[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to compare speech and co-speech gestures observed during a narrative retelling task in five- and ten-year-old children from three different linguistic groups, French, American, and Italian, in order to better understand the role of age and language in the development of multimodal monologue discourse abilities. We asked 98 five- and ten-year-old children to narrate a short, wordless cartoon. Results showed a common developmental trend as well as linguistic and gesture differences between the three language groups. In all three languages, older children were found to give more detailed narratives, to insert more comments, and to gesture more and use different gestures - specifically gestures that contribute to the narrative structure - than their younger counterparts. Taken together, these findings allow a tentative model of multimodal narrative development in which major changes in later language acquisition occur despite language and culture differences.
Journal of Child Language 02/2014; · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article addresses the effect of communicative activity on the use of language and gesture by school-age children. The present study examined oral narratives and explanations produced by children aged six and ten years on the basis of several linguistic and gestural measures. Results showed that age affects both gestural and linguistic behaviour, supporting previous findings that multimodal discourse continues to develop during the school-age years. The task (narration vs. explanation) also had clear effects on the use of language and gesture: gestures and subordinate markers were more frequent in explanations than in narratives, whereas cohesion markers were more often used in narratives. Altogether, these results show partly distinctive developmental patterns between narrative monologic discourse behaviour and explanatory behaviour in the context of dialogue and question-answer exchanges.
Journal of Child Language 05/2012; · 1.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As children’s language abilities develop, so may their use of co-speech gesture. We tested this hypothesis by studying oral narratives produced by French children and adults. One hundred and twenty-two participants, divided into three age groups (6years old, 10years old and adults), were asked to watch a Tom and Jerry cartoon and then tell the story to the experimenter. All narratives were videotaped, and subsequently transcribed and annotated for language and gesture using the ELAN software. The results showed a strong effect of age on language complexity, discourse construction and gesture. The age effect was only partly related to the length of the narratives, as adults produced shorter narratives than 10-year-olds. The study thus confirms that co-speech gestures develop with age in the context of narrative activity and plays a crucial role in discourse cohesion and the framing of verbal utterances. This developmental shift towards more complex narratives through both words and gestures is discussed in terms of its theoretical implications in the study of gesture and discourse development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the method and tools applied to the annotation of a corpus of children's oral and multimodal discourse. The multimodal reality of speech has been long established and is now studied extensively. Linguists and psycholinguists who focus on language acquisition also begin to study child language with a multimodal perspective. In both cases, the annotation of multimodal corpora remains a crucial issue as the preparation of the analysis tools has to be in line with the objectives and goals of the research. In this paper we present an annotation scheme aimed at studying linguistic and gesture development between childhood and adulthood, with emphasis to the relationship between speech and gesture and the way it develops. We also present a validation method for gesture annotation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study addresses two questions. The first question is about how children integrate linguistic, prosodic and kinesic resources into organised discourse behaviour such as oral narratives. Three event reports produced spontaneously by 9- to 11-year-old French children during interviews with an adult were extracted from a video corpus. A detailed analysis of these on four dimensions (discourse construction, voice and prosody, co-speech gestures and facial expressions, gaze direction) reveals a remarkable ability in children of this age to use prosodic and kinesic resources to frame and structure their narrative, to dramatise and enliven the recounted events, and to comment on them or on the narration. The second question stresses the developmental aspect of multimodal narrative behaviour. 32 event reports extracted from the same corpus and produced by French children aged from 6 to 11 years were analysed in a similar way and rated by two independent coders. This second study leads us to distinguish between three levels of narrative performance which appear to coincide by age. The multimodal study of oral narratives thus shows how and when children gradually become genuine narrators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pour évaluer les capacités langagières de l'enfant, on se base encore aujourd'hui presque exclusivement sur le contenu verbal de ses productions. Or la communication parlée mêle paroles et gestes et des travaux récents viennent modifier en profondeur la vision que l'on a du développement langagier précoce. Cet article offre une brève synthèse des connaissances actuelles et présente les premiers résultats d'une étude pilote visant à confirmer et préciser, chez l'enfant français, les évolutions développementales observées en production par d'autres équipes ailleurs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the method and tools applied to the annotation of a corpus of multimodal spontaneous expressions of emotions, aimed at improving the detection and characterisation of emotions and mental states in human-machine interaction. The annotation of multimodal corpora remains a complex science as the preparation of the analysis tools have to be in line with the objectives and goals of the research. In human expressions and emotions the verbal and non verbal behaviour all play a crucial role to reveal the mental state of a speaker and as such voice, silences, hesitations from the verbal aspect, and every movement from the scratching of one's eye to the movement of toes from the non verbal aspect, have to be taken into consideration. The physical description of the bodily movements, although necessary, remains approximative when based on 2D and lacks the analytical aspects of human behaviour. In this paper we define a two-level procedure for the annotation of the bodily expressions of emotions and mental states, as well as our annotation grid for speech cues and body movements.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines age-related changes in oral narrative and expository discourse of 67 french school-children aged 3-10 years who elaborate a story from a short animated film and answer to why-questions. Length of utterances, number of clauses, words, speech segments, syllables, and speech rate were analysed using ELAN as an annotation tool. Our results show that aging increases quantity and density of informational content of both narratives and explanations. Older children score significantly higher than younger children on all measures of duration and informational content. Our results also show a gradual – but not statistically significant – increase of speech rate. We discuss these results in the light of cognitive and linguistic developpement.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nous voulons analyser les effets d'une expérience pratiquée sur de jeunes enfants français qui avait pour but d'améliorer leurs compétences linguistiques. Dans un premier temps nous allons analyser le succès de l'expérience sur les capacités de nos sujets à combiner des mots entre eux ou mots et gestes pour communiquer. Ensuite, nous voulons savoir si l'expérience à influer sur la longueur de leurs énoncés. Nous avons découvert que le programme a eu un effet certain sur la longueur moyenne des énoncés des sujets testés?
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ce document a pour but d'étudier les habitudes langagières des jeunes enfants français pendant une tâche de jeu avec un adulte. Les enfants, (17-41 mois) commençant à parler utilisent beaucoup de combinaisons multimodales (geste-mot). Le rôle de ces combinaisons a déjà été très étudié pour les enfants américains et italiens mais nous ne savons pas encore ce qu'il en est pour les enfants français. Nous proposons donc dans un premier temps d'étudier et documenter cette pratique et dans un deuxième temps d'observer les stades "un et deux mots" (ainsi que 3 mots et plus) et analyser l'apport des combinaisons multimodales dans le développement de ces stades. Nos observations ont montré qu'il y a deux moments importants dans le développement langagier de nos sujets : 24 et 30 mois.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The results show major differences related to age and confirm our initial claim that narrative development induces changes in the use of both linguistic and kinetic signals. We also studied more precisely the latter, to trace these changes in representational vs. discourse gestures, and among the representational, gestures of the concrete vs. gestures of the abstract. The results of this study will be discussed in the perspective of language and cognitive development. REFERENCES