C. N. A. Willmer

Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (193)884.14 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We provide a catalog of 391 mid-infrared-selected (MIR, 24$\mu$m) broad-emission-line (BEL, type 1) quasars in the 22 deg$^2$ SWIRE Lockman Hole field. This quasar sample is selected in the MIR from Spitzer MIPS with $S_{\rm 24} > 400\mu$Jy, jointly with an optical magnitude limit of r (AB) $<$ 22.5 for broad line identification. The catalog is based on MMT and SDSS spectroscopy to select BEL quasars, extends the SDSS coverage to fainter magnitudes and lower redshifts, and recovers a more complete quasar population. The MIR-selected quasar sample peaks at $z\sim$1.4, and recovers a significant and constant (20\%) fraction of extended objects with SDSS photometry across magnitudes, which was not included in the SDSS quasar survey dominated by point sources. This sample also recovers a significant population of $z < 3$ quasars at $i > 19.1$. We then investigate the continuum luminosity and line profiles of these MIR quasars, and estimate their virial black hole masses and the Eddington ratios. The SMBH mass shows evidence of downsizing, though the Eddington ratios remain constant at $1 < z < 4$. Compared to point sources in the same redshift range, extended sources at $z < 1$ show systematically lower Eddington ratios. The catalog and spectra are publicly available online.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 791(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using data from the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) we statistically detect the extended X-ray emission in the interstellar medium (ISM) in both active and normal galaxies at 0.3 < z < 1.3. For both active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxy and normal galaxy samples that are matched in restframe color, luminosity, and redshift distribution, we detect excess X-ray emission at scales of 40--60 kpc at (1--4 \sigma) significance. We study the effect of feedback from AGN on the diffuse ISM gas by comparing the stacked X-ray surface brightness profiles of active and normal galaxies. In accordance with theoretical studies we detect a slight deficit (< 1.5 \sigma) of X-ray photons when averaged over a scale of 0--30 kpc in the profile of AGN host galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.7. The equivalent flux deficit is (1.25 +/- 0.75)x 10^{-19} ergs/s/cm^{-2}. When averaged over a scale of 30--60 kpc, beyond the PSF scales of our AGN sources, we observe a (~ 2 \sigma) photon excess in the profile of the AGN host galaxies with an equivalent flux excess of (1.1 +/- 0.5)x 10^{-19}ergs/s/cm^{-2}. Such deficits and excess in flux at similar scales have been theoretically predicted and could be a potential signature of AGN-ISM interaction. We propose that AGN that are intrinsically under luminous in X-rays, but have equivalent bolometric luminosities to our sources will be the ideal sample to study more robustly the effect of AGN feedback on the diffuse ISM gas.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Most of the targets for the spectroscopic observation were selected from the optical to mid-infrared band-merged photometry catalog over the NEP-Wide field (Kim et al. 2012, Cat. J/A+A/548/A29). The observations, with the MMT/Hectospec spectrograph, were executed in queue mode: a total of five configurations were observed between 2008 May and November, with each configuration covering an area within a 1deg diameter circle. The observations used the 270 line/mm grating covering ~3700Å to ~8500Å, with a spectral resolution of about 6.2Å. We obtained optical spectra using the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on WIYN, the 3.5m telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, on the nights of 2008 June 27-30. The covered wavelength range is 4500-9000Å, yet the spectrum quality is very poor beyond 8000Å. We used 98 red fibers feeding the bench spectrograph with a 316 lines/mm grating, yielding a spectral resolution of 5.7Å. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectra of 1796 sources selected in the AKARI North Ecliptic Pole Wide Survey field, obtained with MMT/Hectospec and WIYN/Hydra, for which we measure 1645 redshifts. We complemented the generic flux-limited spectroscopic surveys at 11 μm and 15 μm, with additional sources selected based on the MIR and optical colors. In MMT/Hectospec observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% for objects with R < 21.5 mag. On the other hand, in WIYN/Hydra observations, the redshift identification rates are ~80% at R magnitudes brighter than 19 mag. The observed spectra were classified through the visual inspection or from the line diagnostics. We identified 1128 star-forming or absorption-line-dominated galaxies, 198 Type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 8 Type-2 AGNs, 121 Galactic stars, and 190 spectra in unknown category due to low signal-to-noise ratio. The spectra were flux-calibrated but to an accuracy of 0.1-0.18 dex for most of the targets and worse for the remainder. We derive star formation rates (SFRs) from the mid-infrared fluxes or from the optical emission lines, showing that our sample spans an SFR range of 0.1 to a few hundred M ☉ yr–1. We find that the extinction inferred from the difference between the IR and optical SFR increases as the IR luminosity increases but with a large scatter.