[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: According to the existing literature, the determinants of environmental attitudes and behavior are important. In this paper impact of information technology adoption environment has been investigated. Some of the studies have successfully utilized Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) for adoption behavior. This study proposed TPB to ex-plain IT professionals' intentions for Green Information Technology (GIT) practices. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among IT professionals from public and private sector organizations. Core factors of TPB were included in the analysis. Overall, results revealed that the TPB model explains behavioral intent, and all four core constructs were significant predictors of the intent. Limitations of the study, and implications for theory are also discussed. Streszczenie Według wskazań literaturowych, determinanty ekologicznych postaw i zachowań odgrywają istotną rolę w ich kształtowaniu i warto badać wpływ, jaki wywierać może na nie stosowanie technologii informatycznych. W tej pracy wykorzystano teorię planowanego zachowania (Theory of Planned Behavior – TPB), aby wyjaśnić podej-ście profesjonalistów z zakresu IT do praktyk związanych ze stosowaniem zielonych technologii informatycznych (Green Information Technologies – GIT). Badania wśród pracowników IT przeprowadzono w firmach reprezen-tujących dwa sektory: państwowym i prywatnym. Otrzymane wyniki pokazały, że model TPB, uwzględniający cztery filary, wyjaśnia determinanty odnoszące się do zachowania. W artykule omówiono także napotkane ogra-niczenia, a także implikacje dla teorii TPB, które z przeprowadzonych badań wynikają. Słowa kluczowe: Teoria planowanego zachowania, zrównoważoność, zielone technologie informatyczne, profe-sjonaliści z zakresu IT, ANOVA
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increase in the use of Information Technology (IT) in recent decades has contributed to additional power consumption as well as a potential overuse of scarce resources. Also, IT is quickly surpassing air transportation in terms of its carbon footprint. For these reasons, increased environmental awareness has increased interest in Green Information Technology (GIT) among IT practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate behavior for the adoption of GIT applying the conceptual model, referred to as the ‘Theory of Reasoned Action’ (TRA). For this purpose, a survey was conducted among IT professionals from major public and private sector establishments. Findings indicated that behavioral intention influences actual behavior positively. IT professionals with positive intentions towards GIT issues are actually practicing GIT in their work. Results also indicated that external factors such as person related beliefs, sector of respondents’ establishment, and level of awareness have significant impact on attitude towards adoption of GIT.
Computers in Human Behavior 07/2014; 36:29–40. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The qualifications that constitute the employability and identity of graduates are viewed differently by the academic community and the industry. Currently, it is observed for Information Technologies (IT) sector that the demands of the industry are not always satisfied by the perceived standards of the graduates. To provide feedback to the corresponding departments, a survey regarding employer expectations and factors affecting these expectations has been conducted among a number of senior professionals and managers working in the IT sector in Turkey regarding this inconsistency. The employer expectations are considered in two empirical categories as competencies and adequacies. The multiple regression analysis technique has been used to analyze the survey data. Based on the analysis, recommendations are provided to IT departments as well as their students to better fulfill the demands of the industry.
Asia Pacific Education Review 12/2013; 14(4). · 0.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Over the past few years, green computing has received an increasing amount of attention since it is considered as one of the critical factors for protecting the environment. This study investigates gender diversity in terms of applying Green Information Technology (GIT) based on the differences between significance tests result for males and females. For this purpose, a survey was conducted among IT professionals from public and private sector organizations since GIT is a new concept and these professionals are expected to have more awareness on this issue. Six factors were included in the analyses. Interestingly, the results indicate that gender diversity exists only when individuals intend to purchase new hardware and when considering the type of IT usage.
Environmental engineering and management journal 08/2012; · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study proposes a framework for the evaluation and validation of software complexity measure. This framework is designed to analyse whether or not software metric qualifies as a measure from different perspectives. Unlike existing frameworks, it takes into account the practical usefulness of the measure and includes all the factors that are important for theoretical and empirical validation including measurement theory. The applicability of the framework is tested by using cognitive functional size measure. The testing process shows that in the same manner the proposed framework can be applied to any software measure. A comparative study with other frameworks has also been performed. The results reflect that the present framework is a better representation of most of the parameters that are required to evaluate and validate a new complexity measure.
