Mean peak oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] increased from 34 ± 7 to 37 ± 7 ml kg(-1) min(-1) in training group (p < 0.001) and did not change in control group (from 34 ± 7 to 34 ± 7 ml kg(-1) min(-1)). Among the training group, the self-rated stress at the baseline condition correlated with the change in fitness after training intervention, e.g., with the change in maximal power (r = 0.45, p = 0.002, W/kg) and with the change in [Formula: see text] (r = 0.32, p = 0.039, ml kg(-1) min(-1)). The self-rated stress at the baseline correlated with the change in fitness in both female and male, e.g., r = 0.44, p = 0.039 and r = 0.43, p = 0.045 for ΔW/kg in female and male, respectively. Conclusion: As a novel finding the baseline self-rated mental stress is associated with the individual training response among healthy females and males after highly controlled aerobic training intervention. The changes in fitness were very low or absent in the subjects who experience their psychological resources low and a lot of stressors in their life at the beginning of aerobic training intervention.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:51.
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: Beneficial mechanisms of bone marrow cell (BMC) therapy for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) are largely unknown in humans. Therefore, we evaluated the feasibility of serial positron emission tomography (PET) and MRI studies to provide insight into the effects of BMCs on the healing process of ischemic myocardial damage. Methods: Nineteen patients with successful primary reteplase thrombolysis (mean 2.4 h after symptoms) for STEMI were randomized for BMC therapy (2.9 × 10(6) CD34+ cells) or placebo after bone marrow aspiration in a double-blind, multi-center study. Three days post-MI, coronary angioplasty, and paclitaxel eluting stent implantation preceded either BMC or placebo therapy. Cardiac PET and MRI studies were performed 7-12 days after therapies and repeated after 6 months, and images were analyzed at a central core laboratory. Results: In BMC-treated patients, there was a decrease in [(11)C]-HED defect size (-4.9 ± 4.0 vs. -1.6 ± 2.2%, p = 0.08) and an increase in [(18)F]-FDG uptake in the infarct area at risk (0.06 ± 0.09 vs. -0.05 ± 0.16, p = 0.07) compared to controls, as well as less left ventricular dilatation (-4.4 ± 13.3 vs. 8.0 ± 16.7 mL/m(2), p = 0.12) at 6 months follow-up. However, BMC treatment was inferior to placebo in terms of changes in rest perfusion in the area at risk (-0.09 ± 0.17 vs. 0.10 ± 0.17, p = 0.03) and infarct size (0.4 ± 4.2 vs. -5.1 ± 5.9 g, p = 0.047), and no effect was observed on ejection fraction (p = 0.37). Conclusion: After the acute phase of STEMI, BMC therapy showed only minor trends of long-term benefit in patients with rapid successful thrombolysis. There was a trend of more decrease in innervation defect size and enhanced glucose metabolism in the infarct-related myocardium and also a trend of less ventricular dilatation in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo. However, no consistently better outcome was observed in the BMC-treated group compared to placebo.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2012; 3:6.
  • Jouni Karppi, Jari A Laukkanen, Timo H Mäkikallio, Sudhir Kurl
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that high intake or concentrations of serum carotenoids may protect against acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The role of carotenoids on the risk of AMI remains inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine if serum concentrations of major carotenoids are related to AMI in men. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1031 Finnish men aged 46-65 years in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor (KIHD) cohort. Serum concentrations of carotenoids, retinol and α-tocopherol were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The association between the serum concentrations of lycopene α-carotene and β-carotene and the risk of AMI was studied by using the Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 194 incident AMI cases occurred during an average of 11.5 follow-up years. After adjusting for potential confounders, the risk of AMI for men in the lowest tertile of serum concentrations compared with men in the highest tertile was 1.55 (95% CI 1.05- 2.30; P = 0.028) for lycopene and 1.60 (95% CI 1.09-2.35; P = 0.017) for β-carotene. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study shows that low serum lycopene and β-carotene concentrations may increase the risk of AMI in men.
    The European Journal of Public Health 12/2011; · 2.52 Impact Factor
  • International journal of cardiology 11/2011; 154(3):354-6. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Reciprocal autonomic regulation occurs during incremental exercise. We hypothesized that sympatho-vagal interplay may become altered after exercise because of the differences in recovery patterns of autonomic arms. The cardiac vagal activity was assessed by measurement of beat-to-beat R-R interval oscillations using a Poincaré plot method (SD1), and muscle sympathetic nervous activity (MSNA) was measured from peroneus nerve by a microneurography technique during and after exercise in 16 healthy subjects. Autonomic regulation was compared between the rest and after exercise (3·5 ± 1·0 min after exercise) at equal heart rates (HR). SD1 was at the equal level at the recovery phase (40 ± 21 ms) compared to the resting condition (38 ± 16 ms, P = ns) at comparable HR (57 ± 10 for both). MSNA was higher at the recovery phase (40 ± 19 burst per 100 heartbeats) than at rest (25 ± 13 burst per 100 heartbeats, P<0·0001). The difference of MSNA activity between rest and late recovery phase had a strong positive correlation with the difference in SD1 (r = 0·78, P<0·001) at equal HRs. Subjects who have a higher sympathetic activity in the recovery phase of exercise have a more augmented cardiac vagal activity resulting in an accentuated sympatho-vagal outflow. The altered autonomic interaction observed here may partly explain the clustering of various cardiovascular events to the recovery phase of exercise.
    Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging 07/2011; 31(4):272-81. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is unknown whether the preferred 1-stent bifurcation stenting approach with stenting of the main vessel (MV) and optional side branch stenting using drug-eluting stents should be finalized by a kissing balloon dilatation (FKBD). Therefore, we compared strategies of MV stenting with and without FKBD. We randomized 477 patients with a bifurcation lesion to FKBD (n=238) or no FKBD (n=239) after MV stenting. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events: cardiac death, non-procedure-related index lesion myocardial infarction, target lesion revascularization, or stent thrombosis within 6 months. The 6-month major adverse cardiac event rates were 2.1% and 2.5% (P=1.00) in the FKBD and no-FKBD groups, respectively. Procedure and fluoroscopy times were longer and more contrast media was needed in the FKBD group than in the no-FKBD group. Three hundred twenty-six patients had a quantitative coronary assessment. At 8 months, the rate of binary (re)stenosis in the entire bifurcation lesion (MV and side branch) was 11.0% versus 17.3% (P=0.11), in the MV was 3.1% versus 2.5% (P=0.68), and in the side branch was 7.9% versus 15.4% (P=0.039) in the FKBD versus no-FKBD groups, respectively. In patients with true bifurcation lesions, the side branch restenosis rate was 7.6% versus 20.0% (P=0.024) in the FKBD and no-FKBD groups, respectively. MV stenting strategies with and without FKBD were associated with similar clinical outcomes. FKBD reduced angiographic side branch (re)stenosis, especially in patients with true bifurcation lesions. The simple no-FKBD procedures resulted in reduced use of contrast media and shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times. Long-term data on stent thrombosis are needed. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00914199.
    Circulation 01/2011; 123(1):79-86. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The incidence of cardiovascular events is higher in coronary artery disease patients with type 2 diabetes (CAD + T2D) than in CAD patients without T2D. There is increasing evidence that the recovery phase after exercise is a vulnerable phase for various cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that autonomic regulation differs in CAD patients with and without T2D during post-exercise condition. Methods: A symptom-limited maximal exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was performed for 68 CAD + T2D patients (age 61 ± 5 years, 78% males, ejection fraction (EF) 67 ± 8, 100% on β-blockade), and 64 CAD patients (age 62 ± 5 years, 80% males, EF 64 ± 8, 100% on β-blockade). Heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise was calculated as the slope of HR during the first 60 s after cessation of exercise (HRR(slope)). R-R intervals were measured before (5 min) and after exercise from 3 to 8 min, both in a supine position. R-R intervals were analyzed using time and frequency methods and a detrended fluctuation method (α(1)). Results: BMI was 30 ± 4 vs. 27 ± 3 kg m(2) (p < 0.001); maximal exercise capacity, 6.5 ± 1.7 vs. 7.7 ± 1.9 METs (p < 0.001); maximal HR, 128 ± 19 vs. 132 ± 18 bpm (p = ns); and HRR(slope), -0.53 ± 0.17 vs. -0.62 ± 0.15 beats/s (p = 0.004), for CAD patients with and without T2D, respectively. There was no differences between the groups in HRR(slope) after adjustment for METs, BMI, and medication (ANCOVA, p = 0.228 for T2D and, e.g., p = 0.030 for METs). CAD + T2D patients had a higher HR at rest than non-diabetic patients (57 ± 10 vs. 54 ± 6 bpm, p = 0.030), but no other differences were observed in HR dynamics at rest or in post-exercise condition. Conclusion: HR recovery is delayed in CAD + T2D patients, suggesting impairment of vagal activity and/or augmented sympathetic activity after exercise. Blunted HR recovery after exercise in diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic patients is more closely related to low exercise capacity and obesity than to T2D itself.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2011; 2:57.

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Institutions

  • 2001–2014
    • Oulu University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
    • University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
      Miami, Florida, United States
    • University of Waterloo
      • Department of Kinesiology
      Waterloo, Quebec, Canada
    • Virginia Commonwealth University
      Richmond, Virginia, United States
    • University of Milan
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy
  • 1996–2013
    • University of Oulu
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Uleoborg, Oulu, Finland
  • 2010–2011
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • • School of Medicine
      • • Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
      Joensuu, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • 2009
    • Päijät-Hämeen Central Hospital
      Lahti, Southern Finland Province, Finland
    • University of Kuopio
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
    • University of Turku
      • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2008–2009
    • Lapland Central Hospital
      Rovanieni, Lapponia, Finland
    • Satakunta Hospital District
      Björneborg, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2007
    • St. George's School
      Middletown, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2006
    • Pennington Biomedical Research Center
      • Human Genomics Laboratory
      Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States
  • 2002–2006
    • Turku University Hospital
      • Turku PET Centre
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1999–2005
    • University of Tampere
      • • Heart Center
      • • Medical School
      Tampere, Western Finland, Finland
  • 2003
    • Vaasa Central Hospital
      Vaasa, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2001–2002
    • University of Miami
      • Department of Medicine
      Coral Gables, FL, United States