[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The HTR method, developed for determination of absorbed dose and average LET of mixed radiation fields in space, was applied during several space missions on space station MIR, space shuttles and satellites. The method utilises the changes of peak height ratios in the glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer LET. Due to the small size of the dosemeters the evaluation of the variation of absorbed dose and average LET in dependence on the position of the dosemeters inside the space station is possible. The dose and LET distribution was determined during the experiment ADLET where dosemeters were exposed in two positions with different shielding conditions and during two following experiments (MIR-95, MIR-96) using six positions inside the space station. The results were compared with the shielding conditions of the positions. Calculations of the absorbed dose were carried out for comparison. Results have shown that the average LET increases with increasing absorbing thickness while the absorbed dose decreases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For measurements of the equivalent dose of the mixed radiation fields in aircraft many different measuring devices are usually necessary for consideration of the different components of the radiation field. The possibility is discussed of using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDS) for determination of absorbed dose and average LET of this complex radiation field in aircraft. The HTR method, developed for determination of the equivalent dose in spacecraft, enables the measurement of the average LET in addition to the absorbed dose. Furthermore, a rem counter based on TLDs and a modified pair method (TLD-600, TLD-700) was used for determination of the absorbed dose due to the neutron component. Using small TLD crystals it is possible to obtain the depth distribution of absorbed dose and average LET by exposing TLDs in Bonner spheres with different diameters. The results indicate that the standards for determination of the effective dose may not be applicable in these mixed radiation fields in aircraft.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint NASA Russia study of the radiation environment inside the Space Shuttle was performed on STS-63. This was the second flight under the Shuttle-Mir Science Program (Phase 1). The Shuttle was launched on 2 February 1995, in a 51.65 degrees inclination orbit and landed at Kennedy Space Center on 11 February 1995, for a total flight duration of 8.27 days. The Shuttle carried a complement of both passive and active detectors distributed throughout the Shuttle volume. The crew exposure varied from 1962 to 2790 microGy with an average of 2265.8 microGy or 273.98 microGy/day. Crew exposures varied by a factor of 1.4, which is higher than usual for STS mission. The flight altitude varied from 314 to 395 km and provided a unique opportunity to obtain dose variation with altitude. Measurements of the average east-west dose variation were made using two active solid state detectors. The dose rate in the Spacehab locker, measured using a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), was 413.3 microGy/day, consistent with measurements made using thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs) in the same locker. The average quality factor was 2.33, and although it was higher than model calculations, it was consistent with values derived from high temperature peaks in TLDs. The dose rate due to galactic cosmic radiation was 110.6 microGy/day and agreed with model calculations. The dose rate from trapped particles was 302.7 microGy/day, nearly a factor of 2 lower than the prediction of the AP8 model. The neutrons in the intermediate energy range of 1-20 MeV contributed 13 microGy/day and 156 microSv/day, respectively. Analysis of data from the charged particle spectrometer has not yet been completed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A joint investigation between the United States and Russia to study the radiation environment inside the Space Shuttle flight STS-60 was carried out as part of the Shuttle-Mir Science Program (Phase 1). This is the first direct comparison of a number of different dosimetric measurement techniques between the two countries. STS-60 was launched on 3 February 1994 in a nearly circular 57 degrees x 353 km orbit with five U.S. astronauts and one Russian cosmonaut for 8.3 days. A variety of instruments provided crew radiation exposure, absorbed doses at fixed locations, neutron fluence and dose equivalent, linear energy transfer (LET) spectra of trapped and galactic cosmic radiation, and energy spectra and angular distribution of trapped protons. In general, there is good agreement between the U.S. and Russian measurements. The AP8 Min trapped proton model predicts an average of 1.8 times the measured absorbed dose. The average quality factor determined from measured lineal energy, y, spectra using a tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC), is in good agreement with that derived from the high temperature peak in the 6LiF thermoluminescent detectors (TLDs). The radiation exposure in the mid-deck locker from neutrons below 1 MeV was 2.53 +/- 1.33 microSv/day. The absorbed dose rates measured using a tissue equivalent proportional counter, were 171.1 +/- 0.4 and 127.4 +/- 0.4 microGy/day for trapped particles and galactic cosmic rays, respectively. The combined dose rate of 298.5 +/- 0.82 microGy/day is about a factor of 1.4 higher than that measured using TLDs. The westward longitude drift of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.22 +/- 0.02 degrees/y. We evaluated the effects of spacecraft attitudes on TEPC dose rates due to the highly anisotropic low-earth orbit proton environment. Changes in spacecraft attitude resulted in dose-rate variations by factors of up to 2 at the location of the TEPC.