IET Software 01/2012; 6(4):323-334. · 0.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Software metrics should be used in order to improve the productivity and quality of software, because they provide critical information about reliability and maintainability of the system. In this paper, we propose a cognitive complexity metric for evaluating design of object-oriented (OO) code. The proposed metric is based on an important feature of the OO systems: Inheritance. It calculates the complexity at method level considering internal structure of methods, and also considers inheritance to calculate the complexity of class hierarchies. The proposed metric is validated both theoretically and empirically. For theoretical validation, principles of measurement theory are applied since the measurement theory has been proposed and extensively used in the literature as a means to evaluate the software engineering metrics. We applied our metric on a real project for empirical validation and compared it with Chidamber and Kemerer (CK) metrics suite. The theoretical, practical and empirical validations and the comparative study prove the robustness of the measure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Huge amount of researches and software metrics have been proposed for procedural and object-oriented languages. However, there
are only few metrics available in the literature related with multi-paradigm programming languages. In this paper, we propose
a metric to evaluate the code written in multi-paradigm language. Our proposed metric can be used for most of the programming
paradigms, including both procedural and object-oriented languages.
Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2011 - International Conference, Santander, Spain, June 20-23, 2011. Proceedings, Part V; 01/2011
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper first reviews the e-commerce issues in general and then gives a detailed report of the findings of a survey concerning how sociodemographic (gender and income) and behavioural (computer experience and average daily use of the Internet) factors influence e-commerce attitude of professionals. The survey was conducted among professionals from the government and private sectors. The results indicated that income is significantly related to the usage of e-commerce. Additionally, computer experience and average daily use of the internet were found to be significant in explaining usage reason for e-commerce users whereas the variable income was found to be significant in explaining nonusage reason for e-commerce nonusers.
Scientific research and essays 08/2010; 5:1890-1898. · 0.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reviews and discusses Internet issues and reports the findings of a survey concerning the impact of gender, age and income on employees’ Internet usage in Turkey. Internet usage was categorized in two empirical factors, namely usage profile (reason for using the Internet, average daily use of the Internet) and usage patterns (average daily use of the Internet for communication/e-mailing/chat, information access/downloading/entertainment and electronic services). The survey was conducted among 200 employees from public and private sector organizations. The results indicated that gender has a positive impact on average daily time spent on the use of the Internet for communication/e-mailing/chat and information access/downloading/entertainment. Age has a positive impact on average daily use of the Internet in general and a negative impact on the use of the Internet for information access/downloading/entertainment. Income was not found to have an impact on empirical factors. Finally, gender, age and income do not have any significant impact on average daily use of Internet for electronic services such as e-commerce/e-shopping/e-banking/e-government.
Computers in Human Behavior 07/2010; 26(3):482-490. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Internet has become the foundation for the world's new information infrastructure. This impact could be attributed to the Internet's universal access to information as well as its applications in all walks of life. Various services of the Internet and tools (chat rooms, e-mails, etc.) provide users with a wide range of benefits. In their study, Colley and Maltby (2008) indicated that one important research area over the last decade has been the impact of the Internet upon different social groups in the society. The differences in various aspects of Internet usage across demographic groups have also become an interesting research area (Yang and Tung, 2007; Jaeger, 2003) because demographic attributes were found to influence individuals' actions before they engage in a given behaviour (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980; Zhang, 2005; Jaeger, 2003). Zhang (2005) reported that although studies of computer and Internet attitudes are abundant, the majority of these researches use college students (Zhang, 2005; Hwang et al., 2006; Li and Kirkup, 2007; Chen, 2008) or ordinary citizens (Fisher and Jacob, 2006; Fang and Yen, 2006; Colley and Maltby, 2008) as samples. However, employee populations constitute one of the largest groups and play a very important role in the adoption of new technologies. Additionally, employees' use of Internet services may show entirely different patterns than other groups in the society (Jin et al., 2007). Furthermore, the basic concepts of the Internet have been developed in the Western World and most of the empirical research focusing on Internet usage is either US/EU or Far East based (Teo and Lim, 2000; Usiner, 2005). Although they cover very valuable territory and provide useful insights that can provide direction in the examination of the issues from a global perspective, the results