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 08/2013; 207(2):37. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Arizona CDFS Environment Survey (ACES), a recently completed spectroscopic redshift survey of the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS) conducted using the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Magellan-Baade telescope. In total, the survey targeted 7277 unique sources down to a limiting magnitude of RAB=24.1, yielding 5080 secure redshifts across the ~30'x30' extended CDFS region. The ACES data set delivers a significant increase to both the spatial coverage and the sampling density of the spectroscopic observations in the field. Combined with previously published spectroscopic redshifts, ACES now creates a highly complete survey of the galaxy population at R<23, enabling the local galaxy density (or environment) on relatively small scales (~1Mpc) to be measured at z<1 in one of the most heavily studied and data-rich fields in the sky. Here, we describe the motivation, design and implementation of the survey and present a preliminary redshift and environment catalogue. In addition, we utilize the ACES spectroscopic redshift catalogue to assess the quality of photometric redshifts from both the COMBO-17 and Multiwavelength Survey by Yale-Chile imaging surveys of the CDFS. (3 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a search for extended X-ray sources and their corresponding galaxy groups from 800-ks Chandra coverage of the All-wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS). This yields one of the largest X-ray selected galaxy group catalogs from a blind survey to date. The red-sequence technique and spectroscopic redshifts allow us to identify 100$%$ of reliable sources, leading to a catalog of 52 galaxy groups. The groups span the redshift range $z\sim0.066-1.544$ and virial mass range $M_{200}\sim1.34\times 10^{13}-1.33\times 10^{14}M_\odot$. For the 49 extended sources which lie within DEEP2 and DEEP3 Galaxy Redshift Survey coverage, we identify spectroscopic counterparts and determine velocity dispersions. We select member galaxies by applying different cuts along the line of sight or in projected spatial coordinates. A constant cut along the line of sight can cause a large scatter in scaling relations in low-mass or high-mass systems depending on the size of cut. A velocity dispersion based virial radius can more overestimate velocity dispersion in comparison to X-ray based virial radius for low mass systems. There is no significant difference between these two radial cuts for more massive systems. Independent of radial cut, overestimation of velocity dispersion can be created in case of existence of significant substructure and also compactness in X-ray emission which mostly occur in low mass systems. We also present a comparison between X-ray galaxy groups and optical galaxy groups detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay method (VDM) for DEEP2 data in this field.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 765(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a multi-wavelength study of a 3.6 $\mu$m-selected galaxy sample in the Extended Groth strip. The sample is complete for galaxies with stellar mass $>10^{9.5}$ \Msun and redshift $0.4<z<1.2$. In this redshift range, the IRAC 3.6 $\mu$m band measures the rest-frame near-infrared band, permitting nearly unbiased selection with respect to both quiescent and star-forming galaxies. The numerous spectroscopic redshifts available in the EGS are used to train an Artificial Neural Network to estimate photometric redshifts. The distribution of photometric redshift errors is Gaussian with standard deviation ${\sim}0.025(1+z)$, and the fraction of redshift failures (${>}3\sigma$ errors) is about 3.5%. A new method of validation based on pair statistics confirms the estimate of standard deviation even for galaxies lacking spectroscopic redshifts. Basic galaxy properties measured include rest-frame $U-B$ colors, $B$- and $K$-band absolute magnitudes, and stellar masses. We divide the sample into quiescent and star-forming galaxies according to their rest-frame $U-B$ colors and 24 to 3.6 \micron\ flux density ratios and derive rest $K$-band luminosity functions and stellar mass functions for quiescent, star forming, and all galaxies. The results show that massive, quiescent galaxies were in place by $z\approx1$, but lower mass galaxies generally ceased their star formation at later epochs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 766(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We characterize the incidence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is 0.3 < z < 1 star-forming galaxies by applying multi-wavelength AGN diagnostics (X-ray, optical, mid-infrared, radio) to a sample of galaxies selected at 70-micron from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy survey (FIDEL). Given the depth of FIDEL, we detect "normal" galaxies on the specific star formation rate (sSFR) sequence as well as starbursting systems with elevated sSFR. We find an overall high occurrence of AGN of 37+/-3%, more than twice as high as in previous studies of galaxies with comparable infrared luminosities