Eun Jung Kim

Chonbuk National University, Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea

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Publications (183)315.44 Total impact

  • Eun Jung Kim, Kitae Baek
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    ABSTRACT: As extraction from soils was studied by a combination of dithionite and oxalate.•Reductive As extraction by dithionite was greatly enhanced by oxalate addition.•Iron extraction from soil were dependent on oxalate to iron concentration ratio.•Optimum dithionite concentrations were affected by As concentration and speciation.•Effective As remediation can be obtained with limited impact on soil environment.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials. 03/2015; 284.
  • Myung Ah Kim, Jiyoung Kim, Eun Jung Kim
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    ABSTRACT: Senior nursing students are faced with various types of stressful events such as taking the national licensure exam or finding employment. Such stress can generate maladaptive behaviors as well as physical and psychological symptoms. There is evidence supporting the use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) for reducing disruptive behaviors and negative emotions as well as improving self-efficacy and stress-coping strategies. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) on stress coping strategies and self-efficacy for senior nursing students. Thirty-four senior nursing students in a nursing college were assigned randomly to an experimental group (n=18) and a control group (n=16). The REBT program consisted of 8 sessions, and it was implemented for a 4-week period. Outcome measures assessed stress-coping strategies and self-efficacy before and after intervention. After intervention with REBT, the mean difference scores for self-efficacy (p=.032) were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. However, the mean difference scores for seeking social support (p=.166), problem solving (p=.126), and avoidance (p=.154) in stress-coping strategies were not significantly different between the two groups. The results imply that group counseling based on REBT enhances the self-efficacy among senior nursing students before graduation. As regards stress coping strategies, a longer intervention period is suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Nurse education today. 11/2014;
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    Eun Jung Kim, Jae-Cheol Lee, Kitae Baek
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    ABSTRACT: Abiotic reductive extraction of arsenic from contaminated soils was studied with various reducing agents and combinations of reducing and chelating agents in order to remediate arsenic-contaminated soils. Oxalate and ascorbic acid were effective to extract arsenic from soil in which arsenic was associated with amorphous iron oxides, but they were not effective to extract arsenic from soils in which arsenic was bound to crystalline oxides or those in which arsenic was mainly present as a scorodite phase. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study showed that iron oxides present in soils were transformed to Fe(II,III) or Fe(II) oxide forms such as magnetite (Fe3O4, FeIIFe2IIIO4) by reduction with dithionite. Thus, arsenic extraction by dithionite was not effective due to the re-adsorption of arsenic to the newly formed iron oxide phase. Combination of chelating agents with reducing agents greatly improved arsenic extraction from soil samples. About 90% of the total arsenic could be extracted from all soil samples by using a combination of dithionite and EDTA. Chelating agents form strong complexation with iron, which can prevent precipitation of a new iron oxide phase and also enhance iron oxide dissolution via a non-reductive dissolution pathway.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the feasibility of a preoperative colonoscopy through a self-expendable metallic stent (SEMS) and to identify the factors that affect complete colonoscopy.
    World journal of gastroenterology : WJG. 08/2014; 20(30):10570-6.
  • Eun‐Jung Kim, Kyung‐Jin Kim
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    ABSTRACT: (S)-3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase from Clostridium butyricum (CbHBD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the second step in the biosynthesis of n-butanol from acetyl-CoA by the reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA. The CbHBD protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M CAPS pH 10.5, 0.2 M lithium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 148.5, c = 201.6 Å. With four molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 3.52 Å3 Da−1, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 65.04%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refinement of the structure is in progress.
    Acta Crystallographica Section F. 04/2014; 70(4).
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    ABSTRACT: Polyhydroxyalkanoates are linear polyesters that are produced by bacterial fermentation and are used as biodegradable bioplastics. β-Ketothiolase B (BktB) from Ralstonia eutropha (ReBktB) is a key enzyme for the production of various types of copolymers by catalyzing the condensation reactions of acetyl-CoA with propionyl-CoA and butyryl-CoA. The ReBktB protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 25% polyethylene glycol 3350, 0.1 M bis-tris pH 6.5, 0.2 M lithium sulfate at 295 K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 2.3 Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group C2221, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.95, b = 107.24, c = 144.14 Å. With two molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) is 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1), which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 51.5%. The structure was solved by the molecular-replacement method and refinement of the structure is in progress.
