[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Additional index words. invasive ornamental plants, winged euonymus, sterility, flow cytometry, ploidy Abstract. Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb., commonly known as ''burning bush,'' is an extremely popular landscape plant in the United States as a result of its brilliant showy red leaves in fall. However, E. alatus is also seriously invasive because of its prolific seed production and effective seed dispersal by birds. Thus, development of sterile, non-invasive, seedless triploid E. alatus is in high demand. In this article, we report successful production of triploid E. alatus using endosperm tissues as explants. In our study, ' '50% of immature endosperm explants and 14% of mature endosperm explants formed compact, green calli after culture in the dark for 8 weeks and then under light for 4 weeks on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.2 mM BA and 2.7 mM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Approximately 5.6% of the immature endosperm-derived calli and 13.4% of mature endosperm-derived calli initiated shoots within 8 weeks after they were cultured on MS medium with 4.4 mM benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). Eighty-five percent of shoots rooted after culture on woody plant medium (WPM) containing 4.9 mM IBA for 2 weeks and then on hormone-free WPM medium containing 2.0 gÁL –1 activated charcoal for 4 weeks. Eight indepen-dently regenerated triploid plants have been identified. Triploid plant regeneration rates observed were 0.42% from immature endosperm explants and 0.34% from mature endosperm explants, respectively, based on the number of endosperm explants cultured. Because triploid plants cannot produce viable seeds, and thus are sterile and non-invasive, some triploid E. alatus plant lines reported here can be used to replace the currently used invasive counterparts. Chemical names used: benzyladenine (BA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), and a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. is a de-ciduous shrub belonging to the family of Celastraceae. It was introduced into the United States from northeastern/central China in 1860 (Chen et al., 2006; Dirr, 1998) for horticultural purposes. E. alatus is considered one of the great aesthetic and highly adaptable shrubs for the American gardeners (Dirr, 1998). Because of its brilliant red fall leaf color, it is commonly referred as ''burning bush.'' As a result of its huge economical value and pop-ularity, E. alatus has been extensively sold by nurseries, contributing significantly to the $16 billion U.S. ornamental horticulture industry (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2005a). There are various cultivars of E. alatus
HortScience: a publication of the American Society for Horticultural Science 08/2011; 46(8):1141-1147. · 0.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cytokinin biosynthesis gene, isopentenyl transferase (ipt), under the control of an 821 bp fragment of the LEACO1 gene promoter (from Lycopersicon esculentum) was introduced into Dendranthema x grandiflorium 'Iridon' (chrysanthemum). LEACO1(0.821kb)-ipt transgenic lines grown in the vegetative state, exhibited a range of phenotypic changes including increased branching and reduced internode lengths. LEACO1(0.821kb)-ipt transgenic lines grown in the generative state, exhibited increased flower bud count that ranged from 3.8- to 6.7-times the number produced by wild-type plants. Dramatic increases in flower number were associated with a delay of flower bud development and a decrease in flower bud diameter. RT-PCR analysis indicated differences in ipt gene expression between individual transgenic lines that exhibited a range of phenotypes. Within an individual transgenic line, RT-PCR analysis revealed changes in ipt gene expression at different stages of generative shoot development. Expression of ipt in transgenic lines correlated well with high concentrations of the sum total to bioactive cytokinins plus the glucosides and phosphate derivatives of these species, under both vegetative and generative growth conditions. In general, transgenic lines accumulated higher concentrations of both storage-form cytokinins (O-glucosides) and deactivated-form cytokinins (N-glucosides) in generative shoots of than in vegetative shoots. Based on the range of phenotypes observed in various transgenic chrysanthemum lines, we conclude that the LEACO1 (0.821kb) -ipt gene appears to have great potential for use in ornamental crop improvement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dioscorea zingiberensis Wright has been cultivated as a pharmaceutical crop for production of diosgenin, a precursor for synthesis of various important
steroid drugs. Because breeding of D.zingiberensis through sexual hybridization is difficult due to its unstable sexuality and differences in timing of flowering in male and
female plants, gene transfer approaches may play a vital role in its genetic improvement. In this study, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of D.zingiberensis was investigated with leaves and calli as explants. The results showed that both leaf segments and callus pieces were sensitive
to 30mg/l hygromycin and 50–60mg/l kanamycin, and using calli as explants and addition of acetosyringone (AS) in cocultivation
medium were crucial for successful transformation. We first immersed callus explants in A.tumefaciens cells for 30min and then transferred the explants onto a co-cultivation medium supplemented with 200μM AS for 3days. Three
days after, we cultured the infected explants on a selective medium containing 50mg/l kanamycin and 100mg/l timentin for
formation of kanamycin-resistant calli. After the kanamycin-resistant calli were produced, we transferred them onto fresh
selective medium for shoot induction. Finally, the kanamycin resistant shoots were rooted and the stable incorporation of
the transgene into the genome of D.zingiberensis plants was confirmed by GUS histochemical assay, PCR and Southern blot analyses. The method reported here can be used to
produce transgenic D.zingiberensis plants in 5months and the transformation frequency is 24.8% based on the numbers of independent transgenic plants regenerated
from initial infected callus explants.
