MONET. 01/2010; 15:664-679.
ABSTRACT: In Wireless Sensor Actor Networks (WSAN), sensor nodes perform the sensing task and actor nodes take action based on the sensed
phenomena in the field. To ensure efficient and accurate operations of WSAN, new communication protocols are imperative to
provide sensor-actor coordination in order to achieve energy-efficient and reliable communication. Moreover, the protocols
must honor the application-specific real-time delay bounds for the effectiveness of the actors in WSAN.
In this paper, we propose a new real-time coordination and routing (RCR) framework for WSAN. It addresses the issues of coordination among sensors and actors and honors the delay bound for routing
in distributed manner. RCR configures sensors to form hierarchical clusters and provides delay-constrained energy aware routing (DEAR) mechanism. It
uses only cluster-heads to coordinate with sink/actors in order to save the precious energy resources. The DEAR algorithm
integrates the forwardtracking and backtracking routing approaches to establish paths from source nodes to sink/actors. In
the presence of the sink in WSAN, it implements the centralized version of DEAR (C-DEAR) to coordinate with the actors through
the sink. In the absence of sink or ignoring its presence, there is a distributed DEAR (D-DEAR) to provide coordination among
sensors and actors. Cluster-heads then select the path among multiple alternative paths to deliver the packets to the actors
within the given delay bound in an efficient way. Simulation experiments prove that RCR achieves the goal to honor the realistic application-specific delay bound.
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