    Acta crystallographica. Section F, Structural biology communications. 03/2014; 70(Pt 3):316-9.
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    ABSTRACT: The hPrp19-CDC5L complex plays a crucial role during human pre-mRNA splicing by catalytic activation of the spliceosome. In order to elucidate the molecular architecture of the hPrp19-CDC5L complex, the crystal structure of CTNNBL1, one of the major components of this complex, was determined. Unlike canonical ARM-repeat proteins such as β-catenin and importin-α, CTNNBL1 was found to contain a twisted and extended ARM-repeat structure at the C-terminal domain and, more importantly, the protein formed a stable dimer. A highly negatively charged patch formed in the N-terminal ARM-repeat domain of CTNNBL1 provides a binding site for CDC5L, a binding partner of the protein in the hPrp19-CDC5L complex, and these two proteins form a complex with a stoichiometry of 2:2. These findings not only present the crystal structure of a novel ARM-repeat protein, CTNNBL1, but also provide insights into the detailed molecular architecture of the hPrp19-CDC5L complex.
    Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 03/2014; 70(Pt 3):780-8. · 12.67 Impact Factor
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    Eun Jung Kim, Jong-Chan Yoo, Kitae Baek
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a combination of sequential extraction and mineralogical investigation by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed in order to evaluate arsenic solid-state speciation and bioaccessibility in soils highly contaminated with arsenic from mining and smelting. Combination of these techniques indicated that iron oxides and the weathering products of sulfide minerals played an important role in regulating the arsenic retention in the soils. Higher bioaccessibility of arsenic was observed in the following order; i) arsenic bound to amorphous iron oxides (smelter-2), ii) arsenic associated with crystalline iron oxides and arsenic sulfide phase (smelter-1), and iii) arsenic associated with the weathering products of arsenic sulfide minerals, such as scorodite, orpiment, jarosite, and pyrite (mine). Even though the bioaccessibility of arsenic was very low in the mine soil, its environmental impact could be significant due to its high arsenic concentration and mobility.
    Environmental Pollution 03/2014; 186C:29-35. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we monitored the newly added Stockholm Convention persistent organic pollutants (POPs) HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, chlordecone, PBDEs, PBBs and PFCs in industrial, urban, and agricultural soils in South Korea, in order to evaluate their distributions and potential sources. These POPs were widely distributed throughout South Korea, and their concentrations and distributions were affected by land use, reflecting their sources. The overall concentrations of HCHs, PeCBz, endosulfans, PBDEs, and PFCs in soils were in the range of ND (non-detectable)-0.358ng/g (average±standard deviation: 0.060±0.080ng/g), ND-0.531ng/g (0.083±0.133ng/g), 0.058-8.42ng/g (2.19±2.43ng/g), 0.004-4.78ng/g (0.68±1.06ng/g), and ND-1.62ng/g (0.50±0.46ng/g), respectively. Agricultural soils showed the highest concentration of endosulfan, which was the most recently used pesticide monitored in this study. On the other hand, industrial soils contained the highest concentrations of PeCBz, PBDEs, and PFCs, which were mainly introduced to environment via the industrial activities.
    Science of The Total Environment 01/2014; 476-477C:327-335. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Worldwide obesity and related comorbidities are increasing, but identifying new therapeutic targets remains a challenge. A plethora of microarray studies in diet-induced obesity models has provided large datasets of obesity associated genes. In this review, we describe an approach to examine the underlying molecular network regulating obesity, and we discuss interactions between obesity candidate genes. We conducted network analysis on functional protein-protein interactions associated with 25 obesity candidate genes identified in a literature-driven approach based on published microarray studies of diet-induced obesity. The obesity candidate genes were closely associated with lipid metabolism and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (Pparg) appeared to be a core obesity gene, and obesity candidate genes were highly interconnected, suggesting a coordinately regulated molecular network in adipose tissue. In conclusion, the current network analysis approach may help elucidate the underlying molecular network regulating obesity and identify anti-obesity targets for therapeutic intervention.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 01/2014; 54(7):910-23. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chitin-degrading bacterial strains were screened and tested for their ability to degrade shrimp-shell waste (SSW). Among the potential strains, B. cereus EW5 exhibited the highest chitin-degrading ability compared with other strains and produced 24 mg of reducing sugar per gram of dry SSW after 4 days of incubation. A TLC analysis of SSW biodegradation revealed that the chitosaccharides produced in the culture supernatant were mainly N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and chitobiose due to the isolate's exolytic chitinase activity. The culture supernatant exhibited a high degree of antioxidant activity, as indicated by 83% DPPH, 99.6% ABTS, 51% hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and 0.34 reducing power. The formation of GlcNAc and chitobiose during biodegradation of SSW is considered to be the major contributor to the antioxidant activity. The EW5 culture supernatant also displayed inhibition of DNA damage, enhancing the reutilization value of SSW. This report presents the first description of fermented production of GlcNAc and DNA protective activity of culture supernatant from SSW by B. cereus.
