[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wild-type p53 is increased during cellular responses to various stresses. Mdm2, which is induced by p53, regulates p53 protein concentrations through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway.
To investigate whether the Mdm2 mediated ubiquitination of p53 is associated with epithelial cell apoptosis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).
Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were carried out on lung samples obtained by lung biopsy from patients with IPF and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).
The expression of p53, phosphorylated p53, Mdm2, p21, and Bax was upregulated in epithelial cells from patients with IPF and NSIP compared with normal lung parenchyma. Except for p21, there was a significant increase in the expression of these factors in IPF compared with NSIP. In addition, the number of apoptotic cells and the number of p53 and Bax positive cells was increased compared with controls. p53 conjugated with Mdm2 was decreased in IPF compared with NSIP and controls. Ubiquitinated p53 was increased in both IPF and NSIP compared with controls.
Signalling molecules associated with p53 mediated apoptosis may participate in epithelial cell apoptosis, and the attenuation of p53-Mdm2 conjugation and of p53 degradation may be involved in the epithelial cell apoptosis seen in IPF. Augmented epithelial apoptosis in IPF may lead to the poor prognosis compared with NSIP.
Journal of Clinical Pathology 07/2005; 58(6):583-9. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The perforin mediated pathway is the major pathway of cytotoxicity induced by activated T cells and natural killer cells, and may be involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.
Perforin and granzyme B expression were examined in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis by means of immunohistochemistry, and perforin knockout mice were used to examine whether or not perforin mediated cytotoxicity participates in the pathophysiology of bleomycin induced pneumopathy.
Perforin and granzyme B expression were upregulated in infiltrating lymphocytes in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis compared with normal lung parenchyma. Perforin and granzyme B expression were upregulated predominantly in infiltrating mononuclear cells after bleomycin instillation in wild-type mice. Although the development of bleomycin induced pneumopathy was not completely prevented, the pathological grade of inflammation and fibrosis, and the number of apoptotic cells in lung tissue, were significantly decreased in perforin knockout mice compared with wild-type mice.
These results suggest that perforin mediated apoptosis may be associated with the pathophysiology of lung injury and fibrosis.
Journal of Clinical Pathology 01/2005; 57(12):1292-8. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pulmonary fibrosis is a common response to various injuries to the lung. The resolution of a fibroproliferative response after lung injury is key to survival. Although there are various initiating factors or causes, the terminal stages are characterized by proliferation and progressive accumulation of connective tissue replacing normal functional parenchyma. Conventional therapy consisting of glucocorticoids or immunosuppressive drugs is usually ineffective in preventing progression of fibrosis. Further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of endothelial and epithelial cell injury, inflammatory reaction, fibroblast proliferation, collagen deposition and tissue remodeling, should lead to the development of effective treatments against pulmonary fibrosis. Evidence that apoptosis plays an important role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary fibrosis has been accumulated. We overview the role of apoptosis in each of the pathogenic events which have emerged from animal models and human tissue studies.
Histology and histopathology 08/2004; 19(3):867-81. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RCAS1 is a recently discovered antigen molecule expressed on the membrane of cancer cells, and it acts as a ligand for a putative receptor present on immune cells such as T, B and NK cells. It has been suggested that RCAS1 expression is related to the escape of tumors from immune surveillance. In this study, the relation between RCAS1 expression and various clinicopathologic variables, including patient prognosis, was investigated in lung carcinoma through immunohistochemical analysis.
One hundred two surgically resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma cases were examined histopathologically by means of the monoclonal antibody 22-1-1, which is specific for RCAS1. The correlation between RCAS1 expression and the clinicopathologic features of patients was evaluated. Moreover, the correlation between RCAS1 expression and the survival of patients was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method log-rank test, and multivariate analysis was performed by using the Cox proportional hazard model.
The samples of 48 of the 102 lung carcinoma patients (47.1%) were positive for RCAS1. There were significant correlations between RCAS1 expression and either pathologic staging (P = 0.0003) or tumor differentiation (P = 0.0308). The survival time for the RCAS1-positive group was significantly shorter than that for RCAS1-negative group (P < 0.0001). Moreover, multivariate analysis for overall survival revealed that RCAS1 expression was a significantly independent prognostic factor in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma patients.
