[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies demonstrated association between mitochondrial DNA variants and ischemic stroke (IS). We investigated whether variants within a larger set of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) genes encoded by both autosomal and mitochondrial DNA were associated with risk of IS and, based on our results, extended our investigation to intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: This association study used a discovery cohort of 1643 individuals, a validation cohort of 2432 individuals for IS, and an extension cohort of 1476 individuals for ICH. Gene-set enrichment analysis was performed on all structural OXPHOS genes, as well as genes contributing to individual respiratory complexes. Gene-sets passing gene-set enrichment analysis were tested by constructing genetic scores using common variants residing within each gene. Associations between each variant and IS that emerged in the discovery cohort were examined in validation and extension cohorts. RESULTS: IS was associated with genetic risk scores in OXPHOS as a whole (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; P=0.008) and complex I (OR, 1.06; P=0.050). Among IS subtypes, small vessel stroke showed association with OXPHOS (OR, 1.16; P=0.007), complex I (OR, 1.13; P=0.027), and complex IV (OR, 1.14; P=0.018). To further explore this small vessel association, we extended our analysis to ICH, revealing association between deep hemispheric ICH and complex IV (OR, 1.08; P=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: This pathway analysis demonstrates association between common genetic variants within OXPHOS genes and stroke. The associations for small vessel stroke and deep ICH suggest that genetic variation in OXPHOS influences small vessel pathobiology. Further studies are needed to identify culprit genetic variants and assess their functional consequences.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To replicate variants in candidate genes associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in a population of European women with PCOS and control subjects. DESIGN: Case-control association analysis and meta-analysis. SETTING: Major academic hospital. PATIENT(S): Women of European ancestry with PCOS (n = 525) and controls (n = 472), aged 18-45 years. INTERVENTION(S): Variants previously associated with PCOS in candidate gene studies were genotyped (n = 39). Metabolic, reproductive, and anthropomorphic parameters were examined as a function of the candidate variants. All genetic association analyses were adjusted for age, body mass index, and ancestry and were reported after correction for multiple testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Association of candidate gene variants with PCOS. RESULT(S): Three variants, rs3797179 (SRD5A1), rs12473543 (POMC), and rs1501299 (ADIPOQ), were nominally associated with PCOS. However, they did not remain significant after correction for multiple testing, and none of the variants replicated in a sufficiently powered meta-analysis. Variants in the FBN3 gene (rs17202517 and rs73503752) were associated with smaller waist circumferences, and variant rs727428 in the SHBG gene was associated with lower sex hormone-binding globulin levels. CONCLUSION(S): Previously identified variants in candidate genes do not seem to be associated with PCOS risk. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00166569.
Fertility and sterility 01/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multistage meta-analysis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Punjabi Sikhs from India. Our discovery GWAS in 1,616 individuals (842 case subjects) was followed by in silico replication of the top 513 independent SNPs (P < 10(-3)) in Punjabi Sikhs (n = 2,819; 801 case subjects). We further replicated 66 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (P < 10(-4)) through genotyping in a Punjabi Sikh sample (n = 2,894; 1,711 case subjects). On combined meta-analysis in Sikh populations (n = 7,329; 3,354 case subjects), we identified a novel locus in association with T2D at 13q12 represented by a directly genotyped intronic SNP (rs9552911, P = 1.82 × 10(-8)) in the SGCG gene. Next, we undertook in silico replication (stage 2b) of the top 513 signals (P < 10(-3)) in 29,157 non-Sikh South Asians (10,971 case subjects) and de novo genotyping of up to 31 top signals (P < 10(-4)) in 10,817 South Asians (5,157 case subjects) (stage 3b). In combined South Asian meta-analysis, we observed six suggestive associations (P < 10(-5) to < 10(-7)), including SNPs at HMG1L1/CTCFL, PLXNA4, SCAP, and chr5p11. Further evaluation of 31 top SNPs in 33,707 East Asians (16,746 case subjects) (stage 3c) and 47,117 Europeans (8,130 case subjects) (stage 3d), and joint meta-analysis of 128,127 individuals (44,358 case subjects) from 27 multiethnic studies, did not reveal any additional loci nor was there any evidence of replication for the new variant. Our findings provide new evidence on the presence of a population-specific signal in relation to T2D, which may provide additional insights into T2D pathogenesis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prevalence of variant alleles among single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is not well known for many minority populations. These population allele frequencies (PAFs) are necessary to guide genetic epidemiology studies and to understand the population specific contribution of these variants to disease risk. Large differences in PAF among certain functional groups of genes could also indicate possible selection pressure or founder effects of interest. The 50K SNP, custom genotyping microarray (CARe) was developed, focusing on about 2,000 candidate genes and pathways with demonstrated pathophysiologic influence on cardiovascular disease (CVD).