and redshifts but in good agreement with the AGN fraction of nearby (0.05 < z < 0.1) galaxies of similar infrared luminosities. The more complete census of AGNs comes from using the recently developed Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagram. This optical diagnostic is also sensitive to X-ray weak AGNs and X-ray absorbed AGNs, and reveals that absorbed active nuclei reside almost exclusively in infrared-luminous hosts. The fraction of galaxies hosting an AGN appears to be independent of sSFR and remains elevated both on the sSFR sequence and above. In contrast, the fraction of AGNs that are X-ray absorbed increases substantially with increasing sSFR, possibly due to an increased gas fraction and/or gas density in the host galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 764(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Measuring the two-point correlation function of the galaxies in the Universe gives access to the underlying dark matter distribution, which is related to cosmological parameters and to the physics of the primordial Universe. The estimation of the correlation function for current galaxy surveys makes use of the Landy-Szalay estimator, which is supposed to reach minimal variance. This is only true, however, for a vanishing correlation function. We study the Landy-Szalay estimator when these conditions are not fulfilled and propose a new estimator that provides the smallest variance for a given survey geometry. Our estimator is a linear combination of ratios between paircounts of data and/or random catalogues (DD, RR and DR). The optimal combination for a given geometry is determined by using lognormal mock catalogues. The resulting estimator is biased in a model-dependent way, but we propose a simple iterative procedure for obtaining an unbiased model- independent estimator.Our method can be easily applied to any dataset and requires few extra mock catalogues compared to the standard Landy-Szalay analysis. Using various sets of simulated data (lognormal, second-order LPT and N-Body), we obtain a 20-25% gain on the error bars on the two-point correlation function for the SDSS geometry and $\Lambda$CDM correlation function. When applied to SDSS data (DR7 and DR9), we achieve a similar gain on the correlation functions, which translates into a 10-15% improvement over the estimation of the densities of matter $\Omega_m$ and dark energy $\Omega_\Lambda$ in an open $\Lambda$CDM model. The constraints derived from DR7 data with our estimator are similar to those obtained with the DR9 data and the Landy-Szalay estimator, which covers a volume twice as large and has a density that is three times higher.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2012; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The shutdown of star formation in galaxies is generally termed `quenching'. Although quenching may occur through a variety of processes, the exact mechanism(s) that is in fact responsible for quenching is still in question. This paper addresses quenching by searching for traces of possible quenching processes through their effects on galaxy structural parameters such as surface stellar mass density and Sersic index (n). We analyze the rest-frame U-B color correlations versus these structural parameters using a sample of galaxies in the redshift range 0.5< z<0.8 from the DEEP2/AEGIS survey. We find that Sersic index (n) has the smallest overlap region among all tested parameters and resembles a step-function with a threshold value of n=2.3. There exists, however, a significant population of outliers with blue colors yet high n values that seem to contradict this behavior. We hypothesize that their Sersic values may be distorted by bursts of star formation, AGNs, and/or poor fits, leading us to consider central surface stellar mass density as an alternative to Sersic index. Not only does it correct the outliers, it also forms a tight relationship with color, suggesting that the innermost structure of galaxies is most physically linked with quenching. Furthermore, at z~0.65, the majority of the blue cloud galaxies cannot simply fade onto the red sequence since their GIM2D bulge masses are only half as large on average as the bulge masses of similar red sequence galaxies, thus demonstrating that stellar mass must absolutely increase at the centers of galaxies as they quench. We discuss a two-stage model for quenching in which galaxy star formation rates are controlled by their dark halos while they are still in the blue cloud and a second quenching process sets in later, associated with the central stellar mass build-up.