These results suggested that RCAS1 expression may play an important role in the immune escape mechanism and that RCAS1 expression may be a good indicator of poor prognosis in patients with nonsmall cell lung carcinoma.
Cancer 08/2001; 92(2):446-51. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several biochemical markers of bone formation and bone resorption have been developed recently. The authors evaluated the usefulness of new biomarkers, such as urinary deoxypyridinoline (D-PYD), serum pyridinoline cross-linked C-telopeptides of Type I collagen (1CTP), and urinary pyridinoline cross-linked N-telopeptides of Type I collagen (NTx), in the assessment of bone metastases in patients with lung carcinoma.
The serum concentrations of 1CTP and the urinary concentrations of D-PYD and NTx were measured in 100 lung carcinoma patients, of whom 20 patients had bone metastases and 80 patients did not. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn for these markers to compare their usefulness in detecting bone metastases originating in lung carcinoma.
Urinary concentrations of NTx in patients with bone metastases were significantly greater than in patients without bone metastases (147.1 +/- 129.3 pmol bone collagen equivalents [BCE]/micromol Cr vs. 47.2 +/- 29.9 pmol BCE/micromol Cr; P < 0.0001). Urinary concentrations of D-PYD in patients with bone metastases also were significantly greater than in patients without bone metastases (10.0 +/- 3.6 BCE/micromol Cr vs. 6.6 +/- 2.2 pmol BCE/micromol Cr; P = 0.0001). No significant difference was observed in serum concentrations of 1CTP between patients with and without bone metastases. A moderate but significant correlation was seen between NTx and D-PYD (correlation coefficient [R] = 0.435; P < 0.0001) and between D-PYD and 1CTP (R = 0.525; P < 0.0001). NTx had a better ROC curve than D-PYD and 1CTP (the areas under the ROC curve were 0.84, 0.79, and 0.62, respectively). Using the threshold of 62.5 pmol BCE/micromol Cr for NTx, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 0.800, 0.737, and 0.750, respectively.
In the current study, the measurement of NTx appeared to be most useful as a marker of bone metastases in patients with lung carcinoma.
Cancer 04/2001; 91(8):1487-93. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human lung carcinogenesis are suggested from the massive PCBs poisoning that occurred in Japan designated "Yusho," the detailed molecular mechanism are unknown. 1 nitropyrene (1-NP), an ubiquitous and abundant environmental pollutant, is known to be detected in lung tissues derived from patients with lung cancer in Japan, and its relation to lung carcinogenesis is also suggested. We investigated the effects of PCBs (Kanechlor-400) on 1-NP-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice. PCBs were administered intraperitoneally followed by ip injection of 1-NP. The lung lesions were examined 18 weeks after the final treatment. In the control group, no neoplastic lesions were induced in the lung. In the PCB group, preneoplastic lesions such as hyperplasia and adenoma were induced in 2/10 (20%) mice. In 1-NP group and in PCB + 1-NP group, lung lesions including adenocarcinoma were induced in 16/20 (80%) and 13/13 (100%) mice, respectively. Both the number and the size of tumors in PCB + 1-NP group were significantly greater than those in 1-NP group. K-ras gene mutation, CAA to CGA in codon 61 or GGT to GAT in codon 12, was found in either 1-NP group or PCB + 1-NP group but not in the PCB group. There was no difference in the pattern of K-ras mutation associated with the pretreatment with PCBs. These results suggest that PCBs promote 1-NP-induced lung tumorigenesis and may support, at least in part, the mechanism of the high incidence of lung cancer in patients with Yusho.