The CARe microarray was used to genotype 216 unaffected controls in a study of pre-eclampsia among a Northern Plains, American Indian tribe. The allelic prevalences of 34,240 SNPs suitable for analysis, were determined and compared with corresponding HapMap prevalences for the Caucasian population. Further analysis was conducted to compare the frequency of statistically different prevalences among functionally related SNPs, as determined by the DAVID Bioinformatics Resource.
Of the SNPs with PAFs in both datasets, 9.8%,37.2% and 47.1% showed allele frequencies among the American Indian population greater than, less than and either greater or less than (respectively) the HapMap Caucasian population. The 2,547 genes were divided into 53 functional groups using the highest stringency criteria. While none of these groups reached the Bonferroni corrected p value of 0.00094, there were 7 of these 53 groups with significantly more or less differing PAFs, each with a probability of less than 0.05 and an overall probability of 0.0046.
In comparison to the HapMap Caucasian population, there are substantial differences in the prevalence among an American Indian community of SNPs related to CVD. Certain functional groups of genes and related SNPs show possible evidence of selection pressure or founder effects.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(9):e75080. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The etiology of pre-eclampsia (PE) is unknown; but it is accepted that normal pregnancy represents a distinctive challenge to the maternal immune system. C-reactive protein is a prominent component of the innate immune system; and we previously reported an association between PE and the CRP polymorphism, rs1205. Our aim was to explore the effects of additional CRP variants. The IBC (Cardiochip) genotyping microarray focuses on candidate genes and pathways related to the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.
This study recruited 140 cases of PE and 270 matched controls, of which 95 cases met criteria as severe PE, from an American Indian community. IBC array genotypes from 10 suitable CRP SNPs were analyzed. A replication sample of 178 cases and 427 controls of European ancestry was also genotyped.
A nominally significant difference (p value <0.05) was seen in the distribution of discordant matched pairs for rs3093068; and Bonferroni corrected differences (P<0.005) were seen for rs876538, rs2794521, and rs3091244. Univariate conditional logistic regression odds ratios (OR) were nominally significant for rs3093068 and rs876538 models only. Multivariate logistic models with adjustment for mother's age, nulliparity and BMI attenuated the effect (OR 1.58, P = 0.066, 95% CI 0.97-2.58) for rs876538 and (OR 2.59, P = 0.050, 95% CI 1.00-6.68) for rs3093068. An additive risk score of the above two risk genotypes shows a multivariate adjusted OR of 2.04 (P = 0.013, 95% CI 1.16-3.56). The replication sample also demonstrated significant association between PE and the rs876538 allele (OR = 1.55, P = 0.01, 95% CI 2.16-1.10). We also show putative functionality for the rs876538 and rs3093068 CRP variants.
The CRP variants, rs876538 and rs3093068, previously associated with other cardiovascular disease phenotypes, show suggestive association with PE in this American Indian population, further supporting a possible role for CRP in PE.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e71231. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) disproportionally affects African Americans (AfA) but, to date, genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are primarily from European and Asian populations. We examined the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and locus transferability of 40 reported T2D loci in six AfA GWAS consisting of 2,806 T2D case subjects with or without end-stage renal disease and 4,265 control subjects from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study. Our results revealed that seven index SNPs at the TCF7L2, KLF14, KCNQ1, ADCY5, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and GCKR loci were significantly associated with T2D (P < 0.05). The strongest association was observed at TCF7L2 rs7903146 (odds ratio [OR] 1.30; P = 6.86 × 10(-8)). Locus-wide analysis demonstrated significant associations (P(emp) < 0.05) at regional best SNPs in the TCF7L2, KLF14, and HMGA2 loci as well as suggestive signals in KCNQ1 after correction for the effective number of SNPs at each locus. Of these loci, the regional best SNPs were in differential linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the index and adjacent SNPs. Our findings suggest that some loci discovered in prior reports affect T2D susceptibility in AfA with similar effect sizes. The reduced and differential LD pattern in AfA compared with European and Asian populations may facilitate fine mapping of causal variants at loci shared across populations.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ∼2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 10/2012; · 11.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of loci for type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, as well as for related traits such as body mass index, glucose and insulin levels, lipid levels, and blood pressure. These studies also have pointed to thousands of loci with promising but not yet compelling association evidence. To establish association at additional loci and to characterize the genome-wide significant loci by fine-mapping, we designed the "Metabochip," a custom genotyping array that assays nearly 200,000 SNP markers. Here, we describe the Metabochip and its component SNP sets, evaluate its performance in capturing variation across the allele-frequency spectrum, describe solutions to methodological challenges commonly encountered in its analysis, and evaluate its performance as a platform for genotype imputation. The metabochip achieves dramatic cost efficiencies compared to designing single-trait follow-up reagents, and provides the opportunity to compare results across a range of related traits. The metabochip and similar custom genotyping arrays offer a powerful and cost-effective approach to follow-up large-scale genotyping and sequencing studies and advance our understanding of the genetic basis of complex human diseases and traits.