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 760(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present evidence from a sample of 544 galaxies from the DEEP2 Survey for evolution of the internal kinematics of blue galaxies with stellar masses ranging 8.0 < log M* (M_Sun) < 10.7 over 0.2<z<1.2. DEEP2 provides galaxy spectra and Hubble imaging from which we measure emission-line kinematics and galaxy inclinations, respectively. Our large sample allows us to overcome scatter intrinsic to galaxy properties in order to examine trends in kinematics. We find that at a fixed stellar mass galaxies systematically decrease in disordered motions and increase in rotation velocity and potential well depth with time. Massive galaxies are the most well-ordered at all times examined, with higher rotation velocities and less disordered motions than less massive galaxies. We quantify disordered motions with an integrated gas velocity dispersion corrected for beam smearing (sigma_g). It is unlike the typical pressure-supported velocity dispersion measured for early type galaxies and galaxy bulges. Because both seeing and the width of our spectral slits comprise a significant fraction of the galaxy sizes, sigma_g integrates over velocity gradients on large scales which can correspond to non-ordered gas kinematics. We compile measurements of galaxy kinematics from the literature over 1.2<z<3.8 and do not find any trends with redshift, likely for the most part because these datasets are biased toward the most highly star-forming systems. In summary, over the last ~8 billion years since z=1.2, blue galaxies evolve from disordered to ordered systems as they settle to become the rotation-dominated disk galaxies observed in the Universe today, with the most massive galaxies being the most evolved at any time.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 758(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report Herschel SPIRE (250, 350, and 500 micron) detections of 32 quasars with redshifts 0.5 < z < 3.6 from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. These sources are from a MIPS 24 micron flux-limited sample of 326 quasars in the Lockman Hole Field. The extensive multi-wavelength data available in the field permit construction of the rest-frame Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs)from ultraviolet to the mid-infrared for all sources, and to the far-infrared (FIR) for the 32 objects. Most quasars with Herschel FIR detections show dust temperatures in the range of 25K to 60K, with a mean of 34K. The FIR luminosities range from 10^{11.3} to 10^{13.5} Lsun, qualifying most of their hosts as ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies. These FIR-detected quasars may represent a dust-rich population, but with lower redshifts and fainter luminosities than quasars observed at ~ 1 mm. However, their FIR properties cannot be predicted from shorter wavelengths (0.3--20 micron, rest-frame), and the bolometric luminosities derived using the 5100 A index may be underestimated for these FIR-detected quasars. Regardless of redshift, we observed a decline in the relative strength of FIR luminosities for quasars with higher near-infrared luminosities.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 753(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We discuss the structural and morphological properties of galaxies in a z = 1.62 proto-cluster using near-IR imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 data of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). The cluster galaxies exhibit a clear color-morphology relation: galaxies with colors of quiescent stellar populations generally have morphologies consistent with spheroids, and galaxies with colors consistent with ongoing star formation have disk-like and irregular morphologies. The size distribution of the quiescent cluster galaxies shows a deficit of compact ( 1 kpc), massive galaxies compared to CANDELS field galaxies at z = 1.6. As a result, the cluster quiescent galaxies have larger average effective sizes compared to field galaxies at fixed mass at greater than 90% significance. Combined with data from the literature, the size evolution of quiescent cluster galaxies is relatively slow from z 1.6 to the present, growing as (1 + z)–0.6 ± 0.1. If this result is generalizable, then it implies that physical processes associated with the denser cluster region seem to have caused accelerated size growth in quiescent galaxies prior to z = 1.6 and slower subsequent growth at z < 1.6 compared to galaxies in the lower density field. The quiescent cluster galaxies at z = 1.6 have higher ellipticities compared to lower redshift samples at fixed mass, and their surface-brightness profiles suggest that they contain extended stellar disks. We argue that the cluster galaxies require dissipationless (i.e., gas-poor or "dry") mergers to reorganize the disk material and to match the relations for ellipticity, stellar mass, size, and color of early-type galaxies in z < 1 clusters.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 750(2):93. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a public catalog of galaxy groups constructed from the spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the fourth data release from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, including the Extended Groth Strip (EGS). The catalog contains 1165 groups with two or more members in the EGS over the redshift range 0<z<1.5 and 1295 groups at z>0.6 in the rest of DEEP2. 25% of EGS galaxies and 14% of high-z DEEP2 galaxies are assigned to galaxy groups. The groups were detected using the Voronoi-Delaunay Method, after it has been optimized on mock DEEP2 catalogs following similar methods to those employed in Gerke et al. (2005). In the optimization effort, we have taken particular care to ensure that the mock catalogs resemble the data as closely as possible, and we have fine-tuned our methods separately on mocks constructed for the EGS and the rest of DEEP2. We have also probed the effect of the assumed cosmology on our inferred group-finding efficiency by performing our optimization on three different mock catalogs with different background cosmologies, finding large differences in the group-finding success we can achieve for these different mocks. Using the mock catalog whose background cosmology is most consistent with current data, we estimate that the DEEP2 group catalog is 72% complete and 61% pure (74% and 67% for the EGS) and that the group-finder correctly classifies 70% of galaxies that truly belong to groups, with an additional 46% of interloper galaxies contaminating the catalog (66% and 43% for the EGS). (Abridged)