Teratogenesis Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis 02/2001; 21(6):395-403.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogens (PAHs) and their metabolites have been found to result in a rapid accumulation of p53 gene product in human and mouse cells. However, the induced p53 protein was reported to be transcriptionally inactive. In the present study, the induction of p53 target gene expression after the treatment with either benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) or 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was investigated. A marked induction of messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of Mdm2, Bax, and p21 was detected in wild-type p53-expressing cells after the treatment with either B[a]P or 1-NP, whereas no significant change in mRNA expression of these genes was observed in p53-negative and mutant cells. 1-NP activated the p21 promoter in a p53-dependent manner. Binding activity of p53 to a p53 consensus sequence increased after the treatment in wild-type p53-expressing cells. Nevertheless, the induced mRNA levels of the p21 did not result in a proportional p21 protein increase, indicating the possibility of post-transcriptional regulation of the protein. With the addition of MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, to B[a]P or 1-NP treatments, both p21 and p53 protein levels were increased; however, the increase in p21 protein levels was significantly larger than the increase in p53 protein levels. PAHs treatment increased the level of ubiquitinated p21. These results suggest that the p21 product is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. We conclude that PAHs-induced p53 protein is transcriptionally active.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 07/2000; 22(6):747-54. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study is to identify the optimal anticancer agents for use in combination with gene therapy using wild-type (wt) p53 gene transfer. We used adenoviral vectors expressing human wt p53 (AdCAp53) and investigated the effects of wt p53 gene transfer in combination with 12 anticancer agents on a human pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma cell line, NCI-H157, and a human pulmonary large cell carcinoma cell line, NCI-H1299. Solutions containing anticancer agents at various concentrations were added followed by the addition of recombinant adenovirus solutions; after a 5-day incubation period, the anticancer activity was then evaluated by a 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carbo xanilide assay. Each 50% inhibitory concentration was calculated based on the dose-response curves. The agents showing a high degree of effectiveness on NCI-H157 cells were cisplatin (CDDP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), bleomycin, and 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), an active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11); conversely, cyclophosphamide and paclitaxel showed a low degree of effectiveness. Based on these data, an isobologram was performed to investigate the interaction between AdCAp53 and some anticancer agents. A supra-additive effect was thus observed for 5-FU and SN-38 on NCI-H157 cells. An additive effect was also observed for CDDP, paclitaxel, bleomycin, and cyclophosphamide on NCI-H157 cells. CDDP, paclitaxel, 5-FU, and SN-38 had an additive effect on NCI-H1299 cells. No drug showed any subadditive or protective effects. These findings suggest that CPT-11 and 5-FU may thus be useful as possible anticancer agents for use in a combination therapy regimen using wt p53 gene transfer. CDDP and CPT-11 had a significant antitumoral effect on H157 cell xenografts of nude mice in vivo. These results indicate that CPT-11 as well as CDDP would be a candidate for the combination of chemotherapy and gene therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer Gene Therapy 03/2000; 7(2):300-7. · 2.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 is known to be recruited in response to DNA-damaging genotoxic stress and plays an important role in maintaining the integrity of the genome. In the present study, the effect of a potent lung cancer carcinogen, benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) on p53 expression was investigated. We showed that exposure of A549 and NIH 3T3 cells to B[a]P resulted in an increase in p53 mRNA levels and in p53 promoter activation, indicating that B[a]P-induced p53 expression is partly regulated at the transcriptional level. The p53 promoter region which extends from -58 to -43, overlapping the kappaB motif, is essential for both the p53 basal promoter activity and p53 promoter activation induced by B[a]P. Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) proteins have been revealed to be activated in B[a]P-induced p53 expression. Activated NF-kappaB complexes were shown to contain predominantly p50 and p65 subunit components in A549 cells and p65 subunit in NIH 3T3 cells. In addition, the overexpression of IkappaBalpha completely inhibited NF-kappaB activation, p53 promoter transactivation and the stimulatory effect on p53 transcription induced by B[a]P. We therefore conclude that B[a]P transcriptionally activates the human p53 gene through the induction of NF-kappaB activity.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2000; 274(49):35240-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the predictive value of the expression of p53 and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-pi) with respect to chemotherapy response, immunostaining was performed on transbronchial biopsy specimens from previously untreated patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Of the 54 patients, 34 patients (63%) and 37 patients (69%) were positive for p53 and GST-pi, respectively. The response rates in the p53-positive and p53-negative group were 15 and 45%, and those in GST-pi-positive and GST-pi-negative groups were 16 and 47%, respectively. A multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that positive immunostaining for GST-pi was a significant risk factor for clinical chemotherapy resistance. The combination of these two markers was the most important independent factor in predicting a response to chemotherapy in multiple logistic regression analysis. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and GST-pi was independently related to clinical chemoresistance in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Combined use of these two biomarkers may be a useful predictor of clinical chemoresistance.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung in which a left pneumonectomy combined resection of the pulmonary artery and aorta was performed using a cardiopulmonary bypass. The bifurcation of the pulmonary artery was repaired with a pericardial patch and the descending aorta was replaced with an artificial vessel Eleven months later, the patient underwent dissection of the contralateral mediastinal lymph nodes because of a recurrence of the disease. Even though pulmonary metastases have again recently appeared, he is alive and doing well two years after operation. To obtain a better prognosis in cases demonstrating an involvement of the bifurcation of pulmonary artery, more effective combined treatment still needs to be developed.
