Einar Heiervang

University of Oslo, Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway

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Publications (43)109.91 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to investigate predictors of treatment dropout among 182 children (aged 8–15 years) participating in an effectiveness trial of manual-based 10-session individual and group cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in community clinics. The dropout rate was 14.4%, with no significant difference between the two treatment conditions. We examined predictors for overall dropout (n = 26), early (≤session 4, n = 15), and late dropout (≥session 5, n = 11). Overall dropout was predicted by low child and parent rated treatment credibility, and high parent self-rated internalizing symptoms. Low child rated treatment credibility predicted both early and late dropout. High parent self-rated internalizing symptoms predicted early dropout, whereas low parent rated treatment credibility predicted late dropout. These results highlight the importance of addressing treatment credibility, and to offer support for parents with internalizing symptoms, to help children and families remain in treatment.
    Journal of Anxiety Disorders 04/2015; 31. DOI:10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.01.004 · 2.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Genes for Treatment study is an international, multisite collaboration exploring the role of genetic, demographic, and clinical predictors in response to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in pediatric anxiety disorders. The current article, the first from the study, examined demographic and clinical predictors of response to CBT. We hypothesized that the child's gender, type of anxiety disorder, initial severity and comorbidity, and parents' psychopathology would significantly predict outcome. A sample of 1,519 children 5 to 18 years of age with a primary anxiety diagnosis received CBT across 11 sites. Outcome was defined as response (change in diagnostic severity) and remission (absence of the primary diagnosis) at each time point (posttreatment, 3-, 6-, and/or 12-month follow-up) and analyzed using linear and logistic mixed models. Separate analyses were conducted using data from posttreatment and follow-up assessments to explore the relative importance of predictors at these time points. Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SoAD) had significantly poorer outcomes (poorer response and lower rates of remission) than those with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Although individuals with specific phobia (SP) also had poorer outcomes than those with GAD at posttreatment, these differences were not maintained at follow-up. Both comorbid mood and externalizing disorders significantly predicted poorer outcomes at posttreatment and follow-up, whereas self-reported parental psychopathology had little effect on posttreatment outcomes but significantly predicted response (although not remission) at follow-up. SoAD, nonanxiety comorbidity, and parental psychopathology were associated with poorer outcomes after CBT. The results highlight the need for enhanced treatments for children at risk for poorer outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 04/2015; 5(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jaac.2015.03.018 · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Previous meta-analyses of paediatric obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have shown much higher effect size for standard individual cognitive behaviour therapy (SI-CBT) compared with control conditions than for serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) compared with placebo. Other factors, such as systematic differences in the provided care or exposure to factors other than the interventions of interest (performance bias) may be stronger confounders in psychotherapy research than in pharmacological research. Aims: These facts led us to review SI-CBT studies of paediatric OCD with the aim to compare the effect estimates across different comparisons, including active treatments. Method: We included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs with treatment periods of 12–16 weeks. Outcome was post-test score on the Children's Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CYBOCS). Results: Thirteen papers reporting from 13 RCTs with 17 comparison conditions were included. SI-CBT was superior to wait-list and placebo therapy but not active treatments. Effect estimates for SI-CBT in wait-list comparison studies were significantly larger than in placebo-therapy comparison studies. In addition, the SI-CBT effect estimate was not significantly different when compared with SRIs alone or combined SRIs and CBT. Conclusions: Performance bias may have inflated previous effect estimates for SI-CBT when comparison contingencies included wait-list. However, the calculated SI-CBT effect estimate was lower but significant when compared with placebo therapy. The effects of SI-CBT and active treatments were not significantly different. In conclusion, our data support the current clinical guidelines, although better comparisons between SI-CBT and SRIs are needed.
    Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 08/2014; DOI:10.3109/08039488.2014.941395 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    Stine Lehmann, Einar R Heiervang, Toril Havik, Odd E Havik
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    ABSTRACT: High prevalence of mental disorders among foster children highlight the need to examine the mental health of children placed out of home. We examined the properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in screening school-aged foster children for mental disorders.
    PLoS ONE 07/2014; 9(7):e102134. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0102134 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and compared the relative effectiveness of individual (ICBT) and group (GCBT) treatment approaches for anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Referred youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, range 8-15 years, 53% girls) with separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to ICBT, GCBT or a waitlist control (WLC) in community clinics. Pre-, post-, and one year follow-up assessments included youth and parent completed diagnostic interview and symptom measures. After comparing CBT (ICBT and GCBT combined) to WLC, ICBT and GCBT were compared along diagnostic recovery rates, clinically significant improvement, and symptom measures scores using traditional hypothesis tests, as well as statistical equivalence tests. Significantly more youth lost all anxiety disorders after CBT compared to WLC. Full diagnostic recovery rate was 25.3% for ICBT and 20.5% in GCBT, which was not significantly different. There was continued lack of significant differences between ICBT and GCBT at one year follow-up. However, equivalence between GCBT and ICBT could only be demonstrated for clinical severity rating of the principal anxiety disorder and child reported anxiety symptoms post-treatment. Findings support the effectiveness of CBT compared to no intervention for youth with anxiety disorders, with no significant differences between ICBT and GCBT. However, the relatively low recovery rates highlight the need for further improvement of CBT programs and their transportability from university to community settings.