    SpringerPlus 01/2014; 3:354.
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    ABSTRACT: To assess the effects of a visiting nurse-driven community-based case management program for low-income adults with hypertension. This single group pretest-post-test study included 22 newly registered low-income adult patients with hypertension in a public health center in Seoul. Visiting nurses delivered a case management program for 2-8 months. Pretest and post-test measurements of blood pressure (BP), knowledge level, and self-management level in terms of diet, lifestyle, physical activity, and medication were obtained. The visiting nurse-driven case management was effective in reducing the BP level and improving the knowledge and self-management level of the low-income adults with hypertension in the community. This study serves as a baseline for visiting nurse-driven case management for low-income patients with hypertension. Its findings suggest that visiting nurse-driven case management targeting the self management of BP can foster improved BP control for newly diagnosed hypertensive patients in low-income populations.
    Japan Journal of Nursing Science 01/2014; 11(1):35-43. · 0.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Homosalate (HMS) is an ultraviolet (UV) filtering agent used in sunscreens and other cosmetics for skin protection purposes. Despite the widespread use of these products, absorption, disposition, and in vivo endocrine disrupting potential of HMS have not been characterized. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the percutaneous absorption, disposition, and exposure assessment of HMS in rats. Initially, sunscreen preparations of petrolatum jelly, oily solution, lotion, and gel were prepared and evaluated for in vitro permeation of HMS across excised rat skin. Dermal permeability was greatest for gel, and this preparation was used in subsequent in vivo topical application investigations. After iv injection (0.5, 2, or 5 mg/kg), the pharmacokinetics of HMS was linear and was characterized by a large Vd ss (13.2-17 L/kg), high Cls (4.5-6.1 L/h/kg), and long t1/2 (6.1-8.4 h). After topical application of gel, the bioavailability of HMS was 5.4 ± 1.1 and 4.2 ± 0.6% for high and low doses (10 and 20 mg), respectively. Consistent with the prolonged absorption (T max 11.2 ± 1.8 and 12 ± 0 h for low and high doses, respectively), the terminal t 1/2 was longer after topical application (23.6-26.1 h) compared to iv injection. A population pharmacokinetic model was further developed to simultaneously fit the time courses of plasma concentrations and dermal content data after iv injection and topical application. Findings of this study may be useful to further examine the relationship between exposure and endocrine disrupting potential of HMS in risk assessment.
    Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 01/2014; 77(4):202-13. · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The desire for a biocompatible and biodegradable material as a substitute for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is widely used for biomedical microfabrication, motivates an examination of alternate biomaterials: cellulose acetate (CA), poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), and poly octanediol citrate (POC). Human bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitor cells (CTPs) were cultured on the biodegradable material surface microtextures comprised of both post microtextures and smooth surfaces for up to 30 days to compare growth characteristics. All biodegradable materials retained >95% of their original mass for 3 weeks. At week 10, the mass of PLGA was reduced by ∼18%, whereas the mass of CA and POC post microtextures were reduced by ∼13% and the mass of CA and POC smooth surfaces were reduced ∼10%. CTPs on CA and PLGA smooth surfaces exhibited arbitrary flattened shapes, while cells on CA microtextures mostly tended to attach next to the posts and spread between them. CTPs on CA and PLGA microtextured scaffolds displayed enhanced proliferation compared to those on PDMS surfaces. More specifically, CA (300%) exhibited higher cell proliferation compared to PLGA (190%) and PDMS (100%) on day 30. CTPs on CA microtextured scaffolds displayed comparable osteogenic differentiation to those on PDMS.
    Journal of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering. 01/2014; 4(2).
