[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a valid predictor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity regardless of age, gender, and race. The HyperGEN study conducted a genome-wide association study and identified twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with LVH. The aim of this study was to validate these candidate SNPs in the Korean population.
Among 1637 individuals from the Korean Multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort) of the Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES), we carried out a linear regression analysis with left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and a logistic regression analysis for LVH status.
The rs4129218 on chromosome 12 tended to be associated with LVM/body surface area (adjusted β = -0.023; p = 0.036) and LVM/height(2.7) (adjusted β = -0.027; p = 0.016), and was marginally protective against LVH after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and antihypertensive medication (adjusted odds ratio = 0.766 and 0.731; p = 0.027 and 0.007 according to indexation by BSA and height(2.7), respectively).
In the Korean population, the minor allele of rs4129218 had borderline association with lower LVM. This study suggests that rs4129218 on chromosome 12 showed consistent tendency of possibly related loci for LVH independent of ethnic background.
BMC Medical Genetics 03/2015; 16(1):13. DOI:10.1186/s12881-015-0158-1 · 2.08 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inappropriate treatment for calcaneus fracture may result in malunion causing long-lasting pain and functional deficits. When such complications occur, the ideal principle of management is preserving congruence and motion of adjacent joints. For three patients with calcaneus fracture malunion, subtalar joint-preserving surgery using exostectomy and corrective osteotomy was performed, and satisfactory outcomes were achieved postoperatively.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, an n-ZnO/p-Si diode with a ZnO/AZO homogeneous metal contact was fabricated and compared with a ZnO/Al metal contact. AZO films were deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Prior to the device fabrication, the AZO films were optimized in terms of their characteristic as TCO on a soda lime glass. Their resistivity is 1.08 × 10−3 Ωcm and their transmittance is over 80% in the visible light region for a 5% Al doping concentration. The leakage current of ZnO/AZO homogeneous contact diodes is lower than that of ZnO/Al devices. In addition, under thermal stress induced by changing substrate temperature from 300 to 450 K, the contact resistance of the ZnO/AZO structure is more stable than that of the ZnO/Al structure.
Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 07/2014; 53(8S3):08NJ03. DOI:10.7567/JJAP.53.08NJ03 · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ablative fractional carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have been widely used for several types of cosmetic dermatosis. A number of previous studies have evaluated this technique in animals or human beings by observing morphologic changes using an invasive modality such as skin biopsy. In this study, we assessed in vivo skin changes after CO2 ablative fractional laser treatment in a mouse model using non-invasive imaging modalities (Folliscope® and Visioscan 98®), and each results was compared with data from histologic examination. An ablative fractional CO2 laser was applied with different pulse energy between 7 to 35 mJ/microspot. As results of above methods, we also confirmed that the CO2 ablative fractional laser generated injuries with increasing width and depth with increasing pulse energy. Although numerous papers have described application of this laser in vivo skin specimens, our study evaluated the feasibility of using relative non-invasive imaging modalities for assessing the outcome of laser ablation. Based on our data, we suggest that these technologies may be useful alternative modalities for assessing laser ablation that are easier to perform and less invasive than skin biopsy.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Photochemistry and Photobiology 07/2014; 90(6). DOI:10.1111/php.12313 · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As the frequency of radiation exposure by fluoroscopy continues to increase in orthopaedic fields, the level of hazard for the orthopaedic surgeon increases at the same time. Exposure of the clinician's hand is highest during performance of surgery or procedures within the actual clinics. Studies on radiation exposure on thyroid, eye or whole body, or reports on radiation treatment of cancer or for dermal lesions occurring from therapeutic intervention on the body such as heart and liver, and studies on radioactive damage to hands derived from radioactive material handlers have been reported; however, no studies on radioactive damage to a clinician's hand have been reported. Therefore, we report on a case of chronic radiation dermatitis and necrosis of an orthopaedic surgeon's hand as well as its soft tissue defect.
The Journal of the Korean Orthopaedic Association 01/2014; 49(3):250. DOI:10.4055/jkoa.2014.49.3.250
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new body engineering structure for ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs), a Schottky-contact-merged (SCM) ZnO TFT, is proposed, in which the Schottky contact is formed on the body of the ZnO TFT to improve the electrical characteristics without requiring an additional mask and process. In a conventional bottom-gate ZnO TFT, the I–V characteristics usually show a negative-shifted turn-on voltage (V ON) with a large subthreshold slope (SS). By adapting the suggested structure, V ON could be shifted from−13 to−4.4 V with the additional improvement of SS from 1.5 to 0.48 V/decade. In addition, the SCM structure has better electrical stability, which means that it allows for better control of the charge trapping during bias operations.
