[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A monolithically integrated 160-GHz transmitter and receiver chipset with in-phase/quadrature baseband inputs and outputs and on-chip local oscillator (LO) generation has been implemented in a 0.25- μm silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. The chipset features a three-stage differential power amplifier, a low-noise amplifier, up- and down-conversion subharmonic quadrature mixers, and an 80-GHz voltage-controlled oscillator equipped with a 1/16 frequency prescaler for frequency locking by an external phase-locked loop. To investigate the behavior of the Gilbert-cell-based subharmonic mixer operated close to fmax , the correlation between LO phases and conversion gain is studied. The conclusion suggests that the maximum conversion gain can be obtained with certain LO phases at millimeter-wave frequencies. Over the 150-168-GHz bandwidth, the transmitter delivers an output power of more than 8 dBm with a maximum 10.6-dBm output power at 156 GHz. The receiver provides a noise figure lower than 9 dB and more than 25 dB of conversion gain at 150-162 GHz, including the losses of an auxiliary input balun. The transmitter and receiver chips consume 610 and 490 mW, respectively.
IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 10/2012; 60(10):3286-3299. · 2.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents four signal-generation chips that comprise a fundamental-wave voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO), an output buffer, and a divide-by-32 prescaler. The VCOs with contiguous tuning ranges cover almost the full waveguide band from 110 to 170GHz (D-band). The fastest VCO operates at up to 181GHz in combination with the prescaler. The VCOs run on 1.8V, draw ~35 mA, and achieve a single-sideband phase noise ranging from -92 to -82 dBc/Hz at 1MHz offset frequency. Power consumption of the high-speed frequency divider in the first prescaler stage is 70mW. The circuits are based on an Infineon SiGe technology, which features HBTs with an fmax of 340 GHz.
Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium (RFIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the performance of two differential power amplifiers that were designed for automotive radar applications at 79 GHz and fabricated in two different SiGe:C processes. One process is Infineon's high-speed SiGe:C commercial process B7HF200, and the other one is an advanced generation derived from it. They provide heterojunction bipolar transistors with maximum oscillation frequencies of 250 and 380 GHz, respectively. The performance of the two amplifiers is compared in terms of linearity, maximum saturated output power, power gain, power added efficiency and temperature stability.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a multi-channel radar sensor operating at 140 GHz. The sensor employs fundamental-wave SiGe-based chips that feature HBTs with 340-GHz ƒmax. A separate voltage-controlled oscillator chip provides the LO signal with frequencies from 136 to 150GHz for four cascaded transceiver chips. The saturated transceiver output power is approximately 4 dBm, the maximum receiver gain is 19.5 dB, and the minimum double-sideband noise figure is 13.5 dB. The equivalent isotropically radiated power of a single channel is 5 dBm. The sensor was field-tested with frequency-modulated continuous-wave chirps from 140 to 145 GHz. Targets were resolved in range and angle by means of digital beamforming.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, we present an extended version of a dc method to experimentally evaluate the base resistance RB of bipolar transistors as a function of the biasing conditions. In particular, the approach allows accurately monitoring the RB increase with collector voltage beyond the open-base breakdown voltage BVCEO up to the pinch-in occurrence. The method is successfully applied to state-of-the-art HF SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs).
IEEE Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM); 10/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes the technological developments carried out on SiGe HBTs in the frame of the European project DOTFIVE. The architectures of the different partners and their performances are presented and discussed showing that the project objectives have been met.
Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2011 IEEE; 01/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents current-mode logic (CML) and emitter-coupled logic (ECL) static frequency dividers in a SiGe:C bipolar process with a cut-off frequency f<sub>T</sub> of 230 GHz. Speed/power trade-offs are investigated by comparing three different circuit versions. Each contains two master-slave flipflops to achieve a divide ratio of four. The first version uses current-mode logic flip-flops and achieves a maximum operating frequency of 87 GHz at a power consumption of only 14 mW in the first flip-flop. Two versions use emitter-coupled logic with one and two emitter follower stages in the feedback path, respectively. The low-power divider with one emitter follower operates up to 105 GHz while the second circuit achieves a maximum operating frequency of 133 GHz. The power consumption in the first flip-flop is 51 mW and 210 mW, respectively. The circuits use standard flip-flops without speed-enhancement techniques, such as split load resistors, inductive peaking, or asymmetric latches.
Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting (BCTM), 2010 IEEE; 11/2010
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a status of the HICUM model development activities (within the DOTFIVE project) for future technologies. Physics based scalable model libraries are realized for two of the most advanced SiGe:C HBT processes currently available. The parameter extraction methodology is described via two meaningful examples. Measurement and simulation comparisons are shown.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a broadband differential current re-use low-noise amplifier with 30% fractional bandwidth at a center frequency of 66 GHz. The circuit has been manufactured in an advanced SiGe:C HBT technology with ft/fmax = 220/285 GHz. The amplifier is unconditionally stable and achieves a maximum differential gain of 19.7 dB while operating over a 3-dB bandwidth of 22 GHz. At the upper corner frequency of 77 GHz the amplifier exhibits a noise figure of 5.8 dB and linearity measurements show a 1-dB output referred compression point above +3 dBm. The circuit consumes 40 mW from a 3.3 V supply and occupies a chip area of 728 × 728 μm2 including bond pads.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European project DOTFIVE addresses evolutionary scaling of self-aligned selective epitaxial base SiGe:C HBTs, investigates novel SiGe:C HBT architectures, and develops novel process modules to push SiGe BiCMOS towards 500 GHz F<sub>max</sub> and 2.5 ps gate delay. In this paper, scaling issues of SiGe:C HBT technology will be addressed. The limitations of the different commonly used architectures will be described, and measures taken in the project to overcome these limitations will be summarized. Initial results indicate that the objectives of the project can be reached.
