Sushanta Karmakar

Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Gauhāti, Assam, India

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Publications (26)7.21 Total impact

  • S Chakraborty, S Nandi, S Karmakar
    International Journal of Wireless Information Networks 12/2014; 21(4):262-279.
  • Sandip Chakraborty, Ramesh Singh, Sushanta Karmakar
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    ABSTRACT: Distributed systems such as the peer-to-peer and the content management systems have to deal with large volume of data stored in several participating nodes. In a distributed environment, concurrent node joins and node leaves impose new design challenges to effectively manage the structure of the system. Deterministic 1–2 skip list is an efficient structure to manage the topology of an overlay network. However, the existing works on distributed deterministic 1–2 skip list [(S. Mandal, S. Chakraborty, and S. Karmakar, Deterministic 1–2 skip list in distributed system. in Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Parallel Distributed and Grid Computing, IEEE, 2012, pp. 296–301.)] in a decentralised environment do not support concurrency, where multiple parallel join and leave operations may be executed simultaneously. This paper presents a set of algorithms for achieving concurrency in a distributed deterministic 1–2 skip list. The properties and the correctness of the proposed algorithms are analysed theoretically. The proposed set of distributed algorithms for search, join and leave operations has message complexity similar to the centralised versions of the algorithms.
    International Journal of Parallel Emergent and Distributed Systems 10/2014; 30(2). DOI:10.1080/17445760.2013.876637
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    ABSTRACT: Sink based spanning tree topologies are effectively used in convergecast applications for efficient packet delivery with minimum forwarding delay, eliminating packet loss or duplicate packet delivery. For tree based convergecast, this paper theoretically shows that there is a trade-off between the topology architecture and the network traffic load. Depending on this trade-off, a hierarchical topology adaptation scheme is proposed for the tree based convergecast to improve overall application performances. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is analyzed using simulation results.
    29th ACM Symposium On Applied Computing, Dependable and Adaptive Distributed Systems Track (ACM SAC - DADS), Gyeongju, Korea,; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Wireless sensor networks have grown significant attentions among researchers for providing a flexible and low-cost framework to design an architecture for Intelligent Transport Systems. The inherent challenges in distribution and management of sensor networks along the road require an application-specific protocol support for the network connectivity, the sensing coverage, the reliable data forwarding, and the network lifetime improvement. This paper introduces the concept of $k$-strip length coverage along the road, which ensures a better sensing coverage for the detection of moving vehicles compared with the conventional barrier coverage and full area coverage, in terms of the availability of sufficient information for statistical processing and the number of sensors required to be active. To extend the network lifetime, every sensor follows a sleep–wakeup schedule maintaining the network connectivity and the $k$-strip length coverage. This scheduling problem is modeled as a graph optimization, the NP-hardness of which motivates to design a centralized heuristic, providing an approximate solution. As a sensor network is inherently distributed in nature, properties of the centralized heuristic are explored to design a per-node solution based on local information. Performance of the proposed scheme is analyzed through simulation results.
    IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 03/2014; 15(5). DOI:10.1109/TITS.2014.2308411 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Sushanta Karmakar, Subhrendu Chattopadhyay
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    ABSTRACT: Consider a distributed system with n processors, which receive triggers from the outside world. The Distributed Trigger Counting (DTC) problem is to raise an alarm if the number of triggers over the sys- tem reaches w, which is an user specified input. DTC is used as a primitive operation in many applications, such as distributed monitoring, global snapshot etc. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the DTC problem in a ring topology with a message complexity of O(n2 log(w/n)) and each node in the system receives O(n log(w/n)) number of messages. We also discuss about the possible tuning of the algorithm which results better complexities.
    The 37th Australasian Computer Science Conference (ACSC 2014), Auckland, New Zealand; 01/2014
  • Ad Hoc Networks 08/2013; 11(6):1796-1819. DOI:10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.04.004 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lifetime of sensor network depends on the efficient utilization of resource-constrained sensor nodes. Several MAC protocols like DMAC and its variants have been proposed to save critical sensor resources through sleep-wakeup scheduling over data gathering tree. For applications where data aggregation is not possible, the sleep duration decreases gradually from the leaves to the root of the data gathering tree. This results early failure of sensor nodes near the sink, and affects network connectivity and coverage. Deploying redundant sensors can solve this problem where a faulty node is replaced by a redundant node to maintain network connectivity and coverage. However, the amount of redundancy depends on the node failure pattern, and thus more number of redundant nodes required to be deployed near the sink. This paper proposes a gradient based sensor deployment scheme for energy-efficient data gathering exploring the trade-off among connectivity, coverage, fault-tolerance and redundancy. The density of deployment is estimated based on the distance of a node from the sink while dealing with connectivity, coverage and fault-tolerance. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been analyzed both theoretically and with the help of simulation.
    IEEE 9th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IEEE IWCMC 2013); 07/2013
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    ABSTRACT: Sensor networks deployed for the border area monitoring requires a high degree of reliability for the data gathering in spite of any arbitrary node or sink failures. This paper proposes RelBAS, a robust data gathering scheme specially designed for the border area network to provide a guaranteed delivery of sensory data. The proposed protocol aims to find out multiple node-disjoint paths to multiple sinks so that the disconnectivity in one path due to a node failure does not disrupt the delivery of data to the sink. The forwarding path selection at every node in RelBAS is based on the combination of three parameters - the hop-count, the residual energy and the number of children for for parent of the corresponding tree. This helps in adapting the protocol to the application requirement depending on the delay, energy efficiency and data aggregation. Moreover, RelBAS is capable of detecting an affected zone due to multiple node failures. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme has been analyzed using the simulation results.
    18th IEEE Computer Society International Symposium on Computers and Communications (IEEE ISCC 2013); 07/2013
  • Sushanta Karmakar, A. Chandrakanth Reddy
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    ABSTRACT: Consider a distributed system with n processors, which receive triggers from the outside world. The distributed trigger counting (DTC) problem is to raise an alarm if the total number of triggers over the system reaches w, which is an user-specified input. DTC is used as a primitive operation in many applications, such as distributed monitoring, global snapshots, etc. Many of the earlier studies on DTC was done using non-deterministic algorithms. In this paper, we propose a deterministic algorithm for the DTC problem with a message complexity of O(n log w log n) and each node in the system receives O(n log w) number of messages, which is an improvement over earlier result for certain values of w. The distribution of triggers among the n nodes may be arbitrary. This paper gives insight into the deterministic algorithm for the DTC problem. Also to the best of our knowledge the overall message complexity and per node message complexity are better than earlier deterministic algorithms.
    The Computer Journal 06/2013; 57(7):980-986. DOI:10.1093/comjnl/bxt048 · 0.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data gathering or converge cast is one of the most popular applications of road side sensor network where the data sensed from the road are accumulated in the road side gateways or sinks for traffic monitoring purpose. The required delay sensitivity and reliability of the application as well as the scarcity of sensor resources make the task challenging. In this paper, a novel tree based data gathering scheme has been proposed exploiting the strip like structure of the road network. Sensor nodes are distributed in several virtual blocks along the road and a converge cast tree is constructed selecting one active node from each block. Implementation of efficient scheduling assures both the coverage and critical power savings of sensor nodes. The network connectivity is guaranteed throughout by the proposed tree maintenance module that handles the sensor node joining and leaving events. Simulation results show that the tree maintenance overhead in terms of both delay and control message communication is nominal.
    27th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (IEEE AINA-2013); 03/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The changes in environmental parameters may demand switching between underlying topologies for better performance of distributed message passing applications. Arbitrary topology switching using distributed tree construction may lead to loss or redundancy in delivery of application messages. In this work, a set of algorithms has been proposed for dynamic switching between two spanning trees to offer better adaptivity towards the environment for different applications. Here, two extreme cases of spanning trees, a Breadth First Search (BFS) tree and a Depth First Search (DFS) tree, rooted at the core node, have been considered for switching. The core node initiates the switching and all other nodes cooperatively change their parents on the fly maintaining the DFS or BFS properties as required. However, the application remains transparent to the switching that assures the availability of the system at any instance of time. Simulation results show that each application message is delivered correctly to the destination without any loss or redundancy. The proposed scheme is scalable and the control message overhead for switching is linear with respect to the number of edges in the communication graph. Furthermore, there is no control message overhead to assure the delivery of application messages at the time of switching.
    Journal of Network and Systems Management 01/2013; 23(1). DOI:10.1007/s10922-013-9275-3 · 0.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data management in the peer-to-peer system is a challenging task due to the random distribution of data among several participating peers. Efficient data structures like distributed hash tables (DHT) and its variants are designed and implemented to reduce the complexity of data management in such environment. However, DHT has its limitations in supporting range queries and its variants like distributed segment trees often perform poorly when the number of peers is high. Further, distributed lists and distributed balanced trees require significant amount of time for stabilizing after a new peer joins or a peer leaves. In this paper, a new distributed data structure called deterministic 1–2 skip list is introduced as an alternate solution for data management in the peer-to-peer systems. A deterministic skip list can be viewed as an alternate of a balanced tree, where the semantic locality of each key is preserved. Thus it can support the range queries as well as the single shot queries. This paper proposes three main operations on this data structure - searching data based on keys, insertion when a new peer joins, and deletion when a peer leaves. The correctness of the proposed operations are analyzed using theoretical arguments and mathematical proofs. The proposed scheme is simulated using NS-2.34 network simulator, and the efficiency of the scheme has been compared with DHT, DST, distributed list and distributed tree based data management.
    Peer-to-Peer Networking and Applications 01/2013; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s12083-013-0222-6 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Searching data efficiently in distributed applications like peer-to-peer system is a challenging task due to the random distribution of data among several participating nodes. Efficient data structures are designed and implemented to reduce the complexity of data searching in such an environment. In this paper a data structure called deterministic 1-2 skip list has been proposed as a solution for search problems in distributed environment. The data structure has three main operations viz. search, insert, and delete. The detailed description of the insertion, deletion and search operations are given in this paper. It is found that the message complexity of the insertion, deletion and search algorithm is O(log n) where n is the total number of nodes in the skip-list.
    2nd IEEE International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing (PDGC 2012); 12/2012
  • 13th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium (NOMS 2012); 04/2012
  • 2nd International Conference on Computer and Communication Technology; 09/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Query driven Broadcast through wireless sensor nodes also leads to the domain of event driven converge cast. A query-response based application in Wireless Sensor Networks(WSN) demands the correct delivery of data message at each sensor node. A Breadth-First Search(BFS) tree rooted at the base station offers shortest path traversal for each data message which utilizes the sensor resources efficiently. Resource constrained sensor nodes are highly prone to sudden crash. So the application demands a quick and smart approach to repair the tree when a node dies. In this paper a novel scheme has been proposed to locally repair the tree with constant round of message transmissions. Each node piggybacks a few bytes of extra information along with each query and response messages. Based on these piggybacked values each node calculates its alternate parent. When a parent node fails, its children can contact their respective alternate parents immediately to establish an alternate path to the root. Reduced communication cost in terms of extra message transmissions saves battery power at each node. Efficient query-response message handler ensures the correct delivery of messages. Fast repairing offers good Quality of Service(QoS). Simulation result shows that no message is lost except the one holding by the crashed node.
    Proceedings of the 2011 14th IEEE International Conference on Computational Science and Engineering; 08/2011
  • Suchetana Chakraborty, Sushanta Karmakar
    Advances in Computing and Communications - First International Conference, ACC 2011, Kochi, India, July 22-24, 2011. Proceedings; 01/2011
  • Shivendra Katiyar, Sushanta Karmakar
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    ABSTRACT: Termination detection in distributed systems has been a popular problem of study. It involves d e t e r m i n i n g whether a computation running on multiple nodes has ceased all i t s a c t i v i t i e s . A l a r g e number of ter m ination detection algorithms have been proposed with different computational models and methodologies. Here, termination detection is being investigated i n t h e c o n t e x t o f l i n k -failure m o d e l which i s common in Delay Tolerant Networks. A spanning tree based termination detection algorithm is used to suit such a model. Termination detection is freezed locally until the spanning tree is restored, rather than restarting it from the scratch again.
  • Shivendra Katiyar, Sushanta Karmakar
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    ABSTRACT: Termination detection in distributed systems has been a popular problem of study. It involves determining whether a computation running on multiple nodes has ceased all its activities. A large number of termination detection algorithms have been proposed with different computational models and methodologies. Here, termination detection is being investigated in the context of link-failure model which is common in Delay Tolerant Networks. A spanning tree based termination detection algorithm is used to suit such a model. Termination detection is freezed locally until the spanning tree is restored, rather than restarting it from the scratch again. Keywords-Termina tion detection, spanning tree, delay toler­ ant networks, link failure.
  • Shivendra Katiyar, Sushanta Karmakar
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    ABSTRACT: Termination detection in distributed systems has been a popular problem of study. It involves determining whether a computation running on multiple nodes has ceased all its activities. A large number of termination detection algorithms have been proposed with different computational models and methodologies. Here, termination detection is being investigated in the context of link-failure model which is common in Delay Tolerant Networks. A spanning tree based termination detection algorithm is used to suit such a model. Termination detection is freezed locally until the spanning tree is restored, rather than restarting it from the scratch again. Keywords-Termination detection, spanning tree, delay toler- ant networks, link failure.