The Journal of cardiovascular surgery 11/1999; 40(5):749-51. · 1.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the correlation between p53 protein levels and mutations in the p53 gene of atypical bronchial epithelium (ABE). Protein levels were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, whereas mutations were assessed by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and direct sequencing. A total of 78 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded bronchial biopsy specimens that had been diagnosed to be ABE were retrieved from the archives and examined. p53 protein was expressed in 44 of the 78 (56%) specimens overall. However, when pathologically classified, 38% of hyperplasias, 58% of metaplasias, and 73% of dysplasias were positive, indicating that an increased frequency of p53 expression correlated with the severity of ABE (P = 0.042). Among the 44 specimens that expressed p53 protein, 40 (91%) did not reveal mutations by PCR-SSCP. In the four specimens with abnormal PCR-SSCP bands, p53 gene mutation was identified by direct sequencing and revealed the same point mutation at codon 248 (CGG-to-CTG transversion) of exon 7 in all four specimens. These four specimens were dysplasias derived from patients with lung cancer. p53 protein expression in ABE was associated with the wild-type gene in most cases; therefore, wild-type p53 protein expressed in ABE might have a protective function from lung carcinogenesis, and mutation of p53 gene may be a late event in the sequential steps of lung carcinogenesis.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 09/1999; 21(2):209-15. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We and other researchers have previously found that colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), which generally include granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), promote invasion by lung cancer cells. In the present study, we studied the effects of these CSFs on gelatinase production, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) production and their activity in human lung cancer cells. Gelatin zymographs of conditioned media derived from human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed two major bands of gelatinase activity at 68 and 92 kDa, which were characterized as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 respectively. Treatment with CSFs increased the 68- and 92-kDa activity and converted some of a 92-kDa proenzyme to an 82-kDa enzyme that was consistent with an active form of the MMP-9. Plasminogen activator zymographs of the conditioned media from the cancer cells showed that CSF treatment resulted in an increase in a 48-55 kDa plasminogen-dependent gelatinolytic activity that was characterized as human uPA. The conditioned medium from the cancer cells treated with CSFs stimulated the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, providing a direct demonstration of the ability of enhanced uPA to increase plasmin-dependent proteolysis. The enhanced invasive behaviour of the cancer cells stimulated by CSFs was well correlated with the increase in MMPs and uPA activities. These data suggest that the enhanced production of extracellular matrix-degrading proteinases by the cancer cells in response to CSF treatment may represent a biochemical mechanism which promotes the invasive behaviour of the cancer cells.
British Journal of Cancer 02/1999; 79(1):40-6. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is presumed that carcinogens present in human lungs contribute to the incidence of lung cancer. Most of the carcinogens are inhaled in lung alveoli with particulate matter through the respiratory tract. On the basis of chemical analysis of 256 lung specimens with carcinomas resected in the period 1991 1996, the concentration of 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) was 19.7+/-10.5 pg/g of dry weight, and that of the dinitropyrenes (DNP) was 3.50+/-0.14-6.26+/-1.76. In addition, 2-nitrofluoranthene (NF) and 3-NF were detected at a higher level of 38.6+/-17.2 and 39.1+/-14.2, respectively, pg/g of dry weight. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and benzo[ghi]perylene in 37 specimens collected in the period 1991 1996, were in the range of 138+/-82-399+/-220 pg/g of dry weight. No difference was found in the concentration of chemicals deposited in lung specimens from patients with lung cancer and tuberculosis as a control. By following the prognosis of 112 patients with carcinomas, we found that the deposition of 1-NP, 1,3-DNP, and 3-NF in lung tissues influenced their 5-year-survival after determination of chemicals. Lung specimens were divided into two groups of higher and lower chemical concentrations at the levels of 18 pg/g for 1-NP, 15 for 1,3-DNP, and 35 for 3-NF, and the findings were statistically analyzed by adjusting for age, gender, smoking status and cell type. The 5-year-survival of patients was markedly lower in the higher concentration group than the lower group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We reported previously that granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can promote the invasion of human lung cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the exact mechanism of its stimulatory effect on invasion remains to be elucidated. In the present study we mainly focused our attention on the components of the plasminogen activation system in human lung cancer cell lines, because of the central role that plasminogen activators play in regulating extracellular proteolysis. We showed that G-CSF induced a dose-dependent increase in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) activity in the conditioned medium of a PC-9 lung cancer cell line. When the amounts of uPA activity were quantitated by densitometry, we found that even at a concentration of 0.01 microg/ml, G-CSF had a stimulatory effect on the uPA release, while high concentrations caused a 3.6-fold increase at a maximum concentration of 1 microg/ml. A Western blot analysis of the conditioned medium confirmed the findings observed in a zymographic analysis. The observed increase in uPA protein was paralleled by a significant increase in the uPA mRNA levels after treatment with G-CSF. However, our experiments failed to identify any alteration in the plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) secretion caused by G-CSF. In addition, we also found the expression of G-CSF receptor by PC-9 cells, suggesting the possible pathway activated by G-CSF.