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to develop a highly reliable radiofluorination method for the preparation of N-{2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazinyl]ethyl}-N-(2-pyridyl)-N-(4-(18) F-fluoromethylcyclohexane)carboxamide ([(18) F]Mefway) by using a fully automated system. The optimal condition is composed of two parts. The extraction system of the trapped F-18 in the anion exchange resin (i.e., quaternary methylamine cartridge) is a complex of Kryptofix 2.2.2. (K222, 4 mg/0.9 mL methanol) and K2 CO3 (1 mg/0.1 mL H2 O). After removing the solvents, the trans-tosylated Mefway precursor (1 mg/0.5 mL acetonitrile) was reacted with dried K222-K[(18) F] at 100°C for 5 min. After purification and formulation, [(18) F]Mefway was obtained with 38 ± 2.4% (decay corrected, n = 34) radiochemical yield, a total synthesis time of 52 ± 3.4 min, specific activity was 120.6 ± 8.7 GBq/µmol at the end of synthesis and a radiochemical purity of 99%. According to the quality control tests, formulated [(18) F]Mefway is suitable to apply parenteral clinical application.
    Journal of Labelled Compounds 10/2013; 56(12):589-594.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a growing demand for the efficient treatment of seaweed waste. We identified six bacterial strains from the marine environment for the reutilization of brown-seaweed waste, and the most potentially useful strain, Microbacterium oxydans, was chosen and further investigated. Plate assays indicated that this bacterial isolate possessed both alginate lyase and laminarinase activities. The optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature and substrate concentration for the degradation of brown-seaweed polysaccharides by the isolate were as follows: 20% (v v(-1)), pH 6.0, 37 °C, and 5 g L(-1) for alginate and 20% (v v(-1)), pH 6.0, 30 °C, and 10 g L(-1) for laminarin, respectively. During 6 d in culture under the optimal conditions, the isolate produced 0.17 g L(-1) of reducing sugars from alginate with 11.0 U mL(-1) of maximal alginate lyase activity, and 5.11 and 2.88 g L(-1) of reducing sugars and glucose from laminarin, respectively. In particular, a fair amount of laminarin was degraded to glucose (28.8%) due to the isolate's exolytic laminarinase activity. As a result, the reutilization of brown-seaweed waste by this isolate appears to be possible for the production of reducing sugars as a valuable resource. This is the first study to directly demonstrate the ability of M. oxydans to degrade both alginate and laminarin.
    Journal of Environmental Management 09/2013; 130C:153-159. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to evaluate the association between promoter polymorphism of the clusters of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal inflammation in a healthy Korean population. The study population consisted of 267 healthy subjects who visited our hospital for free nationwide gastric cancer screening. Promoter polymorphism at -260 C/T of the CD14 gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The severity of gastric mucosal inflammation was estimated by a gastritis score based on the sum of the values of the grade and activity of the gastritis. Expression of soluble CD14 (sCD14) was assessed by quantitative sandwich ELISA. CD14 polymorphism was not associated with H. pylori infection. There were no significant differences in gastritis scores among the genotype subgroups, but subjects carrying the CD14 -260 CT/TT genotype had significantly higher sCD14 levels than those carrying the CC genotype. Subjects with the 260-T allele of the CD14 gene and H. pylori infection had significantly higher sCD14 levels than those with the same genotype but without infection. In individuals with the T allele at the -260 site of the promoter region of the CD14 gene, H. pylori infection accentuates gastric mucosal inflammation.
    Gut and liver 05/2013; 7(3):317-322. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The development of critical thinking dispositions has become an important issue in nursing education in Korea. Nursing colleges in Korea have developed teaching strategies and curricula that focus on developing critical thinking dispositions. It is an imperative step that evaluates the changing pattern and development of students' critical thinking dispositions. OBJECTIVES: This study identified critical thinking dispositions of Korean nursing students according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1074 students in four colleges who completed the self-reported Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analyses were performed. RESULTS: The critical thinking disposition score increased according to academic level until junior year, after which it decreased in the senior year. Nursing students who were satisfied with nursing reported higher levels of critical thinking than those who were not satisfied or who responded neutrally. CONCLUSIONS: The critical thinking scores of nursing students not satisfied with nursing dropped greatly in the senior year. These results suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching methods for seniors and students who have a lower level of satisfaction with nursing to increase their critical thinking dispositions.