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 02/2009; 96(3):317-324. · 3.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers, one of the most important natural raw materials for textile industry, are highly elongated trichomes from epidermal cells of cotton ovules. DET2, an Arabidopsis steroid 5d-reductase, is considered to catalyze a major rate-limiting in brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis. To understand the role of BRs in cotton fiber development, GhDET2, which putatively encodes a steroid 5alpha-reductase by sequence comparison, was cloned from developing fiber cells. In vitro assessment of GhDET2 protein activity confirmed that GhDET2 encodes a functional steroid 5alpha-redutase. High levels of GhDET2 transcript were detected during the fiber initiation stage and the fiber rapid elongation stage. Antisense-mediated suppression of GhDET2 inhibited both fiber initiation and fiber elongation. Similarly, treating cultured ovules with finasteride, a steroid 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, reduced fiber elongation. Inhibition of fiber cell elongation by expression of antisense GhDET2 or the finasteride treatment could be reversed by epibrassinolide, a biologically active BR. Furthermore, seed coat-specific expression of GhDET2 increased fiber number and length. Therefore, GhDET2 and BRs play a crucial role in the initiation and elongation of cotton fiber cells, suggesting that modulation of BR biosynthesis factors may improve fiber quality or yield.
The Plant Journal 09/2007; 51(3):419-30. · 6.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To extend the shelf life of freshly harvested vegetables and cut flowers, a maize homeobox gene Knotted1 (kn1) was placed under the control of a wound-inducible promoter win3.12 from hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) and introduced into tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Transgenic win3.12::kn1 plants were morphologically normal. A leaf-detachment assay demonstrated that senescence in win3.12::kn1 leaves could be delayed by at least 2 weeks compared with wild type leaves. Furthermore, all leaves of win3.12::kn1 shoots remained green and healthy 3 weeks after excision and incubation in water, while older leaves of control shoots senesced under the same conditions. Additionally, a number of adventitious roots produced at the cut ends of wild type shoots after a 3-week incubation, but much a less number of adventitious roots appeared in win3.12::kn1 shoots. The delay in senescence was also confirmed by a higher total chlorophyll (a + b) content in win3.12::kn1 leaves relative to that of the control plants. RT-PCR analysis showed that the kn1 transcript was detected in win3.12::kn1 leaves with wounding treatment, but otherwise was not observed in leaves of wild type and unwounded transgenic plants. The results presented here indicate that expression of kn1 gene driven by the wound-inducible promoter win3.12 is potentially useful to delay senescence of vegetable crops and commercial horticulture after harvest.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A new cold-inducible genetic construct was cloned using a chloroplast-specific omega-3-fatty acid desaturase gene (FAD7) under the control of a cold-inducible promoter (cor15a) from Arabidopsis thaliana. RT-PCR confirmed a marked increase in FAD7 expression, in young Nicotiana tabacum (cv. Havana) plants harboring cor15a-FAD7, after a short-term exposure to cold. When young, cold-induced tobacco seedlings were exposed to low-temperature (0.5, 2 or 3.5 degrees C) for up to 44 days, survival within independent cor15a-FAD7 transgenic lines (40.2-96%) was far superior to the wild type (6.7-10.2%). In addition, the major trienoic fatty acid species remained stable in cold-induced cor15a-FAD7 N. tabacum plants under prolonged cold storage while the levels of hexadecatrienoic acid (16:3) and octadecatrienoic acid (18:3) declined in wild type plants under the same conditions (79 and 20.7% respectively). Electron microscopy showed that chloroplast membrane ultrastructure in cor15a-FAD7 transgenic plants was unaffected by prolonged exposure to cold temperatures. In contrast, wild type plants experienced a loss of granal stacking and disorganization of the thylakoid membrane under the same conditions. Changes in membrane integrity coincided with a precipitous decline in leaf chlorophyll concentration and low survival rates in wild type plants. Cold-induced double transgenic N. alata (cv. Domino Mix) plants, harboring both the cor15a-FAD7 cold-tolerance gene and a cor15a-IPT dark-tolerance gene, exhibited dramatically higher survival rates (89-90%) than wild type plants (2%) under prolonged cold storage under dark conditions (2 degrees C for 50 days).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the most important limiting factor for crop production in acid soil environments worldwide. In some plant species, application of magnesium (Mg(2+)) can alleviate Al toxicity. However, it remains unknown whether overexpression of magnesium transport proteins can improve Al tolerance. Here, the role of AtMGT1, a member of the Arabidopsis magnesium transport family involved in Mg(2+) transport, played in Al tolerance in higher plants was investigated. Expression of 35S::AtMGT1 led to various phenotypic alterations in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Transgenic plants harbouring 35S::AtMGT1 exhibited tolerance to Mg(2+) deficiency. Element assay showed that the contents of Mg, Mn, and Fe in 35S::AtMGT1 plants increased compared with wild-type plants. Root growth experiment revealed that 100 microM AlCl(3) caused a reduction in root elongation by 47% in transgenic lines, whereas root growth in wild-type plants was inhibited completely. Upon Al treatment, representative transgenic lines also showed a much lower callose deposition, an indicator of increased Al tolerance, than wild-type plants. Taken together, the results have demonstrated that overexpression of ATMGT1 encoding a magnesium transport protein can improve tolerance to Al in higher plants.