Bipolar/BiCMOS Circuits and Technology Meeting, 2009. BCTM 2009. IEEE; 11/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a dynamic frequency divider operating up to a maximum frequency of 168 GHz. The circuit is based on a first regenerative divider stage which is followed by a static divider and an output buffer. With a supply voltage of 4 V the circuit, including both divider stages and the output buffer, consumes 320 mW (105 mW in the regenerative divider) and operates up to a maximum frequency of 168 GHz. With a reduced supply voltage of 3.3 V a maximum operating frequency of 156 GHz is achieved at a power consumption of only 205 mW. The circuit is manufactured in a SiGe:C bipolar process with a cut-off frequency fT of 215 GHz.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The European project DOTFIVE is a 3-year project targeting a 0.5 THz SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor for the future development of communication, imaging and radar applications. The project proceeds along two paths. It explores further evolutionary scaling of self-aligned selective epitaxial base HBTs, and advanced process modules and disruptive novel device architectures. In this paper, the scaling perspectives and limitations of conventional device architectures will be reviewed. The advanced process modules and novel device architectures will be proposed.
IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, CICC 2009, San Jose, California, USA, 13-16 September, 2009, Proceedings; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A fully integrated 4-channel automotive radar transceiver chip, integrated in a 200-GHz SiGe:C production technology, is presented. With a typical transmit power of 2 x +7 dBm at the antenna ports and all functions active, the chip draws a current of about 600 mA from a single 5.5 V supply. The design permits FMCW operation in the 76 to 77 GHz band at chip-backside temperatures from -40degC to +125degC.
Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits Symposium, 2008. RFIC 2008. IEEE; 01/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A VCO based 19 GHz downconverter is presented, which is fully integrated in a 200 GHz f<sub>T</sub> SiGe production technology. The circuits, a voltage controlled oscillator ( VCO ), a buffer, a gilbert cell mixer and a prescaler have been designed fully differentially. The VCO is optimized for low phase noise. The oscillator operates at typically 19 GHz and is used to downconvert the by-4-divided signal of a 77 GHz fundamental oscillator. The conversion gain of the mixer is about -7 dB and the input referred 1 dB compression point is about +1 dBm. Phase noise of the VCO is -115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and power dissipation is 750 mW operating at a +5.5 V supply.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A VCO based 19 GHz downconverter is presented, which is fully integrated in a 200 GHz f<sub>T</sub> SiGe production technology. The circuits, a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO), a buffer, a gilbert cell mixer and a prescaler have been designed fully differentially. The VCO is optimized for low phase noise. The oscillator operates at typically 19 GHz and is used to downconvert the by-4-divided signal of a 77 GHz fundamental oscillator. The conversion gain of the mixer is about -7 dB and the input referred 1 dB compression point is about +1 dBm. Phase noise of the VCO is -115 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset and power dissipation is 750 mW operating at a +5.5 V supply.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and characterization of a lumped broadband amplifier in SiGe bipolar technology. The measured differential gain is 20 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth of more than 84 GHz, which is the highest bandwidth reported so far for broadband SiGe bipolar amplifiers. The resulting gain bandwidth product (GBW) is more than 840 GHz. The amplifier consumes a power of 990 mW at a supply of -5.5 V.
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 11/2007; · 3.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents circuits in SiGe bipolar technology for spread spectrum automotive radar applications in the band from 77 to 81 GHz. They cover the transmit and receive paths. The transmitter integrates a voltage controlled oscillator, a prescaler by 64, a 10 bit linear feedback shift register (LFSR), and a biphase modulator. The system has been optimized in order to achieve a range resolution less than 12 cm and an unambiguous range of 124 m. The quadrature receiver frontend consists of a single-ended low-noise amplifier (LNA), balanced-to-unbalanced converters, two fully differential direct-conversion mixers, LO buffer amplifiers, and a branchline coupler for I/Q generation. The presented systems show that millimeter-wave circuits in SiGe technology can achieve high integration levels along with high performance. They are well suited for application in spread spectrum automotive radar systems.
Ultra-Wideband, 2007. ICUWB 2007. IEEE International Conference on; 10/2007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents design considerations for millimeter-wave mixers based on the Gilbert cell. The theory has been validated by a test chip fabricated in a 200 GHz f<sub>T</sub> SiGe:C bipolar technology. The chip has been designed for applications at 76 GHz. The measured single-sideband noise figure (NF<sub>SSB</sub>) is 11.2 dB while the conversion gain is 15 dB with an input-referred 1 dB compression point (ICP) and an input-referred third-order intercept point (IIP3) of +2.5 dBm and +8.5 dBm, respectively. The chip consumes 61 mA at a supply voltage of 5.5 V.
Solid State Circuits Conference, 2007. ESSCIRC 2007. 33rd European; 10/2007
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 79GHz spread-spectrum TX, implemented in a SiGe bipolar process, consists of a VCO, a prescaler, a PRBS generator, and a biphase modulator. The sequence length of the PRBS is 1023 bits at a bit rate of 1.235Gb/s. The chip provides an output power of -1dBm and draws 750mA from a 5.5V supply