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 751(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the red sequence in a cluster of galaxies at z=1.62 and follow its evolution over the intervening 9.5 Gyr to the present day. Using deep YJKs imaging with the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT we identify a tight red sequence and construct its rest-frame i-band luminosity function (LF). There is a marked deficit of faint red galaxies in the cluster that causes a turnover in the LF. We compare the red sequence LF to that for clusters at z<0.8 correcting the luminosities for passive evolution. The shape of the cluster red sequence LF does not evolve between z=1.62 and z=0.6 but at z<0.6 the faint population builds up significantly. Meanwhile, between z=1.62 to 0.6 the inferred total light on the red sequence grows by a factor of about 2 and the bright end of the LF becomes more populated. We construct a simple model for red sequence evolution that grows the red sequence in total luminosity and matches the constant LF shape at z>0.6. In this model the cluster accretes blue galaxies from the field that are then quenched and subsequently allowed to merge. We find that 3--4 mergers among cluster galaxies during the 4 Gyr between z=1.62 and z=0.6 matches the observed luminosity function evolution between the two redshifts. The inferred merger rate is consistent with other studies of this cluster. Our result supports the picture that galaxy merging during the major growth phase of massive clusters is an important process in shaping the red sequence population at all luminosities.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2012; 755(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design and data sample from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, the densest and largest precision-redshift survey of galaxies at z ~ 1 completed to date. The survey has conducted a comprehensive census of massive galaxies, their properties, environments, and large-scale structure down to absolute magnitude M_B = -20 at z ~ 1 via ~90 nights of observation on the DEIMOS spectrograph at Keck Observatory. DEEP2 covers an area of 2.8 deg^2 divided into four separate fields, observed to a limiting apparent magnitude of R_AB=24.1. Objects with z < 0.7 are rejected based on BRI photometry in three of the four DEEP2 fields, allowing galaxies with z > 0.7 to be targeted ~2.5 times more efficiently than in a purely magnitude-limited sample. Approximately sixty percent of eligible targets are chosen for spectroscopy, yielding nearly 53,000 spectra and more than 38,000 reliable redshift measurements. Most of the targets which fail to yield secure redshifts are blue objects that lie beyond z ~ 1.45. The DEIMOS 1200-line/mm grating used for the survey delivers high spectral resolution (R~6000), accurate and secure redshifts, and unique internal kinematic information. Extensive ancillary data are available in the DEEP2 fields, particularly in the Extended Groth Strip, which has evolved into one of the richest multiwavelength regions on the sky. DEEP2 surpasses other deep precision-redshift surveys at z ~ 1 in terms of galaxy numbers, redshift accuracy, sample number density, and amount of spectral information. We also provide an overview of the scientific highlights of the DEEP2 survey thus far. This paper is intended as a handbook for users of the DEEP2 Data Release 4, which includes all DEEP2 spectra and redshifts, as well as for the publicly-available DEEP2 DEIMOS data reduction pipelines. [Abridged]
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2012; 208(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), a photometric and morphological database using publicly available data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. The goal of the ACS-GC database is to provide a large statistical sample of galaxies with reliable structural and distance measurements to probe the evolution of galaxies over a wide range of look-back times. The ACS-GC includes approximately 470,000 astronomical sources (stars + galaxies) derived from the AEGIS, COSMOS, GEMS, and GOODS surveys. Galapagos was used to construct photometric (SExtractor) and morphological (Galfit) catalogs. The analysis assumes a single S\'ersic model for each object to derive quantitative structural parameters. We include publicly available redshifts from the DEEP2, COMBO-17, TKRS, PEARS, ACES, CFHTLS,and zCOSMOS surveys to supply redshifts (spectroscopic and photometric) for a considerable fraction (~74%) of the imaging sample. The ACS-GC includes color postage stamps, Galfit residual images, and photometry, structural parameters, and redshifts combined into a single catalog.