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent genome-wide association studies have described many loci implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) pathophysiology and β-cell dysfunction but have contributed little to the understanding of the genetic basis of insulin resistance. We hypothesized that genes implicated in insulin resistance pathways might be uncovered by accounting for differences in body mass index (BMI) and potential interactions between BMI and genetic variants. We applied a joint meta-analysis approach to test associations with fasting insulin and glucose on a genome-wide scale. We present six previously unknown loci associated with fasting insulin at P < 5 × 10(-8) in combined discovery and follow-up analyses of 52 studies comprising up to 96,496 non-diabetic individuals. Risk variants were associated with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting a role for these loci in insulin resistance pathways. The discovery of these loci will aid further characterization of the role of insulin resistance in T2D pathophysiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A genome-wide association study has identified three loci (five independent signals) that confer risk for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Han Chinese women. Replication is necessary to determine whether the same variants confer risk for PCOS in women of European ancestry.
The objective of the study was to test whether these PCOS risk variants in Han Chinese women confer risk for PCOS in women of European ancestry.
This was a case-control study.
The study was conducted at deCODE Genetics in Iceland and two academic medical centers in the United States.
Cases were 376 Icelandic women and 565 and 203 women from Boston, MA, and Chicago, IL, respectively, all diagnosed with PCOS by the National Institutes of Health criteria. Controls were 16,947, 483, and 189 women not known to have PCOS from Iceland, Boston, and Chicago, respectively.
There were no interventions.
Main outcomes were allele frequencies for seven variants in PCOS cases and controls.
Two strongly correlated Han Chinese PCOS risk variants on chromosome 9q33.3, rs10986105[C], and rs10818854[A], were replicated in samples of European ancestry with odds ratio of 1.68 (P = 0.00033) and odds ratio of 1.53 (P = 0.0019), respectively. Other risk variants at 2p16.3 (rs13405728), 2p21 (rs12468394, rs12478601, and rs13429458), and 9q33.3 (rs2479106), or variants correlated with them, did not associate with PCOS. The same allele of rs10986105 that increased the risk of PCOS also increased the risk of hyperandrogenism in women without PCOS from Iceland and demonstrated a stronger risk for PCOS defined by the National Institutes of Health criteria than the Rotterdam criteria.
We replicated one of the five Chinese PCOS association signals, represented by rs10986105 and rs10818854 on 9q33, in individuals of European ancestry. Examination of the subjects meeting at least one of the Rotterdam criteria for PCOS suggests that the variant may be involved in the hyperandrogenism and possibly the irregular menses of PCOS.
The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism 04/2012; 97(7):E1342-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesisGenetic mapping has identified over 20 loci contributing to genetic risk of type 2 diabetes. The next step is to identify
the genes and mechanisms regulating the contributions of genetic risk to disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate the
effect of age, height, weight and risk alleles on expression of candidate genes in diabetes-associated regions in three relevant
MethodsWe measured transcript abundance for WFS1, KCNJ11, TCF2 (also known as HNF1B), PPARG, HHEX, IDE, CDKAL1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8 and TCF7L2 by quantitative RT-PCR in human pancreas (n = 50), colon (n = 195) and liver (n = 50). Tissue samples were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with type 2 diabetes. The effects
of age, height, weight, tissue and SNP on RNA expression were tested by linear modelling.
ResultsExpression of all genes exhibited tissue bias. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the findings for HHEX, IDE and SLC30A8, which showed strongest tissue-specific mRNA expression bias. Neither age, height nor weight were associated with gene expression.
We found no evidence that type 2 diabetes-associated SNPs affect neighbouring gene expression (cis-expression quantitative trait loci) in colon, pancreas and liver.
Conclusions/interpretationThis study provides new evidence that tissue-type, but not age, height, weight or SNPs in or near candidate genes associated
with increased risk of type 2 diabetes are strong contributors to differential gene expression in the genes and tissues examined.
-SNP-Type 2 diabetes
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesis
LARS2 has been previously identified as a potential type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene through the low-frequency H324Q (rs71645922)
variant (minor allele frequency [MAF] 3.0%). However, this association did not achieve genome-wide levels of significance.
The aim of this study was to establish the true contribution of this variant and common variants in LARS2 (MAF > 5%) to type 2 diabetes risk.
MethodsWe combined genome-wide association data (n = 10,128) from the DIAGRAM consortium with independent data derived from a tagging single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) approach
in Dutch individuals (n = 999) and took forward two SNPs of interest to replication in up to 11,163 Dutch participants (rs17637703 and rs952621).
In addition, because inspection of genome-wide association study data identified a cluster of low-frequency variants with
evidence of type 2 diabetes association, we attempted replication of rs9825041 (a proxy for this group) and the previously
identified H324Q variant in up to 35,715 participants of European descent.
ResultsNo association between the common SNPs in LARS2 and type 2 diabetes was found. Our replication studies for the two low-frequency variants, rs9825041 and H324Q, failed to
confirm an association with type 2 diabetes in Dutch, Scandinavian and UK samples (OR 1.03 [95% CI 0.95–1.12], p = 0.45, n = 31,962 and OR 0.99 [0.90–1.08], p = 0.78, n = 35,715 respectively).
Conclusions/interpretationIn this study, the largest study examining the role of sequence variants in LARS2 in type 2 diabetes susceptibility, we found no evidence to support previous data indicating a role in type 2 diabetes susceptibility.
-Mitochondria-SNP-Type 2 diabetes
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims/hypothesisThere are strong associations between measures of inflammation and type 2 diabetes, but the causal directions of these associations
are not known. We tested the hypothesis that common gene variants known to alter circulating levels of inflammatory proteins,
or known to alter autoimmune-related disease risk, influence type 2 diabetes risk.
MethodsWe selected 46 variants: (1) eight variants known to alter circulating levels of inflammatory proteins, including those in
the IL18, IL1RN, IL6R, MIF, PAI1 (also known as SERPINE1) and CRP genes; and (2) 38 variants known to predispose to autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. We tested the associations
of these variants with type 2 diabetes using a meta-analysis of 4,107 cases and 5,187 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case
Control Consortium, the Diabetes Genetics Initiative, and the Finland–United States Investigation of NIDDM studies. We followed
up associated variants (p < 0.01) in a further set of 3,125 cases and 3,596 controls from the UK.
ResultsWe found no evidence that inflammatory or autoimmune disease variants are associated with type 2 diabetes (at p ≤ 0.01). The OR observed between the variant altering IL-18 levels, rs2250417, and type 2 diabetes (OR 1.00 [95% CI 0.99–1.03]),
is much lower than that expected given (1) the effect of the variant on IL-18 levels (0.28 SDs per allele); and (2) estimates,
based on other studies, of the correlation between IL-18 levels and type 2 diabetes risk (approximate OR 1.15 [95% CI 1.09–1.21]
per 0.28 SD increase in IL-18 levels).
Conclusions/interpretationOur study provided no evidence that variants known to alter measures of inflammation, autoimmune or inflammatory disease risk,
including type 1 diabetes, alter type 2 diabetes risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of irregular menses, hyperandrogenism and/or polycystic ovary morphology. A large proportion of women with PCOS also exhibit insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction, impaired glucose tolerance and/or type 2 diabetes (T2D). We therefore hypothesized that genetic variants that predispose to risk of T2D also result in risk of PCOS. Variants robustly associated with T2D in candidate gene or genome-wide association studies (GWAS; n = 56 SNPs from 33 loci) were genotyped in women of European ancestry with PCOS (n = 525) and controls (n = 472), aged 18-45 years. Metabolic, reproductive and anthropomorphic data were examined as a function of the T2D variants. All genetic association analyses were adjusted for age, BMI and ancestry and were reported after correction for multiple testing. There was a nominal association between variants in KCNJ11 and risk of PCOS. However, a risk score of 33 independent T2D-associated variants from GWAS was not significantly associated with PCOS. T2D variants were associated with PCOS phenotype parameters including those in THADA and WFS1 with testosterone levels, ENPP/PC1 with triglyceride levels, FTO with glucose levels and KCNJ11 with FSH levels. Diabetes risk variants are not important risk variants for PCOS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P = 4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N = 4,232 African Americans, N = 1,776 Asians, and N = 29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p = 4.3×10(-3), n = 22,044), increased triglycerides (p = 2.6×10(-14), n = 93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p = 1.8×10(-5), n = 77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p = 4.4×10(-3), n = 15,234), increased fasting insulin (p = 0.015, n = 48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p = 4.5×10(-13), n = 96,748) and decreased BMI (p = 1.4×10(-4), n = 121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ∼2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
The American Journal of Human Genetics 02/2012; 90(3):410-25. · 11.20 Impact Factor