Journal of Information Display 09/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1080/15980316.2013.812996
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For the system on panel applications, we fabricated and analyzed the polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) memory device on different buffer layer such as oxide or nitride. The threshold voltage (VT) and transconductance (gm) are extracted from each device and the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) measurement is carried out to interpret these characteristics. The results show the device on oxide layer has higher mobility and lower VT than on nitride layer. From the XRD spectra, it can be explained by the fact that the grain size of poly-Si on oxide layer has larger than on nitride layer. The both devices show program/erase characteristics as the potential of SOP memory devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the 3-level charge pumping method in planar-type Silicon-Oxide-High-k-Oxid e-Silicon (SOHOS) and Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon (SONOS) devices to find out the reason for degradation of data retention properties. In the CP thechnique, a pulse is applied to the gate of the MOSFET which alternately fills the traps withe electrons and holes, thereby causing a recombination current Icp to flow in the substrate. A 3-level charge pumping method may be used to determine not only interface trap densities but also capture cross sections as a function of trap energy. By applying this method, SOHOS device found to have a higher interface trap density than SONOS device. Therefore, degradation of data retention characteristics is attributed to the many interface trap sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, the electrical and physical analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of Al2O3 capping layer on ZnO film using atomic layer deposition. ZnO TFTs shows the metallic conduction behavior as Al2O3 capping layer thickness increases. From SIMS analysis, it is found out that the diffusion of Al into ZnO film is enhanced according to Al2O3 capping layer thickness. Moreover, the defects related to oxygen such as oxygen vacancy increase from XPS analysis and ZnO films reveal less compressive stress by substitution of Zn with Al form XRD analysis. That is, the metallic conduction behavior of ZnO TFTs with Al2O3 capping layer can be explained due to increase in the carrier concentration in ZnO channel layer from oxygen vacancy and substitution of Zn with Al.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy(LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Presence of LVH by echocardiography is widely assessed clinically and epidemiologically. The ethnic background may be differently associated with LVH and the role of the related factors may be different. Methods: 3259 subjects among 4067 subjects residing in a rural community of Yang-Pyung, Gyunggi Province were analyzed. Cut-off values for LVH were 124 g/m2 for male, 112 g/m2 for female, and 54 g/m2.7 for both genders. The related parameters investigated were age, gender, body mass index(BMI), systolic blood pressure(SBP), heart rate(HR), creatinine(Cr) and antihypertension medication(AHTM). Results: Age were 60.1 +/- 11.86 years. Female was 61 %. BMI was 24.5 +/- 3.3 kg/m2 and SBP was 124.2 +/- 17.2 mmHg 77.9+/-11.6mmHg. LVM indexes were 96.4+/-22.7 g/m2 and 45.8+/-11.9 g/m2.7. Prevalence of LVH were 12.1% in male and 18.7% in female by g/m2 and 16.2% in male and 24.1% by g/m2.7. Hypertension was present 40.5% in male 42.9 % in female. AHTM was taken in 24.0% in male and 31.5 % in female. In multiple regression analyses, age(beta=0.019), BMI(beta=0.444) and SBP(beta=0.110) were positively associated factors and HR(beta=-0.107) and Cr(beta=-8.645) were negatively associated with LVM indexes(g/m2.7). For LVM indexed by body surface area, similar results were observed except female was smaller LVM index(beta=-7.741). Excessiveness of LVM was positively associated with age(beta=0.411) and BMI(beta=1.883), however, it was negatively associated with HR(beta=-0.06, p=0.06) and Cr(beta=-11.746, p<0.0001). Conclusions: These findings suggest that aging process and metabolic problem need more attention in Asian population. Consistent negative associations between HR or Cr and LV structure maybe important confounding factors in LVH study.