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2012; 200(1). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dependence of star-formation quenching on galaxy mass and environment, in the SDSS (z~0.1) and the AEGIS (z~1). It is crucial that we define quenching by low star-formation rate rather than by red colour, given that one third of the red galaxies are star forming. We address stellar mass M*, halo mass Mh, density over the nearest N neighbours deltaN, and distance to the halo centre D. The fraction of quenched galaxies appears more strongly correlated with Mh at fixed M* than with M* at fixed Mh, while for satellites quenching also depends on D. We present the M*-Mh relation for centrals at z~1. At z~1, the dependence of quenching on M* at fixed Mh is somewhat more pronounced than at z~0, but the quenched fraction is low (10%) and the haloes are less massive. For satellites, M*-dependent quenching is noticeable at high D, suggesting a quenching dependence on sub-halo mass for recently captured satellites. At small D, where satellites likely fell in more than a few Gyr ago, quenching strongly depends on Mh, and not on M*. The Mh-dependence of quenching is consistent with theoretical wisdom where virial shock heating in massive haloes shuts down accretion and triggers ram-pressure stripping, causing quenching. The interpretation of deltaN is complicated by the fact that it depends on the number of observed group members compared to N, motivating the use of D as a better measure of local environment.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2012; 428(4). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the mid-infrared (MIR) properties of galaxies within a supercluster in the north ecliptic pole region at z ~ 0.087 observed with the AKARI satellite. We use data from the AKARI NEP-Wide (5.4 deg2) IR survey and the CLusters of galaxies EVoLution studies (CLEVL) mission program. We show that near-IR (3 μm)-mid-IR (11 μm) color can be used as an indicator of the specific star formation rate and the presence of intermediate-age stellar populations. From the MIR observations, we find that red-sequence galaxies consist not only of passively evolving red early-type galaxies, but also of (1) "weak-SFGs" (disk-dominated star-forming galaxies that have star formation rates lower by ~4 × than blue-cloud galaxies) and (2) "intermediate-MXGs" (bulge-dominated galaxies showing stronger MIR dust emission than normal red early-type galaxies). These two populations can be a set of transition galaxies from blue, star-forming, late-type galaxies evolving into red, quiescent, early-type ones. We find that the weak-SFGs are predominant at intermediate masses (1010 M ☉ < M * < 1010.5 M ☉) and are typically found in local densities similar to the outskirts of galaxy clusters. As much as 40% of the supercluster member galaxies in this mass range can be classified as weak-SFGs, but their proportion decreases to <10% at larger masses (M * > 1010.5 M ☉) at any galaxy density. The fraction of the intermediate-MXG among red-sequence galaxies at 1010 M ☉ < M * < 1011 M ☉ also decreases as the density and mass increase. In particular, ~42% of the red-sequence galaxies with early-type morphologies are classified as intermediate-MXGs at intermediate densities. These results suggest that the star formation activity is strongly dependent on the stellar mass, but that the morphological transformation is mainly controlled by the environment.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 745(2):181. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first active galactic nuclei (AGN) census in a sample of 61 galaxies selected at 70um, a wavelength which should strongly favour the detection of star-forming systems. For the purpose of this study, we take advantage of deep Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (3.6-160um) data, as well as optical spectroscopy and photometry from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe 2 (DEEP 2) survey for the Extended Groth Strip (EGS) field, as part of the All-Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey. We investigate spectral line diagnostics ([OIII]/H β and [NeIII]/[OII] ratios, Hδ Balmer absorption line equivalent widths and the strength of the 4000Å break), X-ray luminosities and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 01/2012;

Publication Stats

4k Citations
884.14 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2013
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2012
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Pittsburgh
      • Physics and Astronomy
      Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
    • National Optical Astronomy Observatory
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2007–2012
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      College Park, MD, United States
  • 2011
    • Texas A&M University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      College Station, Texas, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, CA, United States
  • 2006
    • Columbia University
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2003
    • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • 1997
    • Observatório Nacional
      Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil