[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important determinant of plaque instability. Since tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and elafin act as stabilizing factors, they might play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome. We examined their expression in human coronary arteries and the regulation of tTG expression in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs).
immunohistochemical studies on autopsy samples of human coronary arteries revealed the expression of tTG and elafin in the endothelium, medial SMCs, and the ECM in non-atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Their expression in SMCs, endothelium, and ECM was enhanced in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. In contrast, they were hardly detectable in accumulating macrophages or at the lipid core. Double staining demonstrated that elafin was co-localized with tTG. Moreover, some tTG-expressing cells were positive for TNF-alpha, suggesting that this cytokine might play an important role in the regulation of tTG. Treatment of cultured rat aortic SMCs with TNF-alpha increased their tTG mRNA, protein expression and enzyme activity.
the expression of tTG and elafin increased in atherosclerotic coronary arteries. The investigation with cultured SMCs suggested that TNF-alpha might mediate the upregulation of tTG. Our findings may provide new insights into the mechanism of plaque instability and the pathogenesis of acute coronary syndrome.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelets play an important role in atherosclerotic and thromboembolic vascular diseases. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species (ROS) could modify platelet function, and platelets themselves have the ability to produce ROS. However, the enzymatic sources of ROS in platelets have not been fully determined. The NADH/NADPH oxidase system was originally identified as the major source of ROS in phagocytes. Recently, it has become evident that this oxidase is functionally expressed not only in phagocytes but also in various cell types. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that NADH/NADPH oxidase might be expressed in human platelets. Lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence (L-CL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) method demonstrated that human platelets obtained from healthy volunteers released ROS, and the released ROS were increased by stimulation with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or calcium ionophore. Homogenates of human platelets, as well as MEG01 cells, megakaryocytic cell line, had the enzymatic activity to produce superoxide in NADH/NADPH-dependent manners. This enzymatic activity was suppressed by diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADH/NADPH oxidase. Western blot analysis demonstrated that platelets and MEG01 cells expressed p22(phox) and p67(phox) proteins, components of NADH/NADPH oxidase. Thus, human platelets have the enzymatic activity of p22(phox)-based NADH/NADPH oxidase, and this oxidase is likely one of the important sources of ROS in platelets.
Thrombosis Research 10/2001; 103(5):399-409. · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in atherogenesis. Mammalian cells have a complex network of antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. However, the mechanisms that regulate the cellular redox state in the vessel wall remain unclear. Recent study has shown that thioredoxin, a thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, is expressed in atherosclerotic plaques of human carotid arteries. In this study, we investigated the localization and expressional change of glutaredoxin and thioredoxin, two important members of the thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases, in autopsy samples of human coronary arteries. In nonatherosclerotic coronary arteries, glutaredoxin was expressed in endothelial cells, in fibroblasts of the adventitia, and most intensely in medial smooth muscle cells. Interestingly, in atherosclerotic lesions such as hypercellular lesions, the infiltrating macrophages highly expressed glutaredoxin. The expressional pattern of thioredoxin was quite similar to that of glutaredoxin. Western blot analysis demonstrated that hydrogen peroxide stimulated the expression of glutaredoxin in a time- and dose-dependent manner in cultured human coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Fluorescence microtopography with dihydroethidium demonstrated that the generation of reactive oxygen species was associated with the expression of glutaredoxin. These results suggest the possible involvement of thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases in antioxidant protection in human coronary arteries.