    Nurse education today 04/2013; · 0.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Varying geometry and layout of microposts on a cell culture substrate provides an effective technique for applying mechanical stimuli to living cells. In the current study, the optimal geometry and arrangement of microposts on the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces to enhance cell growth behavior were investigated. Human bone marrow derived connective tissue progenitor cells were cultured on PDMS substrates comprising unpatterned smooth surfaces and cylindrical post microtextures that were 10 μm in diameter, 4 heights (5, 10, 20 and 40 μm) and 3 pitches (10, 20, and 40 μm). With the same 10 μm diameter, post heights ranging from 5 to 40 μm resulted in a more than 535 fold range of rigidity from 0.011 nNμm(-1) (40 μm height) up to 5.888 nNμm(-1)(5 μm height). Even though shorter microposts result in higher effective stiffness, decreasing post heights below the optimal value, 5 μm height micropost in this study decreased cell growth behavior. The maximum number of cells was observed on the post microtextures with 20 μm height and 10 μm inter-space, which exhibited a 675 % increase relative to the smooth surfaces. The cells on all heights of post microtextures with 10 μm and 20 μm inter-spaces exhibited highly contoured morphology. Elucidating the cellular response to various external geometry cues enables us to better predict and control cellular behavior. In addition, knowledge of cell response to surface stimuli could lead to the incorporation of specific size post microtextures into surfaces of implants to achieve surface-textured scaffold materials for tissue engineering applications.
    Biomedical Microdevices 02/2013; · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is characterized by a gain in fat mass. Unlike subcutaneous fat, visceral fat is associated with metabolic syndrome and survival. We prospectively examined whether visceral or subcutaneous fat could predict outcome in patients undergoing PD. METHODS: We studied 117 new patients (57 men) undergoing PD between February 2006 and November 2011. Baseline body composition was measured on computed tomograms. Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral fat area exceeding 100 cm2, and subcutaneous obesity, as a subcutaneous fat area exceeding 130 cm2. RESULTS: Among the 117 patients, 37 and 29 were diagnosed with visceral and subcutaneous obesity respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous obesity were both present in 21 patients. In the study population, the 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 94% and 59%. The rates of peritonitis and exit-infection were 0.31 and 0.14 episodes per patient-year. Mortality was greater in patients with visceral obesity than in those without visceral obesity (p = 0.005). Visceral obesity had no influence on peritonitis and exit-infection rates. Subcutaneous obesity was associated neither with survival nor with peritonitis or exit-site infection. In a multivariate Cox regression analysis, visceral obesity was not a risk factor for poor outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Increased visceral fat at PD initiation is not an independent predictor of poor survival. Any impact of visceral or subcutaneous fat mass on outcomes in patients undergoing PD would be better defined by larger, long-term studies.
    Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis. 02/2013;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
315.44 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Chonbuk National University
      • Department of Environmental Engineering
      Tsiuentcheou, North Jeolla, South Korea
  • 2013–2014
    • Pukyong National University
      • Department of Biotechnology
      Tsau-liang-hai, Busan, South Korea
    • Hallym University
      • Department of Nursing
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Saint Vincent Hospital
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • CSU Mentor
      Long Beach, California, United States
  • 2010–2014
    • Eulji University
      • College of Nursing
      Sŏngnam, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • • School of Life Science
      • • Department of Food Science and Nutrition
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
  • 2007–2014
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Department of Dermatology
      • • Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004–2014
    • Chonnam National University
      • • School of Dentistry
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
  • 2010–2013
    • Korea Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012
    • Catholic University of Daegu
      • Department of Food Science and Nutrition
      Kayō, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2010–2012
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • Department of Chemistry
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2006–2012
    • Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology KRIBB
      • • Omics and Integration Research Center
      • • Laboratory of Metabolic Engineering
      Anzan, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
    • Texas A&M University
      • • Department of Computer Science and Engineering
      • • Department of Civil Engineering
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2000–2012
    • Seoul National University
      • • School of Chemical and Biological Engineering
      • • College of Pharmacy
      • • Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2011
    • Pohang University of Science and Technology
      • Pohang Accelerator Laboratory
      Andong, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
    • Chung-Ang University
      • College of Natural Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ajou University
      • Graduate School of Public Health
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • University of Cincinnati
      • College of Nursing
      Cincinnati, OH, United States
  • 2006–2011
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      • • Institute of Basic Science
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008–2009
    • Lerner Research Institute
      Cleveland, Ohio, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Yonsei University
      • Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Inha University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002–2006
    • Korea Food and Drug Administration
      Seishō-gun, North Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2001
    • Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology
      Daiden, Daejeon, South Korea