of these studies may not be applicable to other parts of the world due to the existence of social and economic differences (Bertot, McClure and Owens, 1999; Zhang, 2005). Nowadays, there is a growing divide between Western countries and the developing countries and, comparatively, very little has been researched in the field of ICT in the latter. Keeping these in view, the present study was undertaken to investigate the predictive effect of employees' gender and sector in their Internet usage and purpose of using the Internet. For the purpose of this study, "public sector" refers to national government departments and "private sector" comprises private corporations (Akman et al., 2005). Here, it is important to note that institutions providing nonprofit public services (e.g. universities, local government, etc.) have been categorized as a public sector. Our study focused on employees from private and public sector organizations. A sample of employees was used for this purpose. The independent (decision) variables were gender and sector of employees. The dependent variables were categorized into two empirical factors: (i) usage profile (average daily use of Internet and reason for using Internet) and (ii) usage pattern (average daily use of Internet for communication services, average daily use of Internet for information services and average daily use of Internet for electronic services). For this purpose, a survey was conducted among employees from public and private sector organizations. Interestingly, the results indicated that gender and sector both have significant impact on average daily use of Internet for communication services. This impact is significant for gender on average daily use of Internet for information services and for sector on average daily use of Internet. Another interesting finding is that there is no significant predictive effect of gender and sector on the reason for using Internet.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethical issues related to information systems are important to the information technology (IT) professionals. These issues are also significant for organizations and societies. Although considerable literature on IT and related ethical issues exists, a review of this literature has found little empirical research on ethical practices within the government and private sector organizations. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to draw inferences regarding such practices currently in these sectors. The research results indicate a significant correlation between the code of ethics and the attitude of professionals towards the unethical use of software in government and private sector organizations. These also indicate significant differences in government and private sectors.
Computers in Human Behavior 11/2009; 25(6):1251-1257. · 2.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Software development includes number of different type of meetings in the whole development process. The cognitive activities
also play an important role in decision making activities in these meetings since they are carried out by human being. In
this paper, we evaluated the relevance of meetings in different phases of the software development process with reference
to cognitive aspects.
Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology, 4th International Conference, RSKT 2009, Gold Coast, Australia, July 14-16, 2009. Proceedings; 01/2009
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a new complexity metric based on cognitive informatics is proposed for object oriented(OO) code. This is the
single metric, which covers cognitive complexity of the OO system, method complexity and complexity due to inheritance together.
The proposed metric was evaluated against Weyuker set of measurement principles. It was found that seven Weyuker properties
are satisfied by this measure.
Rough Sets and Knowledge Technology, Third International Conference, RSKT 2008, Chengdu, China, May 17-19, 2008. Proceedings; 01/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metrics, in general, are defined as “a quantitative measure of the degree to which a system, component, or process possesses
a given attribute”. Complexity metrics are used to predict critical information about reliability and maintainability of software
systems. This paper proposes complexity metric, which includes all major factors responsible for complexity. We validated
our metric against the principles of measurement theory since the measurement theory has been proposed and extensively used
in the literature as a means to evaluate the software engineering metrics. The scale of the metric is investigated through
Extensive structure. It is found that the proposed measure is on ratio scale. The applicability of the proposed measure is
tested through test cases and comparative study.
Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2008, International Conference, Perugia, Italy, June 30 - July 3, 2008, Proceedings, Part II; 01/2008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, a metric for object oriented language is formulated and validated. On the contrary of the other metrics used
for object oriented programming (OOPs), the proposed metric calculates the complexity of a class at method level and hence
considers the internal architecture of the classes, subclasses and member functions. The proposed metric is evaluated against
Weyuker’s proposed set of measurement principles through examples and validated through experimentation, case study and comparative
study with similar measures. The practical usefulness of the metric is evaluated by a practical framework.
Computational Science and Its Applications - ICCSA 2008, International Conference, Perugia, Italy, June 30 - July 3, 2008, Proceedings, Part II; 01/2008