Journal of Experimental Botany 02/2006; 57(15):4235-43. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasive plants, one of the most devastating ecological problems in the 21st century, cause an estimated $35 billion loss per year to the economy in the United States alone. More than 50% of all invasive plant species and 85% of invasive woody plant species were introduced originally for ornamental and landscape use. Because many non-native ornamentals are commercially important and widely utilized for various purposes, completely banning their use and prohibiting their import are unpractical solutions. On the other hand, currently used methods to control the spread of non-native plants are ineffective, expensive, or environmentally problematic. Recent advances in plant molecular biology and plant genetic transformation may enable us to create sterile cultivars of these non-native ornamental crops of high commercial value. The use of sterile cultivars should reduce or eliminate the undesirable spread of some non-native invasive plants into natural areas.
Journal of Crop Improvement 01/2006; 17(1-2):279-301.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prevent leaf senescence of young transplants or excised shoots during storage under dark and cold conditions, the cytokinin biosynthetic gene isopentenyl transferase (ipt) was placed under the control of a cold-inducible promoter cor15a from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Petunia x hybrida 'Marco Polo Odyssey' and Dendranthema x grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) 'Iridon'. Transgenic cor15a-ipt petunia and chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves remained green and healthy during prolonged dark storage (4 weeks at 25 degrees C) after an initial exposure to a brief cold-induction period (4 degrees C for 72 h). However, cor15a-ipt chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves that were not exposed to a cold-induction period, senesced under the same dark storage conditions. Regardless of cold-induction treatment, leaves and plants of non-transformed plants senesced under prolonged dark storage. Analysis of ipt expression indicated a marked increase in gene expression in intact transgenic plants as well as in isolated transgenic leaves exposed to a short cold-induction treatment prior to dark storage. These changes correlated with elevated concentrations of cytokinins in transgenic leaves after cold treatment. Cor15a-ipt transgenic plants showed a normal phenotype when grown at 25 degrees C.
Journal of Experimental Botany 05/2005; 56(414):1165-75. · 5.24 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To prevent leaf senescence of young transplants or excised shoots during storage under dark and cold conditions, the cytokinin biosynthetic gene isopentenyl transferase ( ipt ) was placed under the control of a cold-inducible promoter cor15a from Arabidopsis thaliana and introduced into Petunia×hybrida ‘Marco Polo Odyssey’ and Dendranthema×grandiflorum (chrysanthemum) ‘Iridon’. Transgenic cor15a-ipt petunia and chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves remained green and healthy during prolonged dark storage (4 weeks at 25 °C) after an initial exposure to a brief cold-induction period (4 °C for 72 h). However, cor15a-ipt chrysanthemum plants and excised leaves that were not exposed to a cold-induction period, senesced under the same dark storage conditions. Regardless of cold-induction treatment, leaves and plants of non-transformed plants senesced under prolonged dark storage. Analysis of ipt expression indicated a marked increase in gene expression in intact transgenic plants as well as in isolated transgenic leaves exposed to a short cold-induction treatment prior to dark storage. These changes correlated with elevated concentrations of cytokinins in transgenic leaves after cold treatment. Cor15a-ipt transgenic plants showed a normal phenotype when grown at 25 °C.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Sieb. is a popular landscape plant in the United States due to its brilliant red fall foliage. It is also an important ornamental plant in many other areas of the world such as China, Japan and Europe. However, E. alatus is considered as a highly invasive plant species in the US. Mutation breeding can be used to create sterile, non-invasive cultivars. Seeds are the most commonly used explants for mutagen treatments, but E. alatus mature seeds possess prolonged dormancy and only a low percentage of them germinate even after 18 months of cold stratification. Here we report an immature embryo culture method for E. alatus ‘Compactus’ to circumvent the seed dormancy problem. Also, we have found that activated charcoal, gibberellic acid (GA3) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) can reduce the dormancy of isolated embryos, which suggests that abscisic acid (ABA) might play a role in controlling seed dormancy. We have further demonstrated that exogenous ABA enhances dormancy of isolated E. alatus embryos while fluridone, an inhibitor for ABA biosynthesis, can effectively break their dormancy. These results, particularly the effect of fluridone, suggest that continuous ABA biosynthesis plays an important role in controlling the dormancy of E. alatus seeds.
Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 108(3). · 3.63 Impact Factor