Clinical and Experimental Metastasis 09/1998; 16(6):551-8. · 3.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bronchial epithelial cells produce a significant amount of granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which is believed to mediate both the host defense and inflammation. Recently, GM-CSF has been demonstrated to be produced by several tumor cells and also to be associated with tumor growth and metastasis. In the current study, the authors investigated the biologic role of GM-CSF produced by squamous cell lung carcinoma.
The production of GM-CSF from 17 human lung carcinoma cell lines was determined by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. In vitro invasiveness was investigated by using a Biocoat Matrigel (Collaborative Biomedical Products, Bedford, MA) precoated invasion chamber. The activity of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined by gelatin zymography. The expression of GM-CSF in 113 cases of resected nonsmall cell lung carcinoma was analyzed immunohistochemically, and the association between the expression of GM-CSF and clinicopathologic features was investigated.
The production of GM-CSF by squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was closely related to the in vitro invasiveness and MMP activity of the cancer cells. Recombinant GM-CSF stimulated the invasiveness of less invasive LK-2 and LC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, and this stimulation was abrogated by the neutralizing anti-GM-CSF antibody. Furthermore, anti-GM-CSF antibody decreased the invasiveness of highly invasive EBC-1 and NCI-H157 cells. GM-CSF also increased the MMP activity of LK-2 and LC-1 cells. Of 113 resected nonsmall cell lung carcinomas, 30 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas (42.3%), and 24 of 42 adenocarcinomas (57.1%) stained positively for GM-CSF. The expression of GM-CSF in squamous cell carcinomas was associated with the local invasion by the primary tumor.
These results suggest that the production of GM-CSF is involved in both the in vitro invasiveness and the local progression of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung.
Cancer 07/1998; 82(11):2173-83. · 5.20 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A phase II trial combining cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide was conducted in previously untreated patients with stage IIIB and IV small-cell lung cancer, in an attempt to increase response rates and prolong survival.
Previously untreated patients with small-cell lung cancer, with measurable disease, aged < or = 72 years, performance status < or = 2, and adequate hematologic, hepatic and renal function were enrolled in the study. They were treated with 80 mg/m2 cisplatin on day 1, 100 mg/m2 carboplatin on days 2, 3 and 8, and 50 mg/m2 etoposide on days 1, 2, 3 and 8.
A total of 46 patients (20 with stage IIIB and 26 with stage IV disease) were enrolled in the study. A total of 186 courses of chemotherapy were given, and the dose was reduced in 27 courses (15%). The chemotherapy was repeated for four or more courses in 30 patients. There were 10 complete responses and 32 partial responses, for a total response rate of 91% (95% confidence interval, 79% to 98%). The median survival time and 2-year survival rates were 18 months and 22% for stage IIIB disease, and 14 months and 15% for stage IV disease. Major side effects were hematologic: leukopenia, anemia, and thrombocytopenia of grade 3 or more occurred in 48%, 46%, and 43% of patients, respectively.
The three-drug regimen of cisplatin, carboplatin and etoposide is feasible and active against small-cell lung cancer.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 02/1998; 41(6):453-6. · 2.80 Impact Factor