    Behaviour Research and Therapy 03/2014; 57C:1-12. DOI:10.1016/j.brat.2014.03.007 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Boys with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCA) represent an understudied group. We examined parent-reported physical and socio-emotional problems in 25 boys with SCA (Mean age = 11.7 years, SD = 4.5). The majority had no severe physical health problems. One third of the sample had sleep problems and half of them had weekly or monthly pain. Total emotional and behavior problems, as assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, was at the same level as reported for boys referred to child mental health clinics. Thus, boys with SCA may have the same need for psychological assessment and intervention as clinic-referred boys.
    Children s Health Care 01/2014; 44(1). DOI:10.1080/02739615.2013.876538 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    Stine Lehmann, Odd E Havik, Toril Havik, Einar R Heiervang
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of mental disorders in 6- to 12-year-old foster children and assess comorbidity and risk factors. Information on mental health was collected from foster parents and from teachers using Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA) Web-based diagnostic interview. Child welfare services provided information about care conditions prior to placement and about the child's placement history. Diagnostic information was obtained about 279 (70.5%) of 396 eligible foster children. In total, 50.9% of the children met the criteria for one or more DSM-IV disorders. The most common disorders were grouped into 3 main diagnostic groups: Emotional disorders (24.0%), ADHD (19.0%), and Behavioural disorders (21.5%). The comorbidity rates among these 3 main groups were high: 30.4% had disorders in 2 of these 3 diagnostic groups, and 13.0% had disorders in all 3 groups. In addition, Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) was diagnosed in 19.4% of the children, of whom 58.5% had comorbid disorders in the main diagnostic groups. Exposure to violence, serious neglect, and the number of prior placements increased the risk for mental disorders. Foster children in Norway have a high prevalence of mental disorders, compared to the general child population in Norway and to other societies. The finding that 1 in 2 foster children presented with a mental disorder with high rates of comorbidity highlight the need for skilled assessment and qualified service provision for foster children and families.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 11/2013; 7(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-7-39
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the role of parental emotional well-being and parenting practices as mediators of the association between familial socioeconomic status (SES) and child mental health problems. The sample included 2,043 5th-7th graders (50.7 % female) participating in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study. Children completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, parents reported family economy and education level, emotional well-being (measured with the Everyday Feelings Questionnaire), and the use of negative disciplinary and affirmative parenting practices (measured using the Family Life Questionnaire). Path analyses were conducted to examine the associations between SES and externalizing and internalizing problems. Results supported a model where family economy was associated with externalizing problems through parental emotional well-being and parenting practices, whereas maternal education level was associated with externalizing problems through negative discipline. The direct association between paternal education level and externalizing problems was not mediated by parenting. For internalizing problems, we found both direct associations with family economy and indirect associations with family economy through parental emotional well-being and parenting. The results suggest that parental emotional well-being and parenting practices are two potential mechanisms through which low socioeconomic status is associated with child mental health problems.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 10/2013; 42(5). DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9818-9 · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Depressive disorders are disabling conditions striking at all ages. In adults, subthreshold depression (SD) is viewed as being on a continuum with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this holds for children and adolescents, is still unclear. We performed the first systematic review of SD in subjects below 18 years, in order to explore if childhood SD and MDD share causal pathways, phenomenology and outcomes, supporting a dimensional view. A critical systematic review in accordance with preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. A review protocol was developed a priori, and all reports were assessed by two reviewers. The literature search generated 941 eligible references and 24 studies were included. Although diagnostic criteria for SD showed great variability, similarities for SD and MDD were striking. Both were common conditions with similar risk factor patterns. Clinical characteristics in both groups were depressed mood, suicidal ideation and high comorbidity. Outcomes were almost equally poor, with increased psychiatric morbidity and health service use. SD intervention studies showed promising results. Reports with data on SD not reported in keywords or abstract may have been missed by the search strategy. A dimensional view of depressive disorders is also supported in children and adolescents, suggesting SD to be a precursor to MDD. Although SD is a somewhat milder condition than MDD, it has severe outcomes with psychopathology and impairment. There is a need of identifying cost-efficient and longlasting interventions in order to prevent development of early SD into MDD.
    Journal of Affective Disorders 07/2013; 151(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.06.010 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • 01/2013; Universitetsforlaget., ISBN: 978-82-15-01879
  • Hvordan sikre angstpasienter kunnskapsbasert behandling, Edited by Gerd Kvale; Odd Einar Havik; Tone Tangen; Einar Røsholt Heiervang; Bente Mowatt Storm Haugland, 01/2013: chapter Angstlidelser hos voksne og barn - behov for økt innsats; Universitetsforlaget., ISBN: 978-82-15-01879
  • 59th Meeting of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 10/2012
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    59th Meeting of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 10/2012
  • Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 07/2012; 60(5):S160. DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2012.04.206
  • Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 07/2012; 60(5):S159. DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2012.04.203
  • Neuropsychiatrie de l Enfance et de l Adolescence 07/2012; 60(5):S160. DOI:10.1016/j.neurenf.2012.04.204
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of an observer-rated youth alliance measure, the Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Alliance scale (TPOCS-A). The sample was 52 youth diagnosed with anxiety disorders (M age = 12.43, SD = 2.23, range = 8-15; 56% boys; 98% Caucasian) drawn from a randomized controlled trial. Participants received a manualized individual cognitive behavioral treatment, the FRIENDS for life program, in public community clinics in Norway. Diagnostic status, treatment motivation, and perceived treatment credibility were assessed at pretreatment. Using the TPOCS-A, independent observers rated child-therapist alliance from the third therapy session. Child- and therapist-reported alliance measures were collected from the same session. An exploratory factor analysis supported a one-factor solution, which is consistent with previous studies of self- and observer-rated youth alliance scales. Psychometric analyses supported the interrater reliability, internal consistency, and convergent/divergent validity of the TPOCS-A. Accumulating psychometric evidence indicate that the TPOCS-A has the potential to fill a measurement gap in the youth psychotherapy field. In youth psychotherapy, alliance may be unidimensional, so establishing a strong bond and engaging the child in therapeutic activities may both be instrumental to establishing good alliance early in treatment. However, it is important to be cautious when interpreting the factor analytic findings, because the sample size may have been too small to identify additional factors. Future research can build upon these findings by examining the factor structure of youth alliance measures with larger, more diverse samples.
    Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology 03/2012; 41(2):246-54. DOI:10.1080/15374416.2012.651999 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the agreement between diagnoses and severity ratings assigned by clinicians using a structured web-based interview within a child and adolescent mental health outpatient setting. Information on 100 youths was obtained from multiple informants through a web-based Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Based on this information, four experienced clinicians independently diagnosed (according to the International Classification of Diseases Revision 10) and rated the severity of mental health problems according to the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales for Children and Adolescents (HoNOSCA) and the Children's Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS). Agreement for diagnosis was κ=0.69-0.82. Intra-class correlation for single measures was 0.78 for HoNOSCA and 0.74 for C-GAS, and 0.93 and 0.92, respectively for average measures. Agreement was good to excellent for all diagnostic categories. Agreement for severity was moderate, but improved to substantial when the average of the ratings given by all clinicians was considered. Therefore, we conclude that experienced clinicians can assign reliable diagnoses and assess severity based on DAWBA data collected online.
    Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health 01/2012; 8:16-21. DOI:10.2174/1745017901208010016
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    ABSTRACT: To examine whether the widely used Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) can validly be used to compare the prevalence of child mental health problems cross nationally. We used data on 29,225 5- to 16-year olds in eight population-based studies from seven countries: Bangladesh, Brazil, Britain, India, Norway, Russia and Yemen. Parents completed the SDQ in all eight studies, teachers in seven studies and youth in five studies. We used these SDQ data to calculate three different sorts of "caseness indicators" based on (1) SDQ symptoms, (2) SDQ symptoms plus impact and (3) an overall respondent judgement of 'definite' or 'severe' difficulties. Respondents also completed structured diagnostic interviews including extensive open-ended questions (the Development and Well-Being Assessment, DAWBA). Diagnostic ratings were all carried out or supervised by the DAWBA's creator, working in conjunction with experienced local professionals. As judged by the DAWBA, the prevalence of any mental disorder ranged from 2.2% in India to 17.1% in Russia. The nine SDQ caseness indicators (three indicators times three informants) explained 8-56% of the cross-national variation in disorder prevalence. This was insufficient to make meaningful prevalence estimates since populations with a similar measured prevalence of disorder on the DAWBA showed large variations across the various SDQ caseness indicators. The relationship between SDQ caseness indicators and disorder rates varies substantially between populations: cross-national differences in SDQ indicators do not necessarily reflect comparable differences in disorder rates. More generally, considerable caution is required when interpreting cross-cultural comparisons of mental health, particularly when these rely on brief questionnaires.
    Social Psychiatry 10/2011; 47(8):1321-31. DOI:10.1007/s00127-011-0440-2 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 10/2011; 5:32. DOI:10.1186/1753-2000-5-32

Publication Stats

1k Citations
109.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2015
    • University of Oslo
      • Institute of Clinical Medicine
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2014
    • Oslo University Hospital
      • Division of Mental Health and Addiction
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo, Norway
  • 2002–2014
    • Haukeland University Hospital
      • • Clinic of Child and Adolescent Mental Health
      • • Department of Radiology
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway
  • 2012
    • Boston University
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Regionsenter for barn og unges psykiske helse
      Kristiania (historical), Oslo County, Norway
  • 2010
    • Førde Health Trust
      Fords, Sogn og Fjordane, Norway
  • 2000–2008
    • University of Bergen
      • Department of Biological and Medical Psychology
      Bergen, Hordaland, Norway