Journal of Hypertension 09/2012; 30:e179. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000420639.87535.bc · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Left ventricular(LV) hypertrophy is a well known predictor for cardiovascular outcomes. The genetic susceptibility is expected to be associated with the degree of hypertrophy. To explore the applicability of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) identified in western country for Korean ethnicity, we replicate the analysis of SNPs identified in relation to LV structure in GWAS Framingham study and HyperGEN study. Methods: For 1659 subjects(682 males, 977 females) from the population cohort in Yang-pyeong, South Korea as a part of Korean Genetic Epidemiology Study(KoGES), we performed assays for 58 SNPs applied for the two GWAS studies. Using plink software, multiple linear regression analyses were performed for LV septal and posterior wall (PW), LV dimension, relative wall thickness(RWT) and LV mass index. Adjusted covariates were age, gender, body mass index(BMI), systolic blood pressure(SBP) and antihypertensive medication. Results: Age, BMI and SBP were 61.0+/-10.3 years, 24.6+/-3.2 kg/m2, and 124.2+/-17.7 mmHg. Hypertension was present in 44.1% and antihypertensive drug was taken in 29.2 %. LV septum, PW, LVD, LV mass index, and RWT were 0.93+/-0.13 cm, 0.86+/-0.11 cm, 4.88+/-0.46 cm, 95.5+/-22.4 g/m2, and 0.35+/-0.05, respectively. In additive model, RS10483186 in chromosome 22 was positively associated with septum, PW, and RWT (beta = 0.0116, 0.0083, and 0.0035, respectively). RS10504543 in chromosome 8 was associated with LVD and LV mass index (beta = 0.0179 and 2.0160, respectively). RS1155635 in chromosome 13 was related to RWT (beta = 0.0052). Conclusion: RS10504543 from Framingham study and RS10483186 and RS1155635 from HyperGen study were associated with LV hypertrophy in a Korean population. But in general, the majority of SNPs related to LV structure in western country could not be applied for Far-eastern Asian ethnicity.
Journal of Hypertension 09/2012; 30:e179. DOI:10.1097/01.hjh.0000420638.79912.3d · 4.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To analyze the hysteresis phenomenon in p-channel low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors (LTPS TFTs), the direct correlation between the hysteresis and the interface (Nit) and the grain-boundary trap density (Ntrap) has been investigated. To fabricate LTPS TFTs with different electrical properties and trap types, the thickness of a-Si was varied from 30 to 80 nm and crystallized by the excimer-laser-anneal (ELA) method. The interface trap density is extracted from the subthreshold slope (SS) and low-high-frequency C-V analysis, while the grain-boundary trap density is extracted by the Levinson and Proano method. The LTPS TFTs with smaller hysteresis exhibited a lower trap density. From the correlation between extracted parameters, the hysteresis seems to be more dependent on Nit and decreases when the film thickness increases to 80 nm while the Ntrap is almost the same in all devices.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-doped ZnO (NZO) films with diluted ammonium hydroxide (NH 4OH) solution of 15 vol % are deposited at 150°C by the atomic layer deposition process to form the p-type film and then the post-annealing process is carried out from 300°C to 700°C under N 2 ambient. From XRD and AFM analysis, as-grown and post-annealed NZO films show larger FWHM values of the (002) peaks, compared with those of as-grown ZnO films, and post-annealed films also reveal much smoother surface than as-grown NZO film, which means that N atoms and/or N-H complexes are incorporated on O sites or in the ZnO lattice. Afterwards, electrical properties of NZO films are measured by the Hall effect, and post-annealed NZO films at over 300°C indicate p-type conduction behavior with carrier density on the order of 10 12 cm -3, supported by rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics in hetero-junction diodes of p-type NZO/n-type Si.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient synthesis of 2-bromohomoallylic alcohols was carried out via an indium-mediated Barbier-type 2-bromoallylation of aldehydes in moderate yields. The reaction was performed at low temperature (−20°C) in aqueous DMF in order to minimize decomposition of 2-bromoallylindium reagent to allene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: α-Anilinonitriles were unexpectedly converted to 3-iminodihydroindoles via the Thorpe–Ziegler cyclization during the benzoylation. 3-Iminodihydroindoles were transformed to 3-aminoindoles in good yields via an allylindium-mediated decyanative aromatization.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report on the fabrication of coplanar dual-gate ZnO thin-film transistors with 200-nm thickness SiNx for both top and bottom dielectrics. The ZnO film was deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on SiO2/Si substrates at 100 degrees C. And the thickness of ZnO film is compared with 100-nm and 40-nm. This TFT has a channel width of 100-mu m and channel length of 5-mu m. The fabricated coplanar dual-gate ZnO TFTs of 40-nm-thickness exhibits a field effect mobility of about 0.29 cm(2)/V s, a subthreshold swing 420 mV/decade, an on-off ratio 2.7 x 10(7), and a threshold voltage 0.9 V, which are greatly improved characteristics, compared with conventional bottom-gate ZnO TFTs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An efficient synthesis of indenoindene-fused α-methylene-γ-butyrolactones was carried out via a tandem intra- and intermolecular Friedel–Crafts reaction from the spiro-lactone, which can be easily prepared from ninhydrin by indium-mediated Barbier reaction of cinnamyl bromide.