[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) family members are potent growth factors that regulate cell proliferation, migration, and transformation. Clinical studies have shown that both PDGF receptor β (β-PDGFR) and its ligand PDGF D are up-regulated in primary prostate cancers and bone metastases, whereas PDGF B, a classic ligand for β-PDGFR, is not frequently detected in clinical samples. In this study, we examined the role of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in the regulation of PDGF expression levels using both a prostate-specific, conditional PTEN-knockout mouse model and mouse prostate epithelial cell lines established from these mice. We found an increase in PDGF D and β-PDGFR expression levels in PTEN-null tumor cells, accompanied by a decrease in PDGF B expression. Among Akt isoforms, increased Akt3 expression was most prominent in mouse PTEN-null cells, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt activity was essential for the maintenance of increased PDGF D and β-PDGFR expression. In vitro deletion of PTEN resulted in a PDGF ligand switch from PDGF B to PDGF D in normal mouse prostate epithelial cells, further demonstrating that PTEN regulates this ligand switch. Similar associations between PTEN status and PDGF isoforms were noted in human prostate cancer cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest a mechanism by which loss of PTEN may promote prostate cancer progression via PDGF D/β-PDGFR signal transduction.
American Journal Of Pathology 12/2011; 180(3):1017-27. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bone is the key metastatic site for prostate cancer. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) produced abundantly by prostate cancer cells binds to its receptor present on bone marrow stromal cells and favors osteoblastic response during bone metastases of prostate cancer. This suggests that interrupting ET-1 interaction with its endothelin A (ET(A)) receptor could be useful for inhibiting prostate cancer bone metastasis and, as such, may enhance the therapeutic activity of docetaxel (Taxotere), the most commonly used drug for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. Therefore, the goal of our study was to obtain preclinical data supporting our hypothesis that the combined use of ET(A) receptor antagonist (ABT-627; Atrasentan) with Taxotere will be superior in inducing apoptosis in vitro and inhibiting tumor growth in vivo in a SCID-hu model of experimental bone metastasis induced by C4-2b prostate cancer cells. In vitro studies were done on a panel of prostate cancer cell lines to understand the molecular basis of combination therapy, and we found that the combination was more effective in the inhibition of cell viability and induction of apoptosis in LNCaP and C4-2b cells (androgen receptor positive) but not in PC-3 cells. These results were correlated with inactivation of Akt/nuclear factor-kappaB and its target genes. For in vivo studies, the therapeutic regimen was initiated when the tumor began showing signs of growth and treatment was continued for 5 weeks. Tumor volume and serum prostate-specific antigen were used as terminal index to evaluate the therapeutic advantage of combination therapy relative to a single regimen and untreated control. At termination, we found a 90% reduction in tumor volume by combination treatment relative to the untreated control group. Most importantly, the antitumor activity was associated with the down-regulation of molecular markers in tumor tissues that were similar to those observed in vitro.
Cancer Research 05/2007; 67(8):3818-26. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. To investigate the possible usefulness of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3) in prostate cancer gene therapy, we used an adenovirus expressing TIMP-3 to assess its role as an apoptosis trigger in highly metastatic prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU-145. We showed that TIMP-3 alone induced apoptotic cell death which was triggered by mitochondrion-mediated caspase-3 activation. In combination treatment, we found that adenovirus-mediated expression of TIMP-3 greatly sensitised prostate cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel, indicating a superadditive or synergistic effect of TIMP-3 and cytostatic treatment on prostate cancer cell death. The proper combination of adenovirus-mediated expression of TIMP-3 with conventional chemotherapeutic drug(s) could have potential benefits in treating highly metastatic prostate cancer.
European Journal of Cancer 01/2007; 42(18):3267-73. · 5.06 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In Part Three of this review, we begin with an analysis of prevention strategies for prostate cancer followed by a discussion of the clinical use of molecular techniques for the evaluation and treatment of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer. New developments in neutron and photon therapy of prostate cancer are addressed as well as the use of systemic radiotherapy for the treatment of bone metastases. Finally, we conclude with the role of hormonal therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer and the current status of development of chemo therapeutic regimens for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Pathology & Oncology Research 02/1996; 2(4):276-292. · 1.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diagnostic and prognostic markers for prostatic cancer (PCa) include conventional protein markers (e.g., PAP, PSA, PSMA, PIP, OA-519, Ki-67, PCNA, TF, collagenase, and TIMP 1), angiogenesis indicator (e.g., factor VIII), neuroendocrine differentiation status, adhesion molecules (E-cadherin, integrin), bone matrix degrading products (e.g., ICPT), as well as molecular markers (e.g., PSA, PSMA, p53, 12-LOX, and MSI). Currently, only PSA is used clinically for early diagnosis and monitoring of PCa. The histological differential diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma includes normal tissues such as Cowper's gland, paraganglion tissue and seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct as well as pathological conditions such as atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, atrophy, basal cell hyperplasia and sclerosing adenosis. A common PCa is characterized by a remarkable heterogeneity in terms of its differentiation, microscopic growth patterns and biological aggressiveness. Most PCa are multifocal with signi ficant variations in tumor grade between anatomically separated tumor foci. The Gleason grading system which recognizes five major grades defined by patterns of neoplastic growth has gained almost uniform acceptance. In predicting the biologic behavior of PCa clinical and pathological stages are used as the major prognostic indicators. Among the cell proliferation and death regulators androgens are critical survival factors for normal prostate epithelial cells as well as for the androgen-dependent human prostatic cancer cells. The androgen ablation has been shown to increase the apoptotic index in prostatic cancer patients and castration also promotes apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma grown in mice. The progression of PCa, similarly to other malignancies, is a multistep process, accompanied by genetic and epigenetic changes, involving phenomenons as adhesion, invasion and angiogenesis (without prostate specific features).
Pathology & Oncology Research 02/1996; 2(3):191